Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-5



r5cut.jpg
R-5 Cutaway
The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. The R-5 could deliver a 1425 kg warhead over a range of 1200 km, doubling the performance of the R-2. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs.

After reaching a velocity of 3044 m/s at burnout, the missile arced up to a maximum altitude 300 km during a 10.5 minute before impacting in the target area with an accuracy of 6 km in range, 5 km laterally. CEP was 1.4 km.

The R-5 was designed primarily for delivery of a radiological weapon. It seems not to have been deployed, in preference to the nuclear-tipped R-5M.

The R-5 originated as Theme N-1 of the R-3 3000 kg / 3000 km range IRBM project. This proved too big a leap, but the R-3A subscale technology demonstrator was authorised in 1949, before being cancelled in turn in October 1951. As a replacement, an 20 October 1951 MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. Due to the extensive work already done under Theme N-1, the 6 volume R-5 draft project was completed by Yangel and delivered on 30 November 1951. An official decree was issued in 1952 formally authorising development of the rocket with a 1000 km range specified. The original missile was planned to be equipped with a Pilyugin gyroscopic guidance system and to be built in several versions:

  • Single warhead at the missiles nose, 1425 kg (710 kg active material) warhead over a 1200 km range
  • Nose warhead and two additional 600 kg lateral warheads, 2625 kg total over a 820 km range
  • Nose warhead and four additional 600 kg lateral warheads, 3830 kg total over a 600 km range

These lateral warheads were evidently deigned for dispersal of radiological liquids over a wide area in the impact zone. Such radiological warheads were used on the R-2 and R-5 prior to the availability of nuclear warheads. Similar weapons were discussed at Los Alamos during World War II when it seemed that the atomic bomb would not be ready in time or not work. In this case radioactive waste could be dispersed over a wide area, effectively providing the fallout effects of a nuclear bomb without the blast and fire effects.

The Generator-S radiological warhead for the R-5 was developed in the early 1950's. In order to handle the warhead OKBT Kirov Factory built the shielded manipulator vehicle Objekt 805, which had a total mass of 72 tonnes. Following a demonstration of 20 May 1954 the system was accepted by the military in 1955.

In parallel with warhead development qualification and stand test of the missiles systems were conducted from December 1951 through February 1952. Ten rockets were built in the initial lot, of which two were used for stand tests. Trials of the two test rockets began in 1953 at Filial NII-2 at Zagorsk. A state decree of 13 February 1953 set forth three phases of state trials tests for the missile itself:

  • March - May 1953: During this period the 8 remaining rockets of the first production lot were fired, of which 6 reached the target area. The first launch was on 15 March 1953. The first successful flight was on 2 April 1953. The first full range flight came on 19 April 1953.
  • October to December 1953: During this period there were 7 launches, one of which was unsuccessful. A maximum range of 1185 km was reached.
  • August 1954-February 1955: These were the state acceptance trials for the production missile. 19 launches were made, 10 of which passed the acceptance criteria, 5 did not, and 4 were used for test of the new radio-correction guidance system. This used the R-5R variant of the missile; one of the four tests was unsuccessful.

Following completion of the trials the missile was accepted for military service. It seems very limited numbers or no R-5's at all actually entered service. The R-5M version with nuclear warhead was deployed instead. Special variants of the R-5 were used until well into the 1970's for test of equipment, scientific research. These included the R-5A, R-5B, R-5V, and Vertikal.

The R-5 was generally built of Amr3 aluminium-magnesium alloy. The tail section was initially built of steel, later being changed to D16T aluminium alloy. Spetsmash built the mobile launch system, similar to that for the V-2. It took two hours to prepare an R-5 for launch.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-5 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs. More...
  • R-5M Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5M was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first to launch a live nuclear warhead in test. The technical characteristics were virtually the same as those of the R-5 basic model, except for an increase in the propellant load. 48 launchers were deployed from 1956 to 1968, tipped with nuclear warheads of 80 kiloton, 300 kiloton, or 1 megaton. More...
  • R-5A Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments retaining the nose cone of the IRBM, but equipped with a parachute recovery system. Experiments carried included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes, mass spectrometers for atmospheric composition studies, and capsules carrying dogs for zero-gravity biologically research. More...
  • R-5V Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments under the Vertikal international program, equipped with a spherical re-entry capsule and a parachute recovery system. A wide range of international astrophysics and geophysics instruments were carried. More...
  • R-5B Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. More...
  • R-5 VAO Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments using the High-Altitude Automatic Geophysical Station nose cone originally flown on the R-11, equipped with a parachute recovery system. . Experiments carried in the gyro-stabilised payload included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes and x-ray pinhole cameras. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Chelkar Tactical missile site, known to have been used for 32 launches from 1958 to 1962, reaching up to 500 kilometers altitude. More...

R-5 Chronology


1946 October 23 - . LV Family: R-1; R-2; R-5. Launch Vehicle: G-1; G-2; G-3; G-4; R-3.
  • Groettrup team transported to Soviet Union. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: In overnight roundup, 20,000 Germans transported to USSR to transfer technology on aerospace and other technical fields..

1951 October 20 - . LV Family: R-11; R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-3; R-3A.
  • MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. - . Nation: USSR. The R-3 3000 km range missile and R-3A subscale technology demonstrator were cancelled. As a replacement work was to start on the R-5 and R-11. The missiles originated as Theme N-2 of the R-3 project. This was an alternate approach to delivering nuclear warheads on West European targets - road-mobile or sub-launched missiles of shorter range with lighter warheads that could be launched from forward areas and reach enemy targets.

1951 November 30 - . LV Family: R-11; R-5.
  • R-5, R-11 draft projects completed. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Due to the extensive work already done under the Theme N-2, the 6 volume R-5 and 8 volume R-11 draft projects were delivered in record time..

1952 During the Year - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • R-5 IRBM qualification and stand test begun - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Stand test of the missiles systems were conducted through February 1952. Ten rockets were built in the initial lot, of which two were used for stand tests. Trials of the two test rockets began in 1953 at Filial NII-2 at Zagorsk..

1953 February 13 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-11; R-5; R-7. Launch Vehicle: EKR.
  • Authorisation for development of Soviet intermediate and intercontinental range missiles. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on themes T1 and T2, on approval of work on the R-5, R-11, and EKR missiles, and on transferring draft project work for the R-12 from NII-88 to SKB-586' was issued. The decree set forth three phases of state trials tests for the R-5 missile.

1953 March 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Unsuccessful. First Phase I trials launch of the 8 remaining rockets of the first production lot were fired, of which 6 reached the target area. The first launch was on 15 March 1953. The first successful flight was on 2 April 1953. The first full range flight came on 19 April 1953.

1953 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1953 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Of the 8 rockets of the first production lot fired, 6 reached the target area..

1953 April 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 April 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Range achieved 270 km. First test launch of R-5..

1953 May 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Completion of first series of 8 R-5 flight tests. 2 achieved 270 km range, 5, 1200 km range, and one, 550 km range..

1953 August 12 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test of 400 kiloton lightweight thermonuclear warhead - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Summary: The explosion of the RD5-6 400 kiloton warhead at Semiplatinsk proved the design of a lightweight thermonuclear warhead. Korolev began work in 1953 to develop a re-entry vehicle for this warhead..

1953 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • State trials Phase 2 launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Through December 1953 there were 7 Phase II launches, one of which was unsuccessful. A maximum range of 1185 km was reached..

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 2 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 2 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 2 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 2 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 2 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1953 December 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 2 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 April 10 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • OKB-586 founded and nuclear-tipped R-5M IRBM development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on the R-5M missile and on establishment of OKB-586 at Dnepropetrovsk Plant No. 586' was issued. Sadoviy and Kozlov were named to lead the project. Based substantially on the R-5, it used the 8U25 launch portable launch stand.

1954 May 20 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • R-5 radiological warhead handling system demonstrated - . Nation: USSR. The Generator-S radiological warhead for the R-5 was developed in the early 1950's. In order to handle the warhead OKBT Kirov Factory built the shielded manipulator vehicle Objekt 805, which had a total mass of 72 tonnes. Following the demonstration the system was accepted by the military in 1955.

1954 May 20 - . LV Family: R-5; R-7.
  • R-7 full-scale development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 956-4088s 'On approval of work on the R-7 ICBM, R-5R, and M5RD missiles' was issued..

1954 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Through February 1955 the state acceptance trials for the production missile were conducted. 19 launches were made, 10 of which passed the acceptance criteria, 5 did not, and 4 were used for test of the new radio-correction guidance system. This used the R-5R variant of the missile; one of those four tests was unsuccessful.

1954 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 August 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • State trials Phase III launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • State trials Phase III launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • State trials Phase III launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: The second phase in August-November 1955 consisted of 10 successful launches at ranges of 1083 to 1190 km. This cleared the way for a final test series leading to the first rocket-delivered test of a Soviet atomic bomb..

1955 January 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The first phase of flight trials were conducted from 21 January to July 1955. Of the 14 launches, 13 were successful..

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 February 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase 3 state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • ZI test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 June 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • PI state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 August 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • PI state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • PI state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1955 November 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The series of 5 launches began on 11 January 1956 with launch of a dummy warhead..

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Certification test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • BAYKAL Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-5M successfully launched an 80 kiloton (300 kiloton according to some sources) warhead over a 1200 km range - from Kaputsin Yar Area 4N to a point near Priaralsk Karakum, 150 km north-east of the Aral Sea..

1956 February 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-5RD or M5RD was flown to test subsystems for the R-7 ICBM..

1956 February 27 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-1; R-2; R-5; R-7.
  • Soviet Leadership tours Korolev's design bureau - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Bulganin; Korolev; Ustinov. Khrushchev, Molotov, Bulganin, and other leaders are given a tour of Korolev’s OKB-1 in Kaliningrad. They are shown the R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles as well as a mock-up of the R-7 and are awed. Ustinov reports that only five warheads would be needed to destroy Britain, and seven to nine for France. The need for the R-12 was discussed - the longer range was essential so that the missiles could be based farther from NATO’s borders (the experience of the German invasion and quick destruction of forward-based units and equipment was on everyone’s minds).

1956 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 March 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 May 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M R-5R.
  • Radio guidance test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M R-5R.
  • Radio guidance test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M R-5R.
  • Radio guidance test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 June 20 - . LV Family: R-2; R-5.
  • Sounding rocket variants of R-2 and R-5 authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'MOP On production of the R-5A and R-2A scientific missiles at Plant No. 586' was issued..

1956 June 21 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • R-5M - the first nuclear Soviet ballistic missile - is accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Decree 'On adoption of the R-5M into armaments' was issued. Deployment of the missile began in 1956 in brigades of six launchers. Initially it took 30 hours to prepare the rocket for launch, but this was reduced to 5 to 6 hours after several years of service.

1956 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M-5RD.
  • R-7 component test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-5RD or M5RD was flown 10 times to test subsystems for the R-7 ICBM..

1956 November 24 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • First R-5 launch as ABM target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GAU. Summary: R-5M's launched as targets for the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile system..

1956 December 30 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Final R-5 launch as ABM target - . Nation: USSR. Summary: R-5M's launched as targets for the V-1000 anti-ballistic missile system..

1957 January 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 November 23 - . LV Family: R-5; R-7.
  • Special units formed to handle ICBM/IRBM nuclear warheads - . Nation: USSR. Deployment of the R-5M in 1956 caused the Sixth Directorate of the Ministry of Military Forces of the USSR's First Military Subdivision, consisting of two brigades, to be formed. The need for a new arrangement for safeguarding nuclear weapons deployed with field units led to a decree replacing the Sixth Directorate with a Twelfth General Directorate of the Ministry of Defence, charged with the development, trials, deployment, and security of nuclear warheads.

1958 February 21 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Ionosphere / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 470 km (290 mi).

1958 February 21 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi). Some reports say that one of the four launches this day carried the dogs Palma and Pushok. The dogs were said to have died due to cabin decompression. Rumors of the death of a 'cosmonaut Shiborin' can perhaps be attributed to this incident, if indeed it did occur.

1958 February 21 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / meteorites mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 473 km (293 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Infrared atmosphere Aeronomy / ionosphere / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / fields / mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi). Summary: Carried dogs Belyanka and Pestraya to 450 km altitude..

1958 September 19 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • E-1 Sodium test Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Meteorite mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi). Summary: Carried dogs to 430 km altitude..

1958 October 31 - . 11:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Infrared atmosphere Ionosphere / solar / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 410 km (250 mi). Summary: Carried dogs to 415 km altitude..

1958 November 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 3 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 4 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 5 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 21 - . 06:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1958 December 11 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 December 14 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 February - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • First deployment to Germany of nuclear-tipped R-5M IRBM's - . Nation: USSR. The 72nd Brigade had actually been formed in Germany in 1946, to assist in testing of V-2 technology. It later moved to Kaputsin Yar, where it had conducted the first R-1 trials. In 1955 it was moved to Medved, Novgorod, to form the first R-5 brigade. In January 1959 it was redeployed to Gvardeisk, Kaliningrad. Then two divisions were detached for a test German deployment - one division by train, the control division by airplane to Templin air base. The divisions deployed over a wide area of north-east East Germany. The total deployment consisted of 4 launchers and 12 rockets. In August-September 1959 the divisions returned to Gvardeisk and began conversion to R-12.

1959 May 10 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • First extended field deployment of a nuclear Soviet IRBM - . Nation: USSR. The first extended field deployment of the R-5M from a field location was undertaken during Army exercises at Simferopol. This was the first field deployment with nuclear weapons in Soviet history and verified the ability of the ballistic missile systems to operate in an integrated manner with the ground forces. The R-5M was formally accepted into military service in 1960. The missile continued in service until 1968.

1959 June 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1959 December - . LV Family: R-16; R-5; R-7.
  • Twelfth General Directorate of the Ministry of Defence charged only with ballistic missile warhead safekeeping - . Nation: USSR. Summary: This directorate's activities were limited specifically to safekeeping of the warheads of the RSVN rocket forces..

1959 December 1 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 December 26 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 June 10 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 July 1 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 July 20 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 November 5 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 November 17 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 November 24 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A. FAILURE: Failure.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 December 8 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 10 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 17 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 23 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 24 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1960 December 31 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 February 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 February 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 March 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 V-1000 target.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: OKB-30. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1961 July 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 July 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 August 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 August 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 September 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 4 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 23 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 October 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear Test K-1 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Two R-12's (other sources say R-5M's or an R-12 and an R-5M) were salvo fired, at least one with a live nuclear warhead, to Sary Shagan to support ABM-related research on the effects of nuclear explosions on rocket systems..

1961 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear Test K-2 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Summary: Two R-12's (other sources say R-5M's or an R-12 and an R-5M) were salvo fired, at least one with a live nuclear warhead, to Sary Shagan to support ABM-related research on the effects of nuclear explosions on rocket systems..

1961 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 UNK.
  • D04B - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 November 15 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / Fields mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi).

1961 December 23 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 December 26 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 December 26 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 December 29 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 December 29 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 December 30 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1962 March 28 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1962 April 8 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1962 April 11 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1962 April 12 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1962 October 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 508 km (315 mi).

1962 October 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test K-3 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: The R-12 (other sources say an R-5M) launched a live thermonuclear warheads toward Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 300 km. High altitude tests designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars..

1962 October 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1962 October 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Nuclear test K-4 Nuclear test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). In a test of nuclear fratricide and ABM effectiveness, an R-5M (some sources say an R-12) launched a live thermonuclear warhead toward Semipalitinsk/Sary Shagan which was detonated at an altitude of 150 km. Two R-9 ICBM's were launched minutes earlier, timed to pass through the zone of the explosion. Both missiles guided to the planned impact zone without apparent ill-effect. This high altitude test was designed to test electromagnetic pulse effects on electronics, especially ABM system radars and incoming 'friendly' ICBM's.

1963 May - . LV Family: R-16; R-5; R-7.
  • Subdirectorate for Nuclear Operations was formed within the Twelfth Directorate - . Nation: USSR. Summary: As the number of ballistic missiles deployed increased, a specialised Subdirectorate for Nuclear Operations was formed within the Twelfth Directorate..

1963 June 6 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • VAO Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 June 18 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • VAO Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 July 6 - . 00:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1963 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • VAO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • VAO Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1964 September 26 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC84. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5 VAO. FAILURE: Failure.
  • VAO Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1965 April 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1965 April 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1965 April 26 - . 14:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1965 May 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1965 May 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1965 September 20 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Test / ionosphere / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 480 km (290 mi).

1965 October 1 - . 03:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5B.
  • Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 480 km (290 mi).

1965 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5 VAO.
  • VAO Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1966 - . LV Family: R-16; R-5; R-7.
  • Twelfth Directorate nuclear weapons units an integrated part operational rocket field units - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Up to 1965 the warheads were still stored separately form Soviet ballistic missiles. This was changed so that the individual nuclear weapons units were made an integrated part of the operational rocket field units..

1966 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Yantar'-1 Technology / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1970 April 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • RAO Solar mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 May 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • RAO Solar mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 October 3 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • RAO K-2 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 November 28 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-1 Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 468 km (290 mi).

1971 August 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-2 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1971 October 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1974 November 28 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Ballistic missile warheads no longer stored separately from missiles - . Nation: USSR. From 1972, as the last open-pad missiles were retired, it was decided to mount all warheads on the silo-based missiles in instant readiness for launch. Its operational tasks finished, the 12th Directorate was placed under the Ministry of Defence. In its place the RSVN created a Sixth Directorate for security of nuclear weapons.

1975 July 15 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 503 km (312 mi).

1975 September 2 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-3 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 502 km (311 mi).

1977 August 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-5 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1979 September 26 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-8 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 505 km (313 mi).

1981 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-9 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-11 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

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