Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-7



vostkalu.jpg
Vostok Kaluga Museum
Credit: © Mark Wade
The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch.

Development of the R-7 began under research project N-3 "Development requirements for a liquid rocket with a range of 5,000 to 10,000 km and a warhead of 1 to 10 tonnes". The research project was authorised in a decree of 4 December 1950. The study was headed by Korolev's NII-88 but involved a wide range of other Soviet research institutes:

  • OKB-456 - Glushko - Engines
  • NII-885 - Ryazanskiy, Pilyugin - Guidance
  • NII-3 - Shebanin / GSKB Spetsmash - Launch facility
  • KB-11 - Nuclear warhead
  • NII-4 - Sokolov - Launch pad development
  • TSIAM - Svishchev
  • TsAGI - Dorognitsin, Struminskiy - aerodynamics
  • NII-6 - Sukhikh
  • NII-125 - Zhukov
  • NII-137 - Kostrov
  • NII-504 - Karpov
  • NII-10 - Kuznetsov - gyro platform
  • NII-49 - Charin
  • Mathematics Institute - Steklov and Keldysh

The research program tackled a range of difficult problems to achieve a rocket with the following new technologies:

  • Engines of 200 to 300 tonnes thrust, burning Lox/Kerosene propellant in place of the Lox/Alcohol used in rockets derived from German work, with a vacuum specific impulse of 325 seconds
  • Nuclear payload reduction to the 3 to 5 tonne range
  • Autonomous inertial and radio guidance systems
  • Heat shield and re-entry vehicle development to enable the warhead to survive re-entry into the atmosphere at 6 to 7 km/sec
  • Parametric studies to determine the optimum rocket configuration

Following completion of this basic research, work was focused in the successor project N-1, "Theoretical experimental research for a two stage ballistic rocket with a range of 7,000 to 8,000 km". Work on the N-1 was authorised by a decree of 13 February 1953. The objective was to create a draft project for a two stage ICBM with a range of 8,000 km, a warhead mass of 3,000 kg, and a gross lift-off mass of 170 tonnes.

Work was well underway when the requirements were suddenly altered on 3 October 1953. The total warhead mass was increased to 5,500 kg, with the net mass of only the nuclear device itself being 3,000 kg. The rocket designed to that point would have a range of only 5,500 km with such a warhead. A meeting was called of the Chief Designers in January 1954 to discuss how to handle the problem. Several weight saving measures were used. The single engines per module were replaced by small diameter engines of reduced length; the propellant tanks were laid out to minimise mass; a unique launch pad design was accepted that suspended the rocket above the flame pit and shielded it from cross winds, which allowed a lighter structure.

Another technical challenge were the small vernier rockets used to pitch the rocket. These had to have a high specific impulse, gimbal 45 degrees, and deliver a thrust of 2.5 tonnes. Glushko could not deliver an engine with these characteristics, so Melnikov of OKB-1 was assigned the task of designing the engines in-house. The engine that resulted met the requirements and was the technological basis for later rocket engines developed within OKB-1 (the Lox/Kerosene upper stage engines for the Molniya, N1, and Proton boosters).

By February 1954 the stage was reached where a final design was possible. A government declaration of 20 May 1954 authorised development of the two stage R-7 / 8K71 intercontinental ballistic missile. This was followed by a decree of 28 June 1954 'On plans N/R for space research'. Implementation came via a Ministry of Defence decree of 6 July 1954 calling on all industry organisations to work together and assigning the project the highest national priority. The draft project, using much material generated for the T-1 project, was completed in July 1954.

The vehicle in the draft project used the 'packet' layout with a hammerhead core stage surrounded by four shorter booster stages. At ignition, the four booster stages ignited. If full thrust was achieved, the core was then ignited and the booster rose on the thrust of all five stages. The rocket could boost the 5500 kg warhead to 7.9 km/s and 8,000 km range, with a maximum miss distance of plus or minus 10 km. The warhead was the German 'sharp point': a 16 degree cone, 7.27 m long, mounted atop a cylindrical interstage section. The rocket had a gross lift-off mass of 280 tonnes, and an empty mass of 27 tonnes. The first stage burned out at 2,170 m/s and the second stage at 6,385 m/s. Thrust at lift-off was 403.4 tonnes. The R-7 incorporated ingenious solutions in ground handling of the large rocket. The rocket would be assembled horizontally, rolled out to the pad, then raised to the vertical position and quickly fuelled.

The expert commission deemed the decree requirements to be fulfilled and recommended construction of the rocket with minor changes in the development plan. The government authorised the construction phase in a decree of 20 November 1954. The design was frozen by Korolev on 11 March 1955 and drawing release and parts fabrication began. By 20 March 1956 a decree set forth the impending three stage development test plan:

  • Two lots of prototype rockets for stand tests and one lot for flight tests
  • Following completion of the prototype test series, incorporate necessary changes into next lot of rockets
  • Final lot of rockets representing production configuration flight tested to verify changes

It turned out that the biggest problem was development of the vernier rockets for the first stage. Glushko was uncooperative and special test stands had to be build to test the integrated propulsion system.

In the first half of 1956 work began in earnest at 36 factories with the objective of making the first test flight by the end of the year. The first article completed was a full scale mock-up consisting of the core and one booster stage. Two Block A and B stages were delivered for stand tests, but incomplete factory test equipment held up the start. At that point it seemed impossible that a flight would be made within the year.

By the second half of 1956 solutions had been found to the outstanding problems. Serial production of rockets had begun. The Progress Aviation Factory in Samara, V Ya Litvinov manager, had been selected to fabricate detailed parts but final assembly of the prototype rockets was carried out at Factory 88 in Kaliningrad. Over time the factory at Samara would be organised as the Third Filial of OKB-1 and take over first production, and then engineering, of future R-7 derivatives. In 1974 it became the TsKB, a separate entity.

R-7 systems were developed in the following research program:

  • The radio guidance system was flight tested on R-5R modifications of the R-5 IRBM. Launches on 31 May and 15 June 1956 proved the system.
  • The R-7's propellant utilisation system, velocity integrator, stabilisation system, Tral telemetry system, and Fakel control system were tested in two phases of 5 flights each of the M5RD modification of the R-5. Five Phase 1 flights took place from 16 February to 23 March 1956, followed by five Phase 2 flights from 20 July to 18 August 1956.
  • The unique Tyulpan launch concept - suspension of the rocket from its 'shoulders' over the flame pit - was tested at a huge mock-up, 19 m in diameter, at the LMZ Leningrad Metal Foundry Factory. The rig also allowed hydraulics test of a mock-up booster with water in the tanks (protected by an anti-corrosion agent). The increasingly elaborated mock-up allowed the interface between the suspension arms and the rocket to be worked out in detail. Simulated launches allowed the separation of the vehicles and the umbilicals to be worked out, as well as the zero-shock launch concept (there were no hold-down clamps - once thrust built up, the rocket rose, and the suspension arms rotate away on counter-weights). LMZ also used the mock-up to develop ground handling, horizontal assembly, and installation protocols for the launch vehicle. The methods worked out in that summer remained in continuous use until well into the 21st Century.
  • Rocket engine stand test were conducted at Filial 2 of NII-88 from July 1956 to March 1957. These included determining the best arrangement of engines and their components to minimise thermal and vibration effects. Also conducted were liquid oxygen / liquid nitrogen loading, control systems and vernier tests.
  • Five test stand firings using three complete booster stages, were conducted on 15 August, 1 September, 24 September, 11 October, and 3 December 1956
  • Three test stand firing using two core stages were conducted on 27 December 1956 and 10 and 26 January 1957.
  • Two test stand firing were conducted using the complete rocket with four booster stages and the core stage. Ground test article s/n 2S was fired on 20 February 1957 and flight article s/n 4SL was fired on 30 March 1957.
  • Ground test article s/n 5N was delivered to Baikonur in December 1956 for facilities verification tests, including ground handling, transport, assembly, erection, and propellant loading.
  • The first flight article M1-5 was delivered to Baikonur in March 1957. The launch commission met on 10 April and certain questions were raised regarding the flight readiness due to test stand and ground test adequacy. Once these were resolved M1-5 was cleared for flight, and the first launch took place on 15 May 1957.

Test flights of the first lot of 12 prototype missiles was completed on January 30, 1958. By that time the Soviet Union had used the R-7 to demonstrate the first full-range ICBM and orbit the first two artificial satellites of the earth.

In its intended military mission, the R-7 was quickly overtaken by technological improvements. These allowed the Soviet Union to build missiles using 'zero warning launch' storable propellants and smaller nuclear warheads (Yangel's R-16 and R-36, Chelomei's UR-100). Deployment of the R-7 was very limited, and its service life extended only from 1960 to 1966. Only one dedicated ICBM pad was built at Baikonur, and six to eight in the Angara complex at Plesetsk. By 1966 they were all converted to space launch use and the military service life of the rocket was over.

But as a space launcher, the R-7, with upper stages, became the most successful in history. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with a success rate of 97.5% for production models.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Sputnik 8K71PS Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks. More...
  • Sputnik 8A91 Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3. More...
  • Luna 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine upper stage used for early Soviet unmanned lunar shots. More...
  • R-7A Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7A was an improved version of the R-7 first ICBM, and the one actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk. The missile saw service from 1960 to 1968. Four pads at Plesetsk, and one reserve pad at Baikonur, were operational at the peak of deployment in 1962. These were the Soviet Union's only strategic missile deterrent during the Cuban Missile Crisis. More...
  • Vostok 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. 8K72 Luna launch vehicle, third stage modified with larger forward cylindrical section to accomodate Vostok-sized spacecraft. Used only for launch of first few prototype Vostoks. More...
  • Molniya 8K78 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine third stage, uprated from Luna launch vehicle and with forward fairing to accomodate Vostok/Zenit sized spacecraft. 8K72K, used for Vostok manned spacecraft launches and the first Zenit launch attempt. More...
  • Vostok 8A92 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 8A92 was a modernized version of the Vostok booster used for launch of Zenit-2 reconnaisance satellites. More...
  • Molniya 8K78L Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used Lox/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages. Preliminary design was completed on 8 July 1962, but such technology was years away in the Soviet Union and the project was not pursued further. More...
  • Sputnik 11A59 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Vostok 11A57. Used for flight test of prototype Chelomei ASAT after cancellation of UR-200 booster and before availability of Tsiklon. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite, but was also used for the Voskhod manned flights and later for a variety of other Zenit series versions. More...
  • Soyuz 11K55 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz B translunar rocket stage. More...
  • Soyuz 11K56 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz V tanker spacecraft. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M 2BL Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-2BL upper stage for placement of Oko early-warning satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,000 km. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M ML Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-ML upper stage for placement of communications satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,500 km. More...
  • Vostok 11A510 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of R-7 launch vehicle with Vostok second stage and unknown third stage used only twice to launch prototype RORSATs. These satellites were originally to have been launched on the cancelled UR-200 launcher, and operational satellites used Tsyklon-2 launchers. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57). Designed initially to support launch of the Soyuz complex (7K manned, 9K rocket stage, and 11k tanker) and Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite. Later 'U' model extended to cover a range of follow-on satellites. Compared to 11A57, the telemetry system was reduced in mass to no more than 150 kg, and engines were cherry-picked for the vehicle core to ensure that specific impulse was no less than 252 seconds at sea level, 315 in vacuum. More...
  • Soyuz 11A514 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Soyuz launcher with increased payload, designed to launch Soyuz R military reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled along with the Soyuz R project in 1966. Unknown differences to standard Soyuz to reach payload requirement of circa 6700 kg to 65 degree orbit. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511L Russian orbital launch vehicle. 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of the Soyuz-M began in 1967 to launch the 6.6 metric ton Soyuz 7K-VI manned military spacecraft into a 65-degree inclination earth orbit. The spacecraft was cancelled, but development continued, and eight were Soyuz-M's were built and used to launch Zenit-4MT reconnaissance satellites in 1971-1976. The differences compared to the Soyuz-U are not known, and what (if anything) differentiated these Zenit-4MT missions from others is also a mystery. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. More...
  • Yamal Version of the Soyuz proposed with an Ariane 4 or Russian Lox/LH2 upper stage. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Ikar upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for the Kozlov Yantar series of spy satellites. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M SOL Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok SO-L upper stage for placement of Prognoz-class satellites in orbits with apogees of 200,000 km. More...
  • Soyuz M Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Fregat upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for Lavochkin interplanetary probes. More...
  • Soyuz FG Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. More...
  • Soyuz-U Russian orbital launch vehicle. Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511U. More...
  • Soyuz ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version. More...
  • Onega Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle proposed for the 'Kliper' manned spaceplane in 2004. The 'Onega' was a hitherto-unrevealed massive improvement of the reliable Soyuz. It would deliver double the payload to a space station orbit, and could be available by 2010 if funding was made available. More...
  • Soyuz ST / Fregat ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Uses Fregat upper stage. More...

R-7 Chronology


1949 December 7 - . LV Family: R-11; R-7. Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya; G-4; R-3; R-3A; R-5.
  • Groettrup G-4 IRBM evaluated against Korolev's R-3. R-3 project reformulated - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Navaho. The NTS (Scientific-Technical Soviet) of NII-88 met in plenary session and subjected Korolev's proposal to withering criticism. The G-4 was found to be superior. After heated discussion, the Soviet approved further development of technology for the R-3, but not the missile itself. The decisions were: an R-3A technology demonstrator would be built and flown under Project N-1 (probably to prove G-4 concepts). Under Project N-2 both the RD-110 and D-2 engines would proceed into development test in order to prove Lox/Kerosene propellant technology. Packet rocket and lightweight structure research for use in an ICBM would continue under project N-3 / T-1. Winged intercontinental cruise missile studies would continue under project N-3 / T-2. Neither the G-4 or R-3 ended up in production, but the design concepts of the G-4 led directly to Korolev's R-7 ICBM (essentially a cluster of G-4's or R-3A's) and the N1 superbooster. Work on the G-4 continued through 1952.

1950 December 4 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya.
  • Research into intercontinental missile approaches authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Navaho. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On themes N1, N2, and N3 in the ballistic missile program.' was issued..

1951 October 4 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Russian satellite predicted. - . Nation: USA. Summary: M. K. Tikhonravov in New York Times said U.S.S.R. science made feasible space flight and creation of artificial earth satellite; reported U.S.S.R. rocket advance equaled or exceeded West..

1953 February 13 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-11; R-5; R-7. Launch Vehicle: EKR.
  • Authorisation for development of Soviet intermediate and intercontinental range missiles. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on themes T1 and T2, on approval of work on the R-5, R-11, and EKR missiles, and on transferring draft project work for the R-12 from NII-88 to SKB-586' was issued. The decree set forth three phases of state trials tests for the R-5 missile.

1953 April - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya.
  • USSR Council of Ministers approve R-7 ICBM, Buran and Burya intercontinental cruise missiles - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Lavochkin; Myasishchev. Program: Navaho. Summary: Informal go-ahead was given for Korolev to start design work on the R-7. In parallel, Myasishchev OKB-23 and Lavochkin OKB-301 began design of intercontinental ramjet cruise missiles..

1954 March 17 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya.
  • Baikonur and Vladimirovka launch site plans. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Navaho. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On selection of launch area for the R-7, 40 Buran, and 350 Burya' was issued..

1954 May 20 - . LV Family: R-5; R-7.
  • R-7 full-scale development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 956-4088s 'On approval of work on the R-7 ICBM, R-5R, and M5RD missiles' was issued..

1954 May 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Go-ahead for R-7 ICBM by designers council - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Chief designers approval to proceed with development of R-7..

1954 June 28 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 development plans. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On NIP Plan for Special Product--course of work on the R-7 ICBM' was issued..

1954 November 20 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 draft project approved. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of the R-7 draft project' was issued..

1955 January 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Tyuratam selected for ICBM test range. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Ministers selects Tyuratam for ICBM test site. The first 30 construction workers arrive at Tyuratam. The town founded at the rail staion is called Zarya (Dawn). The name will be changed to Leninsk in January 1958, but Zarya will remain the call sign of Soviet ground control.

1955 April - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Housing/road constructions starts at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR.

1955 June 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First surveyors arrive at Tyuratam. - . Nation: USSR.

1955 August - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • LC 1 launch pad excavation starts - . Nation: USSR.

1956 February 27 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-1; R-2; R-5; R-7.
  • Soviet Leadership tours Korolev's design bureau - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Bulganin; Korolev; Ustinov. Khrushchev, Molotov, Bulganin, and other leaders are given a tour of Korolev’s OKB-1 in Kaliningrad. They are shown the R-1, R-2 and R-5 missiles as well as a mock-up of the R-7 and are awed. Ustinov reports that only five warheads would be needed to destroy Britain, and seven to nine for France. The need for the R-12 was discussed - the longer range was essential so that the missiles could be based farther from NATO’s borders (the experience of the German invasion and quick destruction of forward-based units and equipment was on everyone’s minds).

1956 March 20 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 flight test authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On means to ensure testing or the R-7' was issued..

1956 April 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First concrete poured at pad A at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR.

1956 June - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Zenit preliminary design complete - . Nation: USSR. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit. Summary: Design was original concept of Zenit reconnaisance spacecraft. The effort would later be included in the Vostok program under the name of Zenit..

1956 June - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • First studies by Korolev OKB of manned spacecraft - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Feoktistov. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Summary: First studies by Korolev and Feoktistov of manned spacecraft. The first stage would be suborbital ballistic flights (like the US Mercury-Redstone flights) from Kapustin Yar using IRBM's. First flights not planned until 1964 - 1967..

1956 July - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • OKB-1 completed draft project for the first earth satellite - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Tikhonravov's unit of OKB-1 completed the preliminary design of the ISZ satellite (launched as Sputnik 3). The Fourth Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of Defence had meanwhile completed a draft project for the KIK ground control system. Tikhonravov's 1.4 tonne ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, but the R-7 was ready before the satellite, so it was preceded by Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2. The ISZ was a miniature physics laboratory, but was launched with a known faulty recorder, limiting data to that received when the spacecraft was over Soviet tracking stations. As a result, the Van Allen radiation belts were discovered by the United States rather than Russia.

1956 August - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First ground equipment installed at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR.

1956 August 31 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • State Commission formed to oversee R-7 flight test. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On creation of the State Commission for the R-7' was issued..

1956 September 3 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Soviet space and ballistic missile tracking network established. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decree 1241-632 '0n creation or the Command Measurement Complex' was issued. The decree marked the beginning of development of the KIK satellite tracking system. This network was put together using a combination of PVO (Air Defence) and ICBM tracking systems. Trajectory information was fed into the KIK Centre for orbital calculations. The Centre was staffed by 680 officers and 151 civilian scientists of the Soviet Army in four sections.

1956 September 30 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Sputnik 3 draft project approved. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decree 'On approval of the draft project for Object D' was issued. The decree gave the go-ahead for Tikhonravov's 1.4 tonne ISZ physics satellite to be launched by the new R-7 ICBM during the International Geophysical Year . The ISZ, a miniature physics laboratory,.was to have been the first artificial satellite of the earth. In the event, it was preceded by Sputniks 1 and 2.

1957 January 11 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Flight test program for R-7 approved. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On approval of flight-testing program for the R-7 ICBM' was issued..

1957 January 11 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • First Soviet ICBM base at Plesetsk is authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 61-39ss 'On creation of launch complex Angara at NIIP-53' was issued..

1957 February 15 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Decision to build Sputnik 1 due to delays in Sputnik 3 design. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Sputnik 1. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 171-83ss 'On Measures to Carry Out During the International Geophysical Year.--Launch of simple satellites in mid-1957' was issued..

1957 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Checkout of first R-7 starts - . Nation: USSR.

1957 May 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • 1st R-7 rolled out to pad - . Nation: USSR.

1957 May 15 - . 16:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 5L. FAILURE: Failure of Block D strap on, which tore away from the core 98 seconds after liftoff. The booster crashed 400 km from the pad. A fuel leak in the pump outlet led to a fire in the engine compartment from the time of liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • M1-5 (I-1) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-5 (I-1)).

1957 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 8K71 M1-6.
  • R-7 launch attempt - . Nation: USSR. Summary: After third attempt in three days to launch R-7 8K71 M1-6, the rocket is pulled from the pad. It is found that a nitrogen scavenging valve was installed backwards..

1957 July 2 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Tikhonravov defined the development tasks for the Zenit reconnaissance satellite. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Zenit. These included development of a three stage version of R-7, development of satellite guidance and control systems of the precision required for photography from orbit, satellite control equipment, ELINT sensors, guidance systems, film cassette return systems, and tracking systems for recovery of the re-entry vehicle with the film cassette.

1957 July 12 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 7. FAILURE: Failure of the control system due to a short circuit of the battery. Rapid roll developed, resulting in all four strap-on boosters flying away from the core at 33 seconds in the flight.. Failed Stage: G.
  • M1-7 (I-2) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-7 (I-2)).

1957 August 21 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 8.
  • M1-9 (I-3) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: First successful ICBM flight. Problems with the curing of the nose cone material, known before launch, led to the dummy warhead disintegrating over the Kamchatka Peninsula..

1957 August 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 ICBM announced publicly. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Soviet Union announces successful launch of a "super longdistance intercontinental multistage ballistic rocket ...a few days ago," according to Tass Soviet News Agency..

1957 September 7 - . 11:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 9.
  • M1-10 (I-4) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Second successful ICBM flight..

1957 October 4 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 1PS.
  • Sputnik 1 - . Payload: PS. Mass: 84 kg (185 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 1. Decay Date: 1958-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2 . COSPAR: 1957-Alpha-2. Apogee: 945 km (587 mi). Perigee: 227 km (141 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. First artificial satellite; transmitted signals for 21 days. Launching of first ever artificial satellite of the Earth; physical study of the atmosphere; remained in orbit until January 4, 1958. This event began the space race by galvanizing interest and action on the part of the American public to support an active role in space research, technology, and exploration.

1957 November 3 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 2PS.
  • Sputnik 2 - . Payload: PS-2. Mass: 508 kg (1,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 2. Decay Date: 1958-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3 . COSPAR: 1957-Beta-1. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.70 min. Carried dog Laika. Study of the physical processes and conditions of life in outer space. After the surprise public impact of Sputnik 1, the satellite and launch teams were called back from vacation and in one month assembled the satellite (using equipment already developed for dog sounding rocket flights). After the launch, Soviet space officials said that the spacecraft would not return and that the dog had enough food and oxygen to live for up to 10 days. Only 45 years later was it revealed that Laika overheated, panicked and died within 5 to 7 hours of launch. What turned out to be the first space crypt remained in orbit a total of 162 days, then burned up in the atmosphere on April 14, 1958.

1957 November 23 - . LV Family: R-5; R-7.
  • Special units formed to handle ICBM/IRBM nuclear warheads - . Nation: USSR. Deployment of the R-5M in 1956 caused the Sixth Directorate of the Ministry of Military Forces of the USSR's First Military Subdivision, consisting of two brigades, to be formed. The need for a new arrangement for safeguarding nuclear weapons deployed with field units led to a decree replacing the Sixth Directorate with a Twelfth General Directorate of the Ministry of Defence, charged with the development, trials, deployment, and security of nuclear warheads.

1958 During the Year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72.
  • Work begun on Vostok spacecraft and third stage - . Nation: USSR. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok.

1958 January 29 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 11. FAILURE: The missile exploded a few seconds after liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • M1-12 (I-5) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Last test of the original R-7 8K71 test series. Suborbital launch test..

1958 March 20 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72.
  • Soviet lunar probes authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. Summary: Decree 'On work on automated lunar probes and three-stage launch vehicles for them' was issued..

1958 March 29 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 10.
  • M1-6A (I-6) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (M1-6A (I-6)).

1958 April - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • Plesetsk construction begins. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Construction work begins on Angara (R-7) base at Plesetsk..

1958 April 4 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 12.
  • B1-11 (I-7) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (B1-11 (I-7)).

1958 April 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8A91 B1-2. FAILURE: Launch vehicle disintegrated 88 seconds after liftoff.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Sputnik failure - . Payload: D-1 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decay Date: 1958-04-01 . COSPAR: F580427A.

1958 May 15 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8A91 B1-1.
  • Sputnik 3 - . Payload: D-1 s/n 2. Mass: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 3. Decay Date: 1960-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 8 . COSPAR: 1958-Delta-2. Apogee: 1,864 km (1,158 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 106.00 min. Summary: Variety of scientific data. Research in the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1958 May 24 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • B1-3 (II-1) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 test flight. (B1-3 (II-1)).

1958 July 2 - . LV Family: Kosmos 3; R-7.
  • R-14 IRBM, R-7A ICBM, and Raketoplan development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Raketoplan. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 726-346 'On start of work on the R-14 missile, on creation of the R-7A ICBM, and on creation of the winged-ballistic rocket at OKB-52' was issued..

1958 July 10 - . 07:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7-71/III No. 6. FAILURE: Failure.
  • B1-14 (II-5)/Blok E test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1958 August 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Luna 8K72 B1-3.
  • Luna launch delayed. - . Nation: USSR. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Planned August launch rescheduled after failure of American lunar probe on August 17. Inability to complete final tests of the new engines and malfunctions during pre-launch preparations indicated a lot of work had to be done on the new launch vehicle before the first launch could be attempted.

1958 September 2 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72.
  • Launch of Soviet Luna probes authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Luna. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. Summary: Decree 'On launch of automated lunar probes November' was issued..

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-3. FAILURE: Launcher disintegrated 93 seconds after launch due to longitudinal resonance of strap-ons.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Luna failure - booster disintegrated at T+92 seconds - . Payload: E-1 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko; Korolev. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. COSPAR: F580923A. Summary: This was the start of an acrimonious debated between Glushko and Korolev design bureaux over the fault and fix for the problem..

1958 October 11 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-4. FAILURE: Launcher disintegrated 104 seconds after launch due to longitudinal resonance of strap-ons.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Luna failure - booster disintegrated at T+104 seconds - . Payload: E-1 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. COSPAR: F581011A.

1958 December 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-5. FAILURE: Core engines shut off at 245 seconds into the flight. Cause was a loss of lubrication to the hydrogen peroxide pump.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Luna failure - booster core shut down at T+245 seconds - . Payload: E-1 s/n 3. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. COSPAR: F581204A.

1958 December 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. FAILURE: Failure.
  • III-1 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1959 January 2 - . 16:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 B1-6. FAILURE: Failure of the launch vehicle control system.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Luna 1 - . Payload: E-1 s/n 4. Mass: 361 kg (795 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1. USAF Sat Cat: 112 . COSPAR: 1959-Mu-1. Lunar probe; passed within 5,995 km of moon but did not hit it as planned due to a failure of the launch vehicle control system. Went into solar orbit. First manmade object to attain of escape velocity. Also known as Mechta ("Dream"), popularly called Lunik I. Because of its high velocity and its announced package of various metallic emblems with the Soviet coat of arms, it was concluded that Luna 1 was intended to impact the Moon. After reaching escape velocity, Luna 1 separated from its 1472 kg third stage. The third stage, 5.2 m long and 2.4 m in diameter, travelled along with Luna 1. On 3 January, at a distance of 113,000 km from Earth, a large (1 kg) cloud of sodium gas was released by the spacecraft. This glowing orange trail of gas, visible over the Indian Ocean with the brightness of a sixth-magnitude star, allowed astronomers to track the spacecraft. It also served as an experiment on the behavior of gas in outer space. Luna 1 passed within 5,995 km of the Moon's surface on 4 January after 34 hours of flight. It went into orbit around the Sun, between the orbits of Earth and Mars. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space, including the discovery that the Moon had no magnetic field and that a solar wind, a strong flow of ionized plasma emmanating from the Sun, streamed through interplanetary space.

1959 March 14 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A flight test plan approved. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On Work on the R-7 Product and Flight-Design Testing of the R-7A Product-- testing of the R-7 and R-7A ICBMs' was issued..

1959 March 17 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 041081.
  • GCh No. 13 (III-2) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: First test flight serial production model..

1959 March 25 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-18.
  • GCh No. 15 (III-3) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. 15 (III-3)).

1959 March 30 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-20. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. IZ-20 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1959 April 1 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A ICBM production approved. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On production of the R-7A missile at Plant No. 1001 at Krasnoyarsk-26 and establishment of a branch' was issued..

1959 May 9 - . 18:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-21. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. 17 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. 17 (III)).

1959 May 30 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. IZ-22. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. IZ-22 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Landed far from aim point..

1959 June 9 - . 20:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GCh No. IZ-23 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Landed far from aim point..

1959 June 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 I1-7. FAILURE: Inertial system failed at 153 seconds after launch. Vehicle destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Luna failure - inertial system failed at T+153 seconds - . Payload: E-1A s/n 5. Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1A. COSPAR: F590618A.

1959 July 15 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Samara Filial 1 takes over design responsibility for R-7 and its derivatives. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On formation of the Design Department of OKB-1 at the Progress Plant in Kuibyshev' was issued..

1959 July 18 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 24.
  • GCh No. IZ-24 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight. (GCh No. IZ-24 (III)).

1959 July 30 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 041082.
  • GCh (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: First successful flight of series production model..

1959 August 13 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • GCh No. IZ-25 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 September 12 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 I1-7B.
  • Luna 2 - . Payload: E-1A s/n 6. Mass: 387 kg (853 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-1A. Decay Date: 1959-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 114 . COSPAR: 1959-Xi-1. First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon. Impacted Moon 13 Sep 1959 at 22:02:04 UT, Latitude 29.10 N, Longitude 0.00 - Palus Putredinis, east of Mare Serenitatis near the Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus craters. After launch and attainment of escape velocity, Luna 2 separated from its third stage, which travelled along with it towards the Moon. On 13 September the spacecraft released a bright orange cloud of sodium gas which aided in spacecraft tracking and acted as an experiment on the behavior of gas in space. On 14 September, after 33.5 hours of flight, radio signals from Luna 2 abruptly ceased, indicating it had impacted on the Moon. Some 30 minutes after Luna 2, the third stage of its rocket also impacted the Moon. The mission confirmed that the Moon had no appreciable magnetic field, and found no evidence of radiation belts at the Moon.

1959 September 18 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 I1-1T.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 development test flight..

1959 October 4 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 I1-8.
  • Luna 3 - . Payload: E-2A s/n 1. Mass: 279 kg (615 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21 . COSPAR: 1959-Theta-1. Apogee: 499,998 km (310,683 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 55.0000 deg. Period: 21,563.20 min. Luna 3 was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. It was launched on a figure-eight trajectory which brought it over the Moon (closest approach to the Moon was 6200 km) and around the far side, which was sunlit at the time. It was stabilized while in optical view of the far side of the Moon. On October 7, 1959, the television system obtained a series of 29 photographs over 40 minutes, covering 70% of the surface, that were developed on-board the spacecraft. The photographs were scanned and 17 were radio transmitted to ground stations in facsimile form on October 18, 1959, as the spacecraft, in a barycentric orbit, returned near the Earth. The photographs were to be retransmitted at another point close to Earth but were not received. The spacecraft returned very indistinct pictures, but, through computer enhancement, a tentative atlas of the lunar farside was produced. These first views of the lunar far side showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and two dark regions which were named Mare Moscovrae (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Dreams).

1959 October 22 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267432.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 October 25 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267434.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1959 October 31 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • First R-7 missiles go on alert at Plesetsk. - . Nation: USSR.

1959 November 1 - . 21:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 No. 267431.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Flight over full missile design range..

1959 November 20 - . 21:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 I2-1T.
  • Phase 3 test flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Flight over full missile design range..

1959 November 27 - . 01:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 267433.
  • GCh No. IZ-33 (III) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Sixteenth and last launch of the third production batch..

1959 December - . LV Family: R-16; R-5; R-7.
  • Twelfth General Directorate of the Ministry of Defence charged only with ballistic missile warhead safekeeping - . Nation: USSR. Summary: This directorate's activities were limited specifically to safekeeping of the warheads of the RSVN rocket forces..

1959 December - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Flight test series of production R-7A ICBM begins - . Nation: USSR. Summary: These tests proved the design of the missile actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk..

1959 December 23 - . 19:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-1.
  • R-7A I-1 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 January 15 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Molniya 8K78 design begins - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Summary: Korolev signed the order for development of a four stage rocket based on the R-7..

1960 January 20 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • R-7 accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-7 ICBM into armaments' was issued..

1960 January 20 - . 16:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-2.
  • R-7A I-2/Dummy L test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Suborbital aerodynamic test flight with R-7A 8K74 lower stages, dummy upper stages..

1960 January 24 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-3. FAILURE: Failure.
  • R-7A I-3 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1960 January 31 - . 16:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A I1-4.
  • R-7A I-4/Dummy L test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Suborbital aerodynamic test flight with R-7A 8K74 lower stages, dummy upper stages..

1960 March 17 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L1-5.
  • R-7A I-4 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 March 24 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-5 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 April 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 L1-9. FAILURE: The third stage RO-5 engine either did not reach full thrust or shut down early.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Luna failure - third stage insufficient delta V - . Payload: E-3 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-15 . COSPAR: F600415A. Summary: Reached an altitude of 200,000 km before plunging back to earth..

1960 April 16 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 L1-9A. FAILURE: Strap-on B reached only 75 percent of thrust at ignition. Four tenths of a second after liftoff it broke away from the core.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Luna failure at lift-off - . Payload: E-3 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-16 . COSPAR: F600419A. Summary: This dramatic failure resulted in a loss of thrust, and the lateral strap-on units separated and flew over the tracking stations and living areas. The core continued on its trajectory..

1960 May 10 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Molniya 8K78 draft project completed - . Nation: USSR. Summary: The original design was intended for launch of unmanned probes toward Mars, but it had universal uses..

1960 May 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-11.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 1 - . Payload: Vostok 1KP. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1,979.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-09-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 34 . COSPAR: 1960-Epsilon-1. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. The Soviet Union launched a Vostok 1KP prototype manned spacecraft (without heat shield; not recoverable) into near-earth orbit. Called Sputnik IV by the Western press. On May 19, at 15:52 Moscow time, the spacecraft was commanded to retrofire. However the guidance system had oriented the spacecraft incorrectly and the TDU engine instead put the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Soviet scientists said that conditions in the cabin, which had separated from the remainder of the spacecraft, were normal.
    Officially: Development and checking of the main systems of the space ship satellite, which ensure its safe flight and control in flight, return to Earth and conditions needed for a man in flight.

1960 June 4 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Molniya launch vehicle and initial Vostok flights approved. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Vostok. Summary: Central Committee and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 587-238 'On the Realisation of the Plan to Master Cosmic Space in 1960 and the First Half of 1961 -creation of a four-stage launcher for interplanetary missions and schedule for the Korabl-Sputniks'.

1960 June 4 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 L1-9.
  • UBP (Readiness) operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7 readiness verification test..

1960 July - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Flight test series of production R-7A ICBM completed - . Nation: USSR. Summary: 15 launches were in the flight test series, with 14 successes. These rockets were completed at Aviation Factory Number 1, 'Progress', in Kuibyshev (Samara)..

1960 July 5 - . 15:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-6 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 July 7 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A I-7 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1960 July 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-10. FAILURE: At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strap on Block B or G burned through. The strap on separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at 28.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-07-23 . COSPAR: F600728A. Summary: First attempted flight of the Vostok 1K manned spacecraft prototype. Dogs Chaika and Lisichka perished in the explosion of the rocket..

1960 August 19 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-12.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 2 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 2. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.09 days. Decay Date: 1960-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 55 . COSPAR: 1960-Lambda-1. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. The Soviet Union launched its second unmanned test of the Vostok spacecraft, the Korabl Sputnik II, or Sputnik V. The spacecraft carried two dogs, Strelka and Belka, in addition to a gray rabbit, rats, mice, flies, plants, fungi, microscopic water plants, and seeds. Electrodes attached to the dogs and linked with the spacecraft communications system, which included a television camera, enabled Soviet scientists to check the animals' hearts, blood pressure, breathing, and actions during the trip. After the spacecraft reentered and landed safely the next day, the animals and biological specimens were reported to be in good condition.
    Officially: Development of systems ensuring man's life functions and safety in flight and his return to Earth.

1960 September 12 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A accepted for military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-7A into armaments' was issued..

1960 October 10 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-4M. FAILURE: At T+300.9 sec, the launcher went out of control and the destruct command was given at T+324.2 sec - the engine of Stage 3 cut off after 13.32 s of burning.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure. - . Payload: 1M s/n 1. Mass: 640 kg (1,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 1M. Decay Date: 1960-10-10 . COSPAR: F601010A. This was the Soviet Union's first attempt at a planetary probe. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. The possible cause lay in resonance vibrations of upper stages during Stage 2 burning, which led to break of contact in the command potentiometer of the gyrohorizon. As a result a pitch control malfunctioned and the launcher began to veer off the desired ascent profile. On exceeding 7 degrees of veering in pitch, the control system failed. The upper stage with the payload reached an altitude of 120 km before burning up on re-entry into the atmosphere above East Siberia.

1960 October 14 - . 13:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-5M. FAILURE: At T+290 sec Stage 3's engine 8D715K failed to ignite because a LOX leak froze kerosene in the fuel inlet to the pump on the launch pad due to a faulty LOX valve seal.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure. - . Payload: 1M s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 1M. Decay Date: 1960-10-14 . COSPAR: F601014A. Summary: Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. This was the Soviet Union's second attempt at a planetary probe. The upper stages and payload broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere..

1960 December 1 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72 L1-13.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 3 - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 3. Mass: 4,563 kg (10,059 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.99 days. Decay Date: 1960-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 65 . COSPAR: 1960-Rho-1. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. The Soviet Union launched its third spaceship satellite, Korabl Sputnik III, or Sputnik VI. The spacecraft, similar to those launched on May 15 and August 19, carried the dogs Pcheka and Mushka in addition to other animals, insects, and plants. Deorbited December 2, 1960 7:15 GMT. Burned up on reentry due to steep entry angle (retrofire engine did not shut off on schedule and burned to fuel depletion).
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.
    Officially: Medical and biological research under space flight conditions.

1960 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K L1-13A. FAILURE: The third stage engine RO-7 failed just after ignition, 425 seconds in to flight.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Korabl-Sputnik - . Payload: Vostok 1K s/n 4. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok. Decay Date: 1960-12-20 . COSPAR: F601222A. Unable to reach orbital velocity, the Vostok prototype separated while the third stage was still firing. While the ejection seat failed to operate, the capsule did make a hard landing in severe winter conditons in Siberia. It was recovered after some time, and the dogs Kometa and Shutka were alive. As a result of this flight the ejection seat was developed with a heat shield designed to protect the pilot in the event of a launch vehicle failure up to shut down of the first stage. Additional Details: here....

1961 January 14 - . 01:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • R-7A II-1 operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Some sources say first launch from LC31 was not until 27 February..

1961 January 18 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Venera preparations - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2. The VVS contingent arrives at Tyuratam at 23:45 aboard an Il-14 for the Venera launch. Chertok is in charge of launch preparations. Due to various radio system problems, there can be no launch until 26 January. The death of Nedelin and the others still hangs over the cosmodrome.

1961 January 20 - . LV Family: R-9; R-7.
  • Venera preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2; Vostok. Korolev plans three launches between 20 January and 14 February, but clearly his teams are not ready to accomplish this. There was insufficient testing of the Object V Venera spacecraft before it was shipped from OKB-1 to the cosmodrome. OKB-1 is trying to finish Object V on site, at the same time preparing the next Vostok 3KA and an R-9 ICBM for launch. Object V is not ready, the ability of its systems to function at long ranges and periods of time on the voyage to Venus are suspect. In Kamanin's opinion, it is diverting the crews from the higher priority manned and military projects.

1961 January 26 - . LV Family: R-16; R-7.
  • Venera delays - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Yangel. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2. Summary: The Object V launch is delayed to 1 February. Yangel has also had to postpone the next R-16 launch attempt to 26-30 January..

1961 January 31 - . LV Family: R-16; R-7.
  • Back at Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Moskalenko; Semenov; Yangel. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2. Summary: Kamanin flies to the cosmodrome with Korolev, Keldysh, Moskalenko, General Semenov, and others. Yangel's R-16 ICBM is not ready for launch yet due to continuing problems with the radio systems. The Venera is set for a 2 February launch attempt..

1961 February 1 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Venera rolled out to pad - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2. Summary: The booster is 5 to 7 m taller than the Vostok. One gyroscope has to be replaced on the pad. Fuelling begins at 23:30. At 02:00 the launch is scrubbed due to continuing gyro problems. Next attempt is set for 4 February..

1961 February 3 - . LV Family: R-16; R-7.
  • R-16 failure analysis - . Nation: USSR. The events began with an access hatch on the second stage coming off at lift-off - it had been secured with two bolts rather than the eight required. Aerodynamic forces produced a harmonic vibration of the metal structure, measured in millimetres, but enough to disrupt the gyroscopes, which in turn provided false signals to the guidance and control system, which in turn resulted in no igntion signal going to the second stage. Korolev has his Venera booster back on the pad for the 4 February launch. They are much better prepared now than four or five days ago.

1961 February 4 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-7. FAILURE: At T+531 sec, the fourth vernier chamber of Stage 3's 8D715K engine exploded because the LOX cut-off valve had not closed as scheduled and LOX flowed into the hot chamber.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 7 - . Payload: 2MV-2 s/n 1. Mass: 6,483 kg (14,292 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Glushko. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1VA. Decay Date: 1961-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 71 . COSPAR: 1961-Beta-1. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. The escape stage entered parking orbit but the main engine cut off just 0.8 s after ignition due to cavitation in the oxidiser pump and pump failure.. The payload attached together with escape stage remained in Earth orbit.

    The booster launched into a beautiful clear sky, and it could be followed by the naked eye for four minutes after launch. The third stage reached earth parking orbit, but the fourth stage didn't ignite. It was at first believed a radio antenna did not deploy from the interior of the stage, and it did not receive the ignition commands. Therefore the Soviet Union has successfully orbited a record eight-tonne 'Big Zero' into orbit. The State Commission meets two hours after the launch, and argues whether to make the launch public or not, and how to announce it. Glushko proposes the following language for a public announcement: 'with the objective of developing larger spacecraft, a payload was successfully orbited which provided on the first revolution the necessary telemetry'. Korolev and the others want to minimize any statement, to prevent speculation that it was a reconnaissance satellite or a failed manned launch. Kamanin's conclusion - the rocket didn't reach Venus, but it did demonstrated a new rocket that could deliver an 8 tonne thermonuclear warhead anywhere on the planet. The commission heads back to Moscow.


1961 February 12 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 L1-6B.
  • Venera 1 - . Payload: 1VA s/n 2, Venera 1 (Sputnik 8, AMS). Mass: 644 kg (1,419 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1VA. USAF Sat Cat: 80 . COSPAR: 1961-Gamma-1. Venera 1 was the first spacecraft to fly by Venus. The 6424 kg assembly was launched first into a 229 x 282 km parking orbit, then boosted toward Venus by the restartable Molniya upper stage. On 19 February, 7 days after launch, at a distance of about two million km from Earth, contact with the spacecraft was lost. On May 19 and 20, 1961, Venera 1 passed within 100,000 km of Venus and entered a heliocentric orbit. This failure resulted in only the following objectives being met: checking of methods of setting space objects on an interplanetary course; checking of extra-long-range communications with and control of the space station; more accurate calculation of the dimension of the solar system; a number of physical investigations in space. Additional Details: here....

1961 February 13 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L1-3T.
  • R-7A II-2 operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Some sources say first launch from LC31 was not until 27 February..

1961 February 27 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7. LV Configuration: R-7 L2-1.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 March 7 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • R-7 Failure Commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Korolev; Sokolov; Glushko; Bogomolov; Kosberg. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Keldysh, Korolev, Sokolov, Glushko, Bogomolov hear testimony from Kosberg on the causes of the RO-7 engine failure on the 22 December 1960 launch, that resulted in the suborbital flight of the Vostok capsule with a landing in Tura. The causes are not completely understood, but the bottom line is that a fuel line must have leaked. Further testimony is offered on the booster trajectory, landing time at various points along the trajectory, tracking station readiness, communications lessons, and recovery efforts. The communications are clearly unreliable. The radius of the HF radio is 5000 km, and 1500 km for UHF. TsP Moscow and PU Tyuratam, plus Novosibirsk, Kolpachev, Khabarovsk, and Yelizov (Kamchatka) all have HF and UHF transceivers. But due to practical reception problems, only UHF communications were available at Tyuratam, Kolpachev, and Yelizov, and only HF at Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk. It is recommended that each IP tracking station should have a Chief Communications Officer, a cosmonaut to act as capsule communicator, a physician, and a representative from the Ministry of Communications to assure action on problems.

1961 March 9 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-14.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 4 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 1. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mozzhorin; Yazdovskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0700 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 91 . COSPAR: 1961-Theta-1. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried dog Chernushka, mannequin Ivan Ivanovich, and other biological specimens. Ivanovich was ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Chernsuhka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 9, 1961 8:10 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, which ensure necessary conditions for man's flight. Additional Details: here....

1961 March 22 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Flight preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Nelyubov; Titov; Barmin; Keldysh; Korolev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Between 10:00 and 12:00 Chief Designer of Launch Facilities Barmin meets with the cosmonauts. He reviews the launch mechanism. The rocket is suspended at the 'shoulders' of the strap-ons, on four swivelled supports. After the rocket has lifted 49 mm, it is free from these, and counterweights weighing dozens of tonnes will swing them back and away from the rising booster. At 12:00 Kamanin meets with Keldysh and Korolev. They agree with his position that the flight be announced as soon as the cosmonaut is safely in orbit.

1961 March 25 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-15.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 5 - . Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 2. Mass: 4,695 kg (10,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Goreglyad; Karpov; Kamanin; Yazdovskiy; Gagarin; Nelyubov; Popovich; Titov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Korolev; Kirillov; Voskresenskiy. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1961-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 95 . COSPAR: 1961-Iota-1. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Carried dog Zvezdochka and mannequin Ivan Ivanovich. Ivanovich was again ejected from the capsule and recovered by parachute, and Zvezdochka was successfully recovered with the capsule on March 25, 1961 7:40 GMT.
    Officially: Development of the design of the space ship satellite and of the systems on board, designed to ensure man's life functions during flight in outer space and return to Earth. Additional Details: here....

1961 April 12 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-16.
  • Vostok 1 - . Call Sign: Kedr (Cedar ). Crew: Gagarin. Backup Crew: Titov; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 3. Mass: 4,725 kg (10,416 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Rudnev; Karpov; Moskalenko; Gagarin; Titov; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 1. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 0.0750 days. Decay Date: 1961-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 103 . COSPAR: 1961-Mu-1. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Three press releases were prepared, one for success, two for failures. It was only known ten minutes after burnout, 25 minutes after launch, if a stable orbit had been achieved.

    The payload included life-support equipment and radio and television to relay information on the condition of the pilot. The flight was automated; Gagarin's controls were locked to prevent him from taking control of the ship. The combination to unlock the controls was available in a sealed envelope in case it became necessary to take control in an emergency. After retrofire, the service module remained attached to the Sharik reentry sphere by a wire bundle. The joined craft went through wild gyrations at the beginning of re-entry, before the wires burned through. The Sharik, as it was designed to do, then naturally reached aerodynamic equilibrium with the heat shield positioned correctly.

    Gagarin ejected after re-entry and descended under his own parachute, as was planned. However for many years the Soviet Union denied this, because the flight would not have been recognized for various FAI world records unless the pilot had accompanied his craft to a landing. Recovered April 12, 1961 8:05 GMT. Landed Southwest of Engels Smelovka, Saratov. Additional Details: here....


1961 April 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. FAILURE: Failure..
  • R-7A II-3 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Failure occurred only two days after Yuri Gagarin's flight..

1961 June 15 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A E15001-06.
  • R-7A II-4 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 July 4 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L2-4.
  • R-7A II-5 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 July 4 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A L2-2.
  • R-7A II-6 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: Two launches from one launch complex in the same day..

1961 August 6 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. LV Configuration: Vostok 8K72K E103-17.
  • Vostok 2 - . Call Sign: Oryel (Eagle ). Crew: Titov. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev; Nelyubov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1961-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 168 . COSPAR: 1961-Tau-1. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Second manned orbital flight. The Soviet Union successfully launched Vostok II into orbit with Gherman S. Titov as pilot. The spacecraft carried life-support equipment, radio and television for monitoring the condition of the cosmonaut, tape recorder, telemetry system, biological experiments, and automatic and manual control equipment. Flight objectives: Investigation of the effects on the human organism of a prolonged flight in orbit and subsequent return to the surface of the Earth; investigation of man's ability to work during a prolonged period of weightlessness. Titov took manual control of spacecraft but suffered from space sickness. He was equipped with a professional quality Konvas movie camera, with which ten minutes of film of the earth were taken through the porthole. Both television and film images were taken of the interior of the spacecraft. Like Gagarin, Titov experienced problems with separation of the service module after retrofire. Titov was never to fly again, after being assigned to the Spiral spaceplane, which turned out to be a dead-end project. A biography of him by Martin Caidin ('I Am Eagle') made him somewhat more accessible than Gagarin to the West.

1961 September 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A. LV Configuration: R-7A E15003-03.
  • R-7A II-7 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi). Summary: R-7A readiness verification test..

1961 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1961 December 11 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. FAILURE: RO-7 engine of block E upper stage cutoff prematurely. Spacecraft liquidated by self destruct system APO in 407th second of flight. Debris landed 100 km north of Vilyuisk.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1961-12-11 . COSPAR: F611211A. First attempted launch of Zenit photo-reconnaisance satellite. According to Kamanin, there was a problem with the third stage, and the capsule landed between Novosibirsk and Yakutsk, but could not be located. There was no information on the nature of the problem. Korolev stayed at Tyuratam, preparing for the next launch attempt.

1962 During the Year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Vostok-Zh studies - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Vostok-Zh. Vostok-Zh studies conducted for multiple dockings of rocket blocks and payloads in orbit for circumlunar missions, using Vostok rocket. Vostok-Zh spacecraft used to for manual dockings only. Manned reentry vehicle from circumlunar distance is Sever/Soyuz design. Korolev's reaction to Chelomei's exclusive assignment by Khrushchev to circumlunar mission.

1962 January 18 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Korolev requests new Vostoks - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Spacecraft: Vostok; Vostok-Zh; Zenit-4. Korolev has issued a letter requested eight new Vostok 3A spacecraft to be built in 1962-1963. He recommends that they should be finished as the 1100 to 1300 kg heavier 'Vostok-2', to be boosted by the 11A57 rocket, developed originally for the Zenit-4 spy satellite. These Vostok-2's will be used for docking experiments, to form EO Experimental Orbital stations, and to develop spacecraft systems for flight to the moon. The VVS fully supports these plans. One of the docking spacecraft will be piloted, the other unpiloted.

1962 April 26 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Cosmos 4 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 2. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Popovich. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Flight: Vostok 3; Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 3.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 287 . COSPAR: 1962-Xi-1. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Failure of primary spacecraft orientation system. It was to spend four days in space, to be followed by another mission during 5-10 May. This meant that Vostok 3/4 could not be launched before 20-30 May. The cosmonaut prime crew returned from their in-suit parachute training at Fedosiya.

1962 June 1 - . 09:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-01. FAILURE: Shutdown of Block B strap-on engine stage 1.8 seconds after liftoff. The booster crashed 300 m from the pad. Pad damaged.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 3 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 3. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1962-06-01 . COSPAR: F620601A. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Third attempted launch of Zenit photo-reconnaissance satellite. It blew up 300 m from the pad, and did enough damage to put the launch complex out of operation for a month. Therefore the Vostok 3/4 launches could not take place until the end of July at the earliest.

1962 July 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1962 July 8 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78L.
  • Molniya 8K78L preliminary design completed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used Lox/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages. Such technology was years away in the Soviet Union and the project was not pursued further.

1962 July 28 - . 09:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-07.
  • Cosmos 7 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 4. Mass: 4,610 kg (10,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 346 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Iota-1. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1962 August 11 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 3 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev. Backup Crew: Bykovsky; Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 5. Mass: 4,722 kg (10,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Popovich; Gagarin; Smirnov; Barmin; Kirillov; Khrushchev; Kozlov, Frol; Ustinov; Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 3. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 363 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Mu-1. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Joint flight with Vostok 4. The first such flight, where Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other at the orbital insertion of the second spacecraft. The flight was supposed to occur in March, but following various delays, one of the two Vostok pads was damaged in the explosion of the booster of the third Zenit-2 reconnsat in May. Repairs were not completed until August. Vostok 3 studied man's ability to function under conditions of weightlessness; conducted scientific observations; furthered improvement of space ship systems, communications, guidance and landing. Immediately at orbital insertion of Vostok 4, the spacecraft were less than 5 km apart. Popovich made radio contact with Cosmonaut Nikolayev. Nikolayev reported shortly thereafter that he had sighted Vostok 4. Since the Vostok had no maneuvering capability, they could not rendezvous or dock, and quickly drifted apart. The launches did allow Korolev to offer something new and different, and gave the launch and ground control crews practice in launching and handling more than one manned spacecraft at a time. The cosmonaut took colour motion pictures of the earth and the cabin interior. Additional Details: here....

1962 August 12 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 4 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Popovich. Backup Crew: Komarov; Volynov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 6. Mass: 4,728 kg (10,423 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Popovich; Komarov; Volynov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 4. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.96 days. Decay Date: 1962-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 365 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Nu-1. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Joint flight with Vostok 3. Acquisition of experimental data on the possibility of establishing a direct link between two space ships; coordination of astronauts' operations; study of the effects of identical spaceflight conditions on the human organism. The launch of Popovich proceeds exactly on schedule, the spacecraft launching with 0.5 seconds of the planned time, entering orbit just a few kilometers away from Nikolayev in Vostok 3. Popovich had problems with his life support system, resulting in the cabin temperature dropping to 10 degrees Centigrade and the humidity to 35%. The cosmonaut still managed to conduct experiments, including taking colour motion pictures of the terminator between night and day and the cabin interior.

    Despite the conditions, Popovich felt able to go for the full four days scheduled. But before the mission, Popovich had been briefed to tell ground control that he was 'observing thunderstorms' if he felt the motion sickness that had plagued Titov and needed to return on the next opportunity. Unfortunately he actually did report seeing thunderstorms over the Gulf of Mexico, and ground control took this as a request for an early return. He was ordered down a day early, landing within a few mintutes of Nikolayev. Only on the ground was it discovered that he was willing to go the full duration, and that ground control had thought he had given the code.


1962 August 25 - . 02:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-12. FAILURE: At T+60 min 50 sec one of the four solid motors of the escape stage's BOZ unit did not fire. The resulting asymmetric torque caused the stage to lose correct attitude and three seconds after ignition of the main engine S1.5400A1 it began to tumble.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 19 - . Payload: 2MV-1 s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kuznetsova; Ponomaryova; Solovyova; Tereshkova; Yerkina. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera; Vostok. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-1. Decay Date: 1962-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 371 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Pi-1. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Attempt to launch a probe towards Mars. The launch went well, but the fourth stage motor burnt for only 45s of the planned 240s. The stage remained in Earth orbit. However Kamanin notes that it was good that the launch of the basic vehicle was a success - it gave the visiting female cosmonauts confidence in the rocket they will have to ride.

1962 September 1 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-13. FAILURE: At T+ 61 min 30 sec the fuel valve did not open.; the ignition command was blocked from going to the main engine of Stage 4.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 20 - . Payload: 2MV-1 s/n 2. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-1. Decay Date: 1962-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 381 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Tau-1. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min.

1962 September 12 - . 00:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-14. FAILURE: At T+531 sec, the fourth vernier chamber of Stage 3's 8D715K engine exploded because the LOX cut-off valve had not closed as scheduled and LOX flowed into the hot chamber.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 21 - . Payload: 2MV-2 s/n 1. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-2. Decay Date: 1962-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 389 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Phi-1. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Summary: The escape stage entered parking orbit but the main engine cut off just 0.8 s after ignition due to cavitation in the oxidiser pump and pump failure..

1962 September 27 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-06.
  • Cosmos 9 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 7. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 422 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Omega-1. Apogee: 981 km (609 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1962 October 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-03.
  • Cosmos 10 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 5. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 437 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Zeta-1. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1962 October 24 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-15. FAILURE: 16 seconds after ignition of Stage 4, Block L's S1.5400A1 engine exploded. A lubricant leak resulted in the jamming of a shaft in the turbopump gearbox and break up of the turbine.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 22 - . Payload: 2MV-4 s/n 3. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-4. Decay Date: 1962-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 443 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Iota-1. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. The spacecraft broke into many pieces, some of which apparently remained in Earth orbit for a few days. This occurred during the Cuban missile crisis and was picked up by U.S. military radar installations, who originally feared it might by the start of a Soviet nuclear attack.

1962 November 1 - . 16:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-16.
  • Mars 1 - . Payload: 2MV-4 s/n 4 / Sputnik 23. Mass: 894 kg (1,970 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-4. USAF Sat Cat: 450 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Nu-3. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Launched from Sputnik 23 in a 157 x 238 km, 65 degree parking orbit. Sixty-one radio transmissions were held in which a large amount of data was collected. On March 21, 1963, when the spacecraft was at a distance of 106 million km communications ceased, possibly due to a malfunction in the spacecraft orientation system. Mars 1 closest approach to Mars occurred on June 19, 1963 at a distance of approximately 193,000 km, after which the spacecraft entered a heliocentric orbit. Announced mission: Prolonged exploration of outer space during flight to the planet Mars; establishment of inter-planetary radio communications; photgraphing of the planet Mars and subsquent radio-transmission to Earth of the photographs of the surface of Mars thus obtained.

1962 November 4 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 T103-17. FAILURE: After T+260 sec, a malfunction of the pressurization system of the central sustainer led to cavitation in the oxidizer pipeline and LOX pump, followed at T+292s by the fuel pump.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Sputnik 24 - . Payload: 2MV-3 s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mars 2MV-3. Decay Date: 1962-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 451 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Xi-1. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. Although the escape stage and payload reached orbit, the strong third stage vibrations shook a fuse loose from its mount in the main nozzle of the escape stage Block L's engine. The engine could not be ignited and remained in Earth orbit. It decayed about two months after insertion.

1962 December 22 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-10.
  • Cosmos 12 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 6. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1962-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 517 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Omega-1. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 January 4 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 T103-09. FAILURE: The escape stage's BOZ unit failed to operate due to failure of a DC transformer of the power system. The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Sputnik 25 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 522 . COSPAR: 1963-001B. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

1963 February 1 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 'leaves drafting boards' - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A. Summary: Soyuz 'leaves drafting boards'..

1963 February 3 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 G103-10. FAILURE: Upper stage gyro platform failure.. Failed Stage: G.
  • E-6 s/n 2 failure. - . Payload: E-6 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-02-03 . COSPAR: F630203A. Summary: Apparent causes were instabilities in the torque sensor circuit and the pitch-free floating gyro device. The upper stages and payload broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere over the Pacific..

1963 March 7 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Korolev approves draft plan for 'Soyuz Complex' - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Korolev. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. Final design approval for Soyuz A spacecraft for earth orbit and circumlunar flight using orbital rendezvous, docking, and refuelling technques. Except for change of orbital module from cylindrical to spherical design, and changes to rendezvous radar tower arrangement, this design was essentially identical to the Soyuz 7K-OK that flew three years later. Additional Details: here....

1963 March 21 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-01.
  • Cosmos 13 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 9. Mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 554 . COSPAR: 1963-006A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 April 2 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 G103-11.
  • Luna 4 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 3. Mass: 1,422 kg (3,134 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 563 . COSPAR: 1963-008A. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 87.98 min. Luna 4 was the second attempted Soviet unmanned lunar soft lander probe. The spacecraft, rather than being sent on a straight trajectory toward the Moon, was placed first in an earth parking orbit. The rocket stage then reignited and put the spaccecraft on a translunar trajectory. Failure of Luna 4 to make a required midcourse correction resulted in it missing the Moon by 8336.2 km on April 6, at 4:26 a.m. Moscow time. It thereafter entered a barycentric Earth orbit. The Soviet news agency, Tass, reported that data had been received from the spacecraft throughout its flight and that radio communication would continue for a few more days.

1963 April 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1963 April 22 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 T15000-08.
  • Cosmos 15 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 8. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 569 . COSPAR: 1963-011A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried weather, radiation experiments..

1963 April 28 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-02.
  • Cosmos 16 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 10. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 571 . COSPAR: 1963-012A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Program partially completed. Part of the information lost due to failure of engine block stabilization system. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 May - . LV Family: R-16; R-5; R-7.
  • Subdirectorate for Nuclear Operations was formed within the Twelfth Directorate - . Nation: USSR. Summary: As the number of ballistic missiles deployed increased, a specialised Subdirectorate for Nuclear Operations was formed within the Twelfth Directorate..

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1963 May 24 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-12.
  • Cosmos 18 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 11. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 586 . COSPAR: 1963-018A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1963 June 14 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 5 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Volynov; Leonov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 7. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 5. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 4.96 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 591 . COSPAR: 1963-020A. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Joint flight with Vostok 6. The Soviet Union launched Vostok 5, piloted by Lt. Col. Valery F. Bykovsky. Two days later Lt. Valentina V. Tereshkova, the first spacewoman, followed in Vostok 6. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Both cosmonauts landed safely on June 19. The space spectacular featured television coverage of Bykovsky that was viewed in the West as well as in Russia. Unlike earlier missions, only a black and white film camera was carried. Photometric measurements of the earth's horizon were made.

    Mission objectives were officially: further study of the effect of various space-flight factors in the human organism; extensive medico-biological experiments under conditions of prolonged flight; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems.

    Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for a record eight days. The launch was delayed repeatedly due to high solar activity and technical problems. Finally the spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit. Combined with increased atmospheric activity due to solar levels, Vostok 5 quickly decayed temperatures in the service module reached very high levels.

    Bykovsky also experienced an unspecified problem with his waste management system (a spill?) which made conditions in the cabin 'very uncomfortable'. He was finally ordered to return after only five days in space.

    To top it all off, once again the Vostok service module failed to separate cleanly from the reentry sphere. Wild gyrations ensued until the heat of reentry burned through the non-separating retraining strap.


1963 June 16 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 6 - . Call Sign: Chayka (Seagull ). Crew: Tereshkova. Backup Crew: Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 8. Mass: 4,713 kg (10,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 595 . COSPAR: 1963-023A. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.80 min. Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space, and the only Russian woman to go into space until Svetlana Savitskaya 19 years later. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Flight objectives included: Comparative analysis of the effect of various space-flight factors on the male and female organisms; medico-biological research; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems under conditions of joint flight. It was Korolev's idea just after Gagarin's flight to put a woman into space as yet another novelty. Khrushchev made the final crew selection. Korolev was unhappy with Tereshkova's performance in orbit and she was not permitted to take manual control of the spacecraft as had been planned.

1963 July 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-04. FAILURE: Shutdown of Block B strap-on engine stage 1.9 seconds after liftoff. Pad damaged.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 12 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 12. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1963-07-10 . COSPAR: F630710A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 October 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1963 October 18 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-01.
  • Cosmos 20 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 13. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-10-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 673 . COSPAR: 1963-040A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 November 1 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 11A59. LV Configuration: Sputnik 11A59 E15003-02A.
  • Polet 1; Polyot 1 - . Payload: I-2B s/n 1. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Agency: Korolev. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: Polyot. Decay Date: 1982-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 683 . COSPAR: 1963-043A. Apogee: 1,420 km (880 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 58.9000 deg. Period: 102.40 min. ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Launched by Korolev R-7 because Chelomei's own UR-200 was not yet available. Purpose - elaboration of system providing for the extensive manoeuvring of space apparatuses. Flight was considered a great success. Micro-engine fired 350 times and main stabilizing engine fired 300 times. Orbit given is final orbit after manoeuvres.

1963 November 11 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 G103-18. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude. Engine ignition occurred in an incorrect direction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 21 - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 1. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1963-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 687 . COSPAR: 1963-044A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-51 and burnt up on re-entry..

1963 November 16 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-06.
  • Cosmos 22 - . Payload: Zenit-4 no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 689 . COSPAR: 1963-045A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1963 November 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-02. FAILURE: Failure of block E upper stage. Spacecraft liquidated by APO destruct system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1963-11-28 . COSPAR: F631128A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1963 December 19 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-03.
  • Cosmos 24 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 15. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 712 . COSPAR: 1963-052A. Apogee: 391 km (242 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 Duing the year - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Development of Soyuz-R and Soyuz-P begun. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz R; Soyuz P; Soyuz PPK; Soyuz 7K-TK. KB Kozlov began active development of the military applied versions of the Soyuz. A new version of the R-7 launch vehicle, the 11A514, was put into development to support launch of the Soyuz-P, now designated the 7K-PPK (pilotiruemovo korablya-perekhvatchika, manned interceptor spacecraft). The Soyuz-R would include the small orbital station 11F71 with photo-reconnaissance and ELINT equipment. To dock with the 11F71 station Kuibishev developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 7K-TK. This version of the Soyuz was equipped with rendezvous, docking, and transition equipment, including an airlock, that allowed the two cosmonauts to enter the station without using EVA. The launch vehicle for the 7K-TK would be the 11A511, known today as the Soyuz.

1964 January 30 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Elektron 1 - . Payload: 2D s/n 1. Mass: 329 kg (725 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-A. USAF Sat Cat: 746 . COSPAR: 1964-006A. Apogee: 6,439 km (4,001 mi). Perigee: 413 km (256 mi). Inclination: 60.9000 deg. Period: 161.00 min. Studied inner Van Allen belt. Electron I and II launched by a single carrier rocket. Electron I: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere. Electron II: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and outer space.
  • Elektron 2 - . Payload: 2D s/n 2. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-B. Decay Date: 1997-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 748 . COSPAR: 1964-006B. Apogee: 62,811 km (39,028 mi). Perigee: 5,611 km (3,486 mi). Inclination: 60.2000 deg. Period: 1,356.40 min. Studied outer Van Allen belt. Electron I and II launched by a single carrier rocket. Electron I: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere. Electron II: simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and outer space.

1964 February 19 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-19. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • 3MV-1A - . Payload: 3MV-1A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1A. Decay Date: 1964-02-19 . COSPAR: F640219A.

1964 March 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M s/n T15000-22.
  • Venus launch delayed. - . Payload: 3MV-1. Nation: USSR. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-01 . Summary: The launch was delayed due to malfunctions during prelaunch service..

1964 March 10 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Zenit-2 spy satellite accepted into mlitary service - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Summary: Defence Ministry of the USSR decree 0045 'On adopting the Zenit-2 satellite launched on the 8A92 into armaments' was issued..

1964 March 21 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-20. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Luna failure - . Payload: E-6 s/n 4. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1964-03-21 . COSPAR: F640321A. Summary: The upper stages burnt on re-entry into the atmosphere..

1964 March 27 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-22. FAILURE: During unpowered coast in parking orbit the escape stage Block L lost stable attitude due to a loss of the power circuit of the pneumatic valves of the attitude control and stabilization system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 27 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 3. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. Decay Date: 1964-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 772 . COSPAR: 1964-014A. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: The stage with payload remained in Earth orbit as Cosmos-27..

1964 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-23.
  • Zond 1 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 4. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. USAF Sat Cat: 785 . COSPAR: 1964-016D. Summary: Failed Venus probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Elaboration of a long range space system and conduct of scientific research..

1964 April 4 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-04.
  • Cosmos 28 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 16. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 779 . COSPAR: 1964-017A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 April 12 - . 09:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 11A59. LV Configuration: Sputnik 11A59 T15001-01A.
  • Polet 2; Polyot 2 - . Payload: I-2B s/n 2. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: Polyot. Decay Date: 1966-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 783 . COSPAR: 1964-019A. Apogee: 479 km (297 mi). Perigee: 303 km (188 mi). Inclination: 58.1000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor control and propulsion test. Elaboration of systems providing for the extensive manouevring of space apparatuses..

1964 April 20 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-21. FAILURE: Power failure caused upper stage shutdown at T+340 seconds.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Luna failure - . Payload: E-6 s/n 5. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1964-04-20 . COSPAR: F640420A. Summary: The upper stages broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere...

1964 April 25 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-01.
  • Cosmos 29 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 19. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-05-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 791 . COSPAR: 1964-021A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 May 18 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-12.
  • Cosmos 30 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 797 . COSPAR: 1964-023A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1964 June 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1964 June 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 R103-34. FAILURE: At T+104 sec the tank draining of core Block A failed due to jamming of the servo-motored throttle and break down of the motor's circuit The launcher was destroyed on impact downrange from the pad.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. COSPAR: F640604A. Summary: Unsuccessful first attempt to launch Molniya communications satellite..

1964 June 10 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-02.
  • Cosmos 32 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 18. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 807 . COSPAR: 1964-029A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 June 23 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-05.
  • Cosmos 33 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 20. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 816 . COSPAR: 1964-033A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 July 1 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 T15000-04.
  • Cosmos 34 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 822 . COSPAR: 1964-034A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1964 July 10 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Elektron 3 - . Payload: 2D s/n 3. Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-A. USAF Sat Cat: 829 . COSPAR: 1964-038A. Apogee: 6,302 km (3,915 mi). Perigee: 408 km (253 mi). Inclination: 60.9000 deg. Period: 159.30 min. Summary: Studied inner Van Allen belt. Electron 3 and 4 launched by a single carrier rocket. Simultaneous study of the inner and outer radiation belts of the earth, cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. .
  • Elektron 4 - . Payload: 2D s/n 4. Mass: 444 kg (978 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Elektron. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Elektron-B. Decay Date: 1983-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 830 . COSPAR: 1964-038B. Apogee: 66,269 km (41,177 mi). Perigee: 447 km (277 mi). Inclination: 60.8000 deg. Period: 1,313.80 min. Summary: Studied outer Van Allen belt. Electron 3 and 4 launched by a single carrier rocket. Simultaneous study of the inner and outer radiation belts of the earth, cosmic rays and the upper atmosphere. .

1964 July 15 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-03.
  • Cosmos 35 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 21. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 833 . COSPAR: 1964-039A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 July 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1964 August 14 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-04.
  • Cosmos 37 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 22. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 848 . COSPAR: 1964-044A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Break in the film fof the SA-10 camera..

1964 August 22 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 R103-36.
  • Cosmos 41 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 2004-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 869 . COSPAR: 1964-049D. Apogee: 39,169 km (24,338 mi). Perigee: 1,023 km (635 mi). Inclination: 68.4000 deg. Period: 714.50 min. Successful launch of first Soviet communications satellite. This is the second Molniya launch attempt. (the first was a launch failure). The failure of the antennae to deploy means the spacecraft can only be tested in a limited manner and cannot be used for the planned relay of television.

1964 August 28 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M T15000-05.
  • Cosmos 44 - . Payload: Meteor no. 1. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. USAF Sat Cat: 876 . COSPAR: 1964-053A. Apogee: 778 km (483 mi). Perigee: 599 km (372 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1964 September 9 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Voskhod preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Krylov; Rudenko; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Zenit-4. Kamanin arrives at the cosmodrome, only to find the launch of the manned Voskhod delayed to October. The launch of a Zenit-4 spy satellite, that uses the same launch vehicle as planned for Voskhod, has aborted on the pad after the Block A strap-on failed to ignite. This is the first block A failure in over 100 R-7 launches. That evening Kamanin views a launch of an R-36 heavy ICBM. Marshall Krylov reveals it will have a range of 14,000 km with a CEP of under 1 km with a 40 megaton warhead - one missile is sufficient to wipe out a city like New York. Rudenko believes that the victor in any nuclear war will be the one who pushes the button first. Krylov disagrees, saying that if the Americans would launch an attack on Soviet missile forces, the Soviet Union would launch its missiles on a counter-strike before the American missiles arrive - total and senseless destruction. Rudenko believes that Rudenko is more correct, since in the real-world responses will not conform to theoretical possibilities of instant reaction.

    Later the state commission meets to consider the launch of the first Voskhod. The unpleasantness at the landing trials in the Crimea reveal only the inadequacy of the design of the test capsules, and do not reflect the flight system, says Korolev. He certifies the reliability of the Voskhod for flight. The commission decides to set the launch of the next Zenit-4 reconnaissance satellite for 14 September; that of the Voskhod with mannequins on 18-20 September; the definitive landing system trial at Fedosiya on 23 September; and if that is successful, launch of a manned Voskhod by the end of September.


1964 September 13 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-01.
  • Cosmos 45 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 880 . COSPAR: 1964-055A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather experiments. The Zenit-4 launches a day ahead of schedule. The booster rocket performs perfectly as Korolev and Kamanin watch from the veranda of the IP-1 tracking station. This confirms readiness of the same launch vehicle for the Voskhod launch.

1964 September 14 - . LV Family: N1; Proton; R-7; UR-700.
  • Voskhod abort system - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Krylov; Feoktistov; Komarov; Volynov; Lazarev; Yegorov. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1; Lunar L3. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod; LK-1. Kamanin reviews the Voskhod abort system with Korolev. Up to T+27 seconds, there is no possibility of saving the crew in the event of a booster failure; from T+27 seconds to T+44 seconds, escape would be difficult, but is possible; and from T+44 seconds to T+501 seconds abort should be possible, with the capsule landing on Soviet territory. Afterwards, Korolev speaks with Kamanin secretly and privately. Korolev reveals that he has discussed a greater VVS role in space with Marshal Krylov, but that Krylov is adamantly opposed to the VVS assuming such a mission. Korolev is seeking a resolution from the Communist Party that will authorise him to develop a manned lunar flyby and landing system using his N1 booster. He believes that Chelomei's UR-500 booster will not have sufficient payload to mount a manned flyby - a docking in low earth orbit will be required. But Chelomei has rejected the use of docking, and is even designing his UR-700 to allow a lunar landing without the use of docking.

    Finally Korolev gets to the purpose of the secret meeting. He wants Feoktistov to be aboard Voskhod 1, despite the opinion of Kamanin and the physicians. Kamanin reiterates that the most qualified crew would be Komarov, Volynov, and Lazarev; and if he gives in on Feoktistov, then Komarov, Feoktistov, Lazarev. But Korolev is opposed to Lazarev, and insists that the crew should be Komarov, Feoktistov, and Yegorov. From Kamanin's point of view this is flying a space mission with two invalids aboard. Lazarev is a qualified and fit flight surgeon, a qualified pilot as well as a physician with 15 years of research experience in aviation medicine. Korolev is adamant that the two passengers should be civilian, not military. No agreement is possible.


1964 September 24 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15001-05.
  • Cosmos 46 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 23. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 885 . COSPAR: 1964-059A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 October 6 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-02.
  • Cosmos 47 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 2. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Kirillov; Tyulin; Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 891 . COSPAR: 1964-062A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Unmanned test of Voskhod spacecraft. At 07:00 the State Commission meets at Area 2. All Chief Designers, Commanders, and Section report that all is ready for flight. The commission gives the order to proceed with the launch. Weather at the pad is 7 balls, 8-10 m/s wind with gusts to 15 m/s, temperature 9 to 12 deg C. Weather in the recovery zones is reported as winds up to 15 m/s. Weather in the recovery zone is not clear, but that is not considered an impediment, and in fact Kamanin would like to see how the landing system functions in bad conditions. Kamanin visits the pad at T-30 seconds; at T-20 seconds, the veranda at IP-1 has over 50 viewers of the launch, including 15 cosmonaut candidates and the 7 Voskhod cosmonauts. Kamanin is relegated to the IP-1 veranda this time, with Rudenko, Kirillov, and Tyulin the bunker adjacent to the pad. Korolev stays with the booster until T-5 minutes, then enters the bunker. The booster ignites precisely at 10:00; the strap-ons burn out and are jettisoned at T+120 seconds; the core burns out and the final stage ignites at T+290 seconds; and at T+523 seconds spacecraft 3KV number 2 is placed in orbit as the final stage shuts down. The spacecraft separates and all systems look normal.

    Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


1964 October 7 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 47 returns to earth. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. At 7 am the Cosmos 47 landing commission convenes. Kamanin has had only three hours sleep. The spacecraft is to conduct retrofire on its 17th orbit of the earth and land in Kustan, where winds are 15-17 m/s. The capsule made a good landing, with the parachute-rocket soft landing system working perfectly - the spacecraft had zero velocity on impact with the ground. The spacecraft penetrated 90 mm into the ground. The strong winds caught the parachute after landing and dragged it 160 m, but if a crew had been aboard they could have quickly commanded separation of the parachute. All systems of the booster and spacecraft worked perfectly, except that the third stage engines' thrust fell by 10% for three seconds, but the engine controller detected the shortfall and made up the velocity.

1964 October 8 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 47 capsule returned to Baikonur. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kosberg. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The capsule arrived aboard an An-12 at 11:30. All systems performed well. It is reported that one of Kosberg's third stage engines developed an out-of-control high frequency oscillation in a stand test, and exploded. The State Commission decides to delay the manned Voskhod launch 3 or 4 days while the safety of the engines on the booster are verified. A special commission is sent to Voronezh to assess the situation. Kosberg's engines have flown 60 times, and been tested on the stand 400 times, without this problem having occurred before. In the evening seven reporters arrive from the Soviet press and begin their work leading up to the manned launch.

1964 October 12 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-04.
  • Voskhod 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Feoktistov; Komarov; Yegorov. Backup Crew: Katys; Lazarev; Volynov. Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 3. Mass: 5,320 kg (11,720 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Rudenko; Tyulin; Gagarin; Feoktistov; Komarov; Yegorov; Katys; Lazarev; Volynov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.01 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 904 . COSPAR: 1964-065A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. The U.S.S.R. launched the world's first multi-manned spacecraft, Voskhod I, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space. The crew were Col. Vladimir Komarov, pilot; Konstantin Feoktistov, scientist; and Boris Yegorov, physician. Potentially dangerous modification of Vostok to upstage American Gemini flights; no spacesuits, ejection seats, or escape tower. One concession was backup solid retrorocket package mounted on nose of spacecraft. Seats mounted perpendicular to Vostok ejection seat position, so crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. Tested the new multi-seat space ship; investigated the in-flight work potential and co-operation of a group of cosmonauts consisting of specialists in different branches of science and technology; conducted scientific physico-technical and medico-biological research. The mission featured television pictures of the crew from space.

    Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." Additional Details: here....


1964 October 14 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-01.
  • Cosmos 48 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 24. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 908 . COSPAR: 1964-066A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Returned early due to failure of spacecraft thermoregulation system; internal temperature rose to 43 degrees C..

1964 October 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-02.
  • Cosmos 50 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 25. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1964-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 919 . COSPAR: 1964-070A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Failure of the braking engine system. Spacecraft ordered to self destruct..

1964 November 30 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 2. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 945 . COSPAR: 1964-078C. Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Zond 2 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Mars to test space-borne systems and to carry out scientific investigations. Zond 2 carried six electric rocket engines of plasma type that served as actuators of the attitude control system. The communications system failed during April 1965. The spacecraft flew by Mars on August 6, 1965, at a distance of 1500 km.

1965 January 11 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-03.
  • Cosmos 52 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 26. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 968 . COSPAR: 1965-001A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 February 21 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 57 roll-out - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: The booster is rolled out to the pad at 08:00, slightly behind schedule after delays in mating the spacecraft the day before. It is -22 deg C at the launch centre; conditions at the landing site are poor, but his will not delay the launch. .

1965 February 22 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-03.
  • Cosmos 57 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 1. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Agency: Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 0.22 days. Decay Date: 1965-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1093 . COSPAR: 1965-012A. Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Unsuccessful mission. Voskhod 2 test. Immediately after orbital insertion airlock and spacesuit inflated normally. Then two ground control stations sent commands to the spacecraft simultaneously. The combined signals accidentally set off the retrofire sequence, which some time later triggered the self destruct mechanism (designed to prevent the spacecraft from falling into enemy hands).
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Additional Details: here....

1965 February 26 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-09.
  • Cosmos 58 - . Payload: Meteor no. 2. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1990-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1097 . COSPAR: 1965-014A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 333 km (206 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 March 7 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-05.
  • Cosmos 59 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1191 . COSPAR: 1965-015A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule fitted with airlock mating ring planned for Voskhod-2 spacecraft..

1965 March 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 R103-25. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine failed to ignite due to failure of a transformer in the power supply of the control system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 60 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 9. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1246 . COSPAR: 1965-018A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: The stage with the payload remained in Earth orbit as Kosmos-60..

1965 March 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-05.
  • Voskhod 2 - . Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Rudenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.

    This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....


1965 March 25 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-06.
  • Cosmos 64 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 17. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1305 . COSPAR: 1965-025A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 April 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 R103-26. FAILURE: Stage 3's engine 8D715K failed due to depressurization of the nitrogen pipeline of the LOX tank pressurization system of Block I.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Luna failure - stage 3 engine failure. - . Payload: E-6 s/n 8. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-04-10 . COSPAR: F650410A. Summary: The upper stages fell apart on re-entry into the atmosphere...

1965 April 17 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-11.
  • Cosmos 65 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1320 . COSPAR: 1965-029A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather experiments..

1965 April 23 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-35.
  • Molniya 1-01 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1324 . COSPAR: 1965-030A. Apogee: 39,300 km (24,400 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 707.30 min. Summary: First announced launch of Soviet communications satellite. Television programme transmission and long range two way multi channel telephone and telegraph communications. Orbital characteristics after correction of 2 May 1965..

1965 May 7 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-04.
  • Cosmos 66 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 27. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1362 . COSPAR: 1965-035A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Returned after 8 days. Unsuccessful mission. Parachute deployment failure. Spacecraft destroyed in crash..

1965 May 9 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-30.
  • Luna 5 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 10. Mass: 1,474 kg (3,249 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 1366 . COSPAR: 1965-036A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.27 min. Summary: Soft lunar landing attempt. The retrorocket system failed, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface at the Sea of Clouds. Western observers, among them England's Sir Bernard Lovell, correctly speculated that the craft's mission was a soft landing..

1965 May 25 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-04.
  • Cosmos 67 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1382 . COSPAR: 1965-040A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 June 8 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-31.
  • Luna 6 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 7. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. USAF Sat Cat: 1393 . COSPAR: 1965-044A. Attempted unmanned lunar soft lander. Tass reported that all onboard equipment was functioning normally. Two days into the flight, however, the spacecraft's engine failed to shut down following a midcourse correction. This failure caused Luna 6 to miss its target by 159,612.8 Km.

1965 June 15 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-01.
  • Cosmos 68 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 29. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 1404 . COSPAR: 1965-046A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 June 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-10.
  • Cosmos 69 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1421 . COSPAR: 1965-049A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 July 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-05. FAILURE: Second stage guidance failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 28 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 28. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1965-07-13 . COSPAR: F650713A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 July 18 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 3 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 3. Mass: 959 kg (2,114 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 1454 . COSPAR: 1965-056A. Zond 3 was towards the moon and interplanetary space. The spacecraft was equipped with a TV system that provided automatic inflight film processing. On July 20, during lunar flyby, 25 pictures of very good quality were taken of the lunar farside from distances of 11,570 to 9960 km. The photos covered 19,000,000 km square of the lunar surface. Photo transmissions by facsimile were returned to earth from a distance of 2,200,000 km on July 29 and were retransmitted later from a distance of 31,500,000 km, thus proving the ability of the communications system. After the lunar flyby, Zond 3 continued space exploration in a heliocentric orbit. Those pictures showed clearly the heavily cratered nature of the surface. This mission dramatized the advances in space photography that the U.S.S.R. had made since its first far-side effort six years earlier.

1965 August 3 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-01.
  • Cosmos 77 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1469 . COSPAR: 1965-061A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 August 14 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-02.
  • Cosmos 78 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 30. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1505 . COSPAR: 1965-066A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 69.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 August 25 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-06.
  • Cosmos 79 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1523 . COSPAR: 1965-069A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 s/n U103-27.
  • E-6 Launch Postponement - . Payload: E-6. Nation: USSR. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Summary: The launch was delayed due to malfunction of the RKS system of the Stages 1/2's control system during pre-launch service..

1965 September 9 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-02.
  • Cosmos 85 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1578 . COSPAR: 1965-071A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 23 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-03.
  • Cosmos 91 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1603 . COSPAR: 1965-075A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 October 4 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-27.
  • Luna 7 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 11. Mass: 1,504 kg (3,315 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 1610 . COSPAR: 1965-077A. Summary: Lunar soft landing attempt. The Luna 7 spacecraft was intended to achieve a soft landing on the Moon. However, due to premature retrofire and cutoff of the retrorockets, the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface in the Sea of Storms..

1965 October 14 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-37.
  • Molniya 1-02 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1967-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1621 . COSPAR: 1965-080A. Apogee: 39,921 km (24,805 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Summary: France - USSR communications link. Second communications satellite 'Molniya-1'. Television programme transmission and long-range, two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communications..

1965 October 16 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-04.
  • Cosmos 92 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 1626 . COSPAR: 1965-083A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather and biological experiments..

1965 October 28 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 94 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1636 . COSPAR: 1965-085A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1965 November 12 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 4. Mass: 962 kg (2,120 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. USAF Sat Cat: 1730 . COSPAR: 1965-091A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.71 min. Venera 2 was launched towards the planet Venus and carried a TV system and scientific instruments. On February 27, 1966, the spacecraft passed Venus at a distance of 24,000 km and entered a heliocentric orbit. The spacecraft system had ceased to operate before the planet was reached and returned no data.

1965 November 16 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 3 - . Payload: 3MV-3 s/n 1. Mass: 958 kg (2,112 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1966-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1733 . COSPAR: 1965-092A. Venera 3 was launched towards the planet Venus. The mission was to land on the Venusian surface. The entry vehicle contained a radio communication system, scientific instruments, electrical power sources, and medallions bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. The station impacted Venus on March 1, 1966. However, the communications systems had failed before planetary data could be returned.

1965 November 23 - . 03:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: At T+528 sec, during the final thrust phase of the Block I's 8D715K engine, one of the combustion chambers blew up due to a tear in the fuel pipeline. This resulted in an abnormal separation of the upper stages.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 96 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 6. Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. Decay Date: 1965-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 1742 . COSPAR: 1965-094A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: The escape stage Block L entered parking orbit tumbling and was not able to operate properly..

1965 November 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venus launch delayed. - . Payload: 3MV-3. Nation: USSR. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1965-11-26 . Summary: The launch attempt was abandoned due to a launch vehicle malfunction during pre-launch preparations..

1965 November 27 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-05.
  • Cosmos 98 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 31. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1780 . COSPAR: 1965-097A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 December 3 - . 10:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-28.
  • Luna 8 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 12. Mass: 1,550 kg (3,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1810 . COSPAR: 1965-099A. Lunar soft landing attempt failed. Luna 8's objectives were to test a soft lunar landing system and scientific research. Weighing 1,552 kg (3,422 lbs), the spacecraft was following a trajectory close to the calculated one and the equipment was functioning normally. However, the retrofire was late, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface in the Sea of Storms. Tass reported that "the systems were functioning normally at all stages of the landing except the final touchdown." The mission did complete the experimental development of the star-orientation system and ground control of radio equipment, flight trajectory, and other instrumentation.

1965 December 10 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-04.
  • Cosmos 99 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 32. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1817 . COSPAR: 1965-103A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 December 14 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1965 December 17 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-31.
  • Cosmos 100 - . Payload: Meteor no. 3. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 2002-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1843 . COSPAR: 1965-106A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 December 21 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1965 December 27 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-01.
  • Cosmos 102 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-01-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 1867 . COSPAR: 1965-111A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor..

1966 - . LV Family: R-16; R-5; R-7.
  • Twelfth Directorate nuclear weapons units an integrated part operational rocket field units - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Up to 1965 the warheads were still stored separately form Soviet ballistic missiles. This was changed so that the individual nuclear weapons units were made an integrated part of the operational rocket field units..

1966 January 7 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 104 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 36. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-01-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1903 . COSPAR: 1966-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program not completely met. Spacecraft put into incorrect orbit by abnormal function of second and third stages of booster..

1966 January 22 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 105 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 38. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 1945 . COSPAR: 1966-003A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 January 31 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-32.
  • Luna 9 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 13. Mass: 1,580 kg (3,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1966-02-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1954 . COSPAR: 1966-006A. Soft landed on Moon; photographed surface for 3 days. Landed on Moon 3 February 1966 at 18:44:52 GMT, Latitude 7.08 N, Longitude 295.63 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The Luna 9 spacecraft was the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and to transmit photographic data to Earth. Seven radio sessions, totaling 8 hours and 5 minutes, were transmitted as were three series of TV pictures. When assembled, the photographs provided a panoramic view of the nearby lunar surface. The pictures included views of nearby rocks and of the horizon 1.4 Km away from the spacecraft.

1966 February 10 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 107 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 34. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1998 . COSPAR: 1966-010A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 February 19 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 109 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2019 . COSPAR: 1966-014A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1966 February 22 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-06.
  • Cosmos 110 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 5. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 20.69 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2070 . COSPAR: 1966-015A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Precursor mission for Voskhod 3 hardware. Two dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
    Officially: Biological research.

    Voskhod s/n 5 launched at 23:10 Moscow time, with two dogs, Veterka and Ygolka, aboard. This will be a 25-day mission. Kamanin is disgusted, he had proposed this as a 25-day mission by a single cosmonaut, but Korolev had constantly held with the 'dog variant'. Preparations for Voskhod-3 are proceeding well. The prime and back-up crews have completed their training and will take their examinations on 28 February. Parallel trials of the oxygen regeneration system at IMBP and OKB-124 both went well (IMBP, 12 days so far, temperature 16-24 deg C, 70% humidity; OKB-124, 10 days so far, temperature 18-16 deg C, 65% humidity).


1966 March 1 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-41. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L lost roll control during unpowered coast in parking orbit because the axis of the course regulator of the control system jammed in the zero position. The stage's engine was not fired.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 111 - . Payload: Ye-6S s/n 204. Mass: 6,540 kg (14,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6S. Decay Date: 1966-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2093 . COSPAR: 1966-017A. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.00 min.

1966 March 17 - . 10:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 112 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 37. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2107 . COSPAR: 1966-021A. Apogee: 664 km (412 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 March 21 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 113 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2114 . COSPAR: 1966-023A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 March 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-38. FAILURE: The booster failed during ascent. The launcher and payload broke up on impact with the ground.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Molniya-1 s/n 5 Failure - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 5. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. COSPAR: F660327A.

1966 March 31 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-42.
  • Luna 10 - . Payload: E-6S s/n 206 ISL. Mass: 1,597 kg (3,520 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6S. USAF Sat Cat: 2126 . COSPAR: 1966-027A. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Development of system to permit the creation of an artificial lunar satellite for the investigation of circumlunar space; development of onboard systems for putting a station into a selenocentric (circumlunar) orbit. Orbit: Lunar Orbiter. The Luna 10 spacecraft was launched towards the Moon from an Earth orbiting platform. The spacecraft entered lunar orbit 3 50 x 1017 km, inclination 71.9 deg to plane of the lunar equator. on April 4, 1966. Scientific instruments included a gamma-ray spectrometer for energies between 0.3--3 MeV, a triaxial magnetometer, a meteorite detector, instruments for solar-plasma studies, and devices for measuring infrared emissions from the Moon and radiation conditions of the lunar environment. Gravitational studies were also conducted. The spacecraft played back to Earth the `Internationale' during the Twenty-third Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Luna 10 was battery powered and operated for 460 lunar orbits and 219 active data transmissions before radio signals were discontinued on May 30, 1966.

1966 April 6 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-02.
  • Cosmos 114 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2133 . COSPAR: 1966-028A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 April 20 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 115 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 35. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2147 . COSPAR: 1966-033A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: . Program partially completed. Abnormal operation of SA-10 camera..

1966 April 22 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Waiting on Voskhod - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Popovich. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. The search for the cause of the Molniya booster failure continues. A high oscillation vibration problem with the engine that has cropped up twice (but only on the test stand) has been cleared of responsibility. Tereshkova is going on a tour of Sweden. The cosmonauts' wives are preparing a letter denouncing Popovich for shutting down his wife's career and his abuse of her. Throughout the period April to May Kamanin is preoccupied with his wife, who is extremely ill in the hospital.

1966 April 25 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-39.
  • Molniya 1-03 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1973-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2151 . COSPAR: 1966-035A. Apogee: 39,414 km (24,490 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 709.80 min. Summary: Also transmitted cloud cover images. Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons. .

1966 May 6 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 N15001-01.
  • Cosmos 117 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 39. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2163 . COSPAR: 1966-037A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 May 11 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 118 - . Payload: Meteor no. 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1988-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2168 . COSPAR: 1966-038A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 May 12 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz.
  • Voskhod 3 State Commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Voronin; Tsybin; Shabarov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Chief Designer A A Golubev from OKB-154 Voronezh discusses the failure of his engines on the third stage of the Molniya launch on 27 March. He points out that the third stage has operated successfully in 500 stand trials and over 100 flights. It is true there have been seven instances of high-frequency oscillations in test stand runs of the engines, going back to the time of Tereshkova's flight, but these are felt to be due to the test stand propellant feed set-up and would not occur in flight engines. Despite no definite cause having been found for the third stage failure on 27 March, he guarantees his engines ready for flight. Other commission members question his optimism, but finally his guarantee is accepted, dependent on a thorough quality assurance review and certification by military officials responsible for control of the production processes at the factory. Voronin certifies the ECS system for an 18 day flight. Tsybin certifies the readiness of the spacecraft, and Shabarov the readiness of the booster at the launch centre. The absence of Korolev's presence is sorely felt, especially in handling the opposition of Smirnov and Pashkov to the flight. Nevertheless, the order is given for final preparations to proceed, with launch set for 22-28 May. However the confidence of the commission members in standing up to Smirnov is tenuous, and it is clear that any delay into June or July will kill the flight.

1966 May 16 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Voskhod 3 delays - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Tyulin has already warned that military crews at Baikonur are 'going slow' in Voskhod 3 preparations. Now it is reported from Voronezh that the military quality control official is refusing to certify the engines for the third stage of Voskhod 3 as ready for flight. It is clear that the flight will slip into June at this rate...

1966 May 17 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F660517B. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1966 June 8 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 120 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 41. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2196 . COSPAR: 1966-050A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 June 17 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 121 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2210 . COSPAR: 1966-054A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 June 25 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M N15000-21.
  • Cosmos 122 - . Payload: Meteor no. 5. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2254 . COSPAR: 1966-057A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 July 14 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-14.
  • Cosmos 124 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 42. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 2325 . COSPAR: 1966-064A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 July 20 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-02.
  • Cosmos 125 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 2351 . COSPAR: 1966-067A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor. Lost on the 52nd revolution as a result of a possible failure in the chemical power units placed on board instead of the nuclear BES-5..

1966 July 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-01.
  • Cosmos 126 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2368 . COSPAR: 1966-068A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 August 8 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-13.
  • Cosmos 127 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2391 . COSPAR: 1966-071A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 August 24 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-43.
  • Luna 11 - . Payload: E-6LF s/n 101. Mass: 1,638 kg (3,611 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LF. USAF Sat Cat: 2406 . COSPAR: 1966-078A. Automatic station Luna 11. Further development of artificial lunar satellite systems and conduct of scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Lunar orbit 160 km x 1200 km x 27 degrees. Luna 11 was launched towards the Moon from an earth-orbiting platform and entered lunar orbit on August 28, 1966. The objectives of the mission included the study of: (1) lunar gamma- and X-ray emissions in order to determine the Moon's chemical composition; (2) lunar gravitational anomalies; (3) the concentration of meteorite streams near the Moon; and, (4) the intensity of hard corpuscular radiation near the Moon. A total of 137 radio transmissions and 277 orbits of the Moon were completed before the batteries failed on October 1, 1966.

1966 August 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-03.
  • Cosmos 128 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2409 . COSPAR: 1966-079A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 September 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Launch vehicle destroyed. Failure of Block D core stage.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 40 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 40. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1966-09-16 . COSPAR: F660916A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 October 14 - . 12:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 129 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 33. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2491 . COSPAR: 1966-091A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 October 20 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-40.
  • Molniya 1-04 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2501 . COSPAR: 1966-092A. Apogee: 39,689 km (24,661 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 714.40 min. Summary: Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons..

1966 October 20 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-04.
  • Cosmos 130 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2502 . COSPAR: 1966-093A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 October 22 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-44.
  • Luna 12 - . Payload: E-6LF s/n 102. Mass: 1,620 kg (3,570 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LF. USAF Sat Cat: 2508 . COSPAR: 1966-094A. Lunar Orbiter, further development of artificial lunar satellite systems and conduct of scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Luna 12 was launched towards the Moon from an earth-orbiting platform and achieved a lunar orbit of of 100 km x 1740 km on October 25, 1966. The spacecraft was equipped with a television system that obtained and transmitted photographs of the lunar surface. The photographs contained 1100 scan lines with a maximum resolution of 14.9--19.8 m. Pictures of the lunar surface were returned on October 27, 1966. The number of photographs is not known. Radio transmissions from Luna 12 ceased on January 19, 1967, after 602 lunar orbits and 302 radio transmissions.

1966 November 12 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 131 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2568 . COSPAR: 1966-105A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 November 19 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 N15001-08.
  • Cosmos 132 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 46. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2599 . COSPAR: 1966-106A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 November 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-02.
  • Cosmos 133 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 2. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2601 . COSPAR: 1966-107A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK earth orbit spacecraft. A planned 'all up' test, with a second Soyuz to be launched the following day and automatically dock with Kosmos 133. This was to be followed by a manned link-up in December 1966. However Kosmos 133's attitude control system malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After heroic efforts by ground control and five attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally brought down for a landing on its 33rd revolution. However due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The APO self destruct system detected the course deviation and the destruct charge of several dozen kilogrammes of explosive was thought to have destroyed the ship on November 30, 1966 at 10:21 GMT. But stories persisted over the years of the Chinese having a Soyuz capsule in their possession....

1966 December 3 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-06.
  • Cosmos 134 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2603 . COSPAR: 1966-108A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried scientific experiments..

1966 December 14 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-01. FAILURE: Erroneous firing of launch escape tower ignited launch vehicle on the pad.. Failed Stage: P.
  • Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 1. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. COSPAR: F661214A. Second attempted flight of Soyuz 7K-OK (the spacecraft planned for the linkup with Ksomos 133). An analogue to Mercury Redstone's 'day we launched the tower' but with more disastorous consequences. The core stage ignited, but the strap-ons did not. A booster shutdown was commanded. The service towers were brought back around the booster, and ground crew began work to defuel the launch vehicle. At 27 minutes after the original launch attempt, the Soyuz launch escape system, having received the signal that liftoff had occurred, detected that the booster was not on course (either because a tower arm nudged the booster or because the earth's rotation as detected by the gyros had moved the spacecraft out of limits relative to its original inertial position). The launch escape system ignited, pulling the Soyuz away from the booster, igniting the third stage fuel tanks, leading to an explosion that severely damaged the pad and killed at least one person (the Soviet Rocket Forces major supervising the launch team) and injured many others.

1966 December 19 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 136 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 47. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2624 . COSPAR: 1966-115A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package..

1966 December 21 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-45.
  • Luna 13 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 205. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6M. Decay Date: 1966-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2626 . COSPAR: 1966-116A. Soft landed on Moon 24 December 1966 at 18:01:00 GMT, Latitude 18.87 N, 297.95 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The petal encasement of the spacecraft was opened, antennas were erected, and radio transmissions to Earth began four minutes after the landing. On December 25 and 26, 1966, the spacecraft television system transmitted panoramas of the nearby lunar landscape at different sun angles. Each panorama required approximately 100 minutes to transmit. The spacecraft was equipped with a mechanical soil-measuring penetrometer, a dynamograph, and a radiation densitometer for obtaining data on the mechanical and physical properties and the cosmic-ray reflectivity of the lunar surface. It is believed that transmissions from the spacecraft ceased before the end of December 1966.

1967 January 1 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Zenit-2 spysat moved to more powerful Voskhod launcher. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Summary: Ministry of Defence Decree 15 'On transfer of Zenit-2 from the 8A92 to the 11A57 launcher' was issued..

1967 January 19 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 138 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 43. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2646 . COSPAR: 1967-004A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 February 7 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-03.
  • Cosmos 140 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 3. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2667 . COSPAR: 1967-009A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. After the self-destruction of the first Soyuz 7K-OK on re-entry, and the loss of the second one on the pad fire in December, the state commission ruled that the third 7K-OK model would be flown unpiloted on a solo mission. If this was successful then the fourth and fifth Soyuz would be flown on a manned docking mission. Once in orbit Cosmos 140 experienced attitude control problems due to a faulty star sensor resulting in excessive fuel consumption. The spacecraft couldn't keep the required orientation towards the sun to keep the solar panels illuminated, and the batteries discharged. Despite all of these problems the spacecraft remained controllable. An attempted manoeuvre on the 22nd revolution still showed problems with the control system. It malfunctioned yet again during retrofire, leading to a steeper than planned uncontrolled ballistic re-entry. The re-entry capsule itself had depressurised on separation from the service module due to a fault in the base of the capsule. A 300 mm hole burned through in the heat shield during re-entry. Although such events would have been lethal to any human occupants, the capsule's recovery systems operated and the capsule crashed through the ice of the frozen Aral Sea, 3 km from shore and 500 kilometres short of the intended landing zone. The spacecraft finally sank in 10 meters of water and had to be retrieved by divers. Still, the mission was deemed 'good enough' for the next mission to be a manned two-craft docking and crew transfer space spectacular. Mishin and Kamanin felt that a human crew could have sorted out the problems. They were also under intense pressure to achieve a manned circumlunar flight before the 50th Anniversary of the Soviet Revolution in October.

1967 February 8 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 141 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2670 . COSPAR: 1967-012A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 February 27 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 143 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 45. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 2693 . COSPAR: 1967-017A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Placed into orbit with 22.8 second period different from that planned. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package..

1967 February 28 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 144 - . Payload: Meteor no. 6. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1982-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2695 . COSPAR: 1967-018A. Apogee: 644 km (400 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 March 13 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 147 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 44. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2710 . COSPAR: 1967-022A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed..

1967 March 22 - . 12:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 150 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2715 . COSPAR: 1967-025A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 April 4 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 153 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 48. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2740 . COSPAR: 1967-030A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Failure of primary SA-20 camera..

1967 April 12 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-08.
  • Cosmos 155 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2750 . COSPAR: 1967-033A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 April 23 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-04.
  • Soyuz 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Komarov. Backup Crew: Gagarin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 4. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Gagarin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.12 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2759 . COSPAR: 1967-037A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 as active spacecraft was launched first. Soyuz 2, with a 3 man crew would launch the following day, with 2 cosmonauts spacewalking to Soyuz 1. However immediately after orbital insertion Komarov's problems started. One of the solar panels failed to deploy, staying wrapped around the service module. Although only receiving half of the planned solar power, an attempt was made to manoeuvre the spacecraft. This failed because of interference of the reaction control system exhaust with the ion flow sensors that were one of the Soyuz' main methods of orientation. Additional Details: here....

1967 April 27 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 156 - . Payload: Meteor no. 7. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2762 . COSPAR: 1967-039A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 81.1000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Worked with Cosmos 144. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 May 12 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 157 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 49. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2781 . COSPAR: 1967-044A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Bad quality film loaded into SA-20 camera..

1967 May 16 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-56.
  • Cosmos 159 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 111. Mass: 4,490 kg (9,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1977-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2805 . COSPAR: 1967-046A. Apogee: 60,637 km (37,678 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 1,174.20 min. Summary: The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The payload entered the desired orbit as Kosmos-159..

1967 May 22 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 161 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2812 . COSPAR: 1967-049A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 May 24 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-05 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-11-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 2822 . COSPAR: 1967-052A. Apogee: 35,690 km (22,170 mi). Perigee: 90 km (55 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 627.00 min. Summary: Further development and experimental operation of long-range two-way television and telephone-telegraph radio-communication..

1967 June 1 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-11.
  • Cosmos 162 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2827 . COSPAR: 1967-054A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 June 8 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-13.
  • Cosmos 164 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 50. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2836 . COSPAR: 1967-057A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 June 12 - . 02:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 4 - . Payload: 1V (V-67) s/n 310. Mass: 1,104 kg (2,433 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1V (V-67). Decay Date: 1967-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2840 . COSPAR: 1967-058A. Venera 4 was successfully launched towards the planet Venus with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. On October 18, 1967, the descent vehicle entered the Venusian atmosphere. Signals were returned by the spacecraft, which deployed a parachute after braking to subsonic velocity in the Venusian atmosphere, until it reached an altitude of 24.96 km.

1967 June 17 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Stage 4's engine 11D33 failed to ignite because the turbopump had not been cooled before ignition.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 167 - . Payload: 1V (V-67) s/n 311. Mass: 1,106 kg (2,438 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1V (V-67). Decay Date: 1967-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2852 . COSPAR: 1967-063A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Suggestions for the cause of the failure included incorrect soldering of wires in multiple pin plugs, wrong attachments of the plugs to the pyrotechnic connectors, or a mix-up of the pyrotechnic connectors during assembly.. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1967 June 20 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F670620A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1967 July 4 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-05.
  • Cosmos 168 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 52. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2869 . COSPAR: 1967-067A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 July 21 - . LV Family: R-7; Tsiklon.
  • US Project reassigned; R-36-O booster development approved; Yantar-2K and Zvevda 7K-VI approved. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Spacecraft: US-A; US-P; Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Soyuz VI. Decree 715-240 'On the Creation of Space Systems for Naval Reconnaissance Comprising the US sat and the R-36-based booster -further work on the US naval reconnaissance satellite, approval of work on the Yantar-2K, and course of work on 7K-VI Zvezda'.

    An entire family of Yantar spacecraft was proposed by Kozlov’s design bureau during the initial development; information on two film return models has been declassified. Yantar was initially derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, including systems developed for the Soyuz VI military model. During design and development this changed until it had very little in common with Soyuz.

    Following numerous problems in the first flight tests of the Soyuz 7K-OK, Kozlov ordered a complete redesign of the 7K-VI manned military spacecraft. The new spacecraft, with a crew of two, would have a total mass of 6.6 tonnes and could operate for a month in orbit. The new design switched the positions of the Soyuz descent module and the orbital modules and was 300 kg too heavy for the standard 11A511 launch vehicle. Therefore Kozlov designed a new variant of the Soyuz launch vehicle, the 11A511M. The project was approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with first flight to be in 1968 and operations to begin in 1969. The booster design, with unknown changes to the basic Soyuz, did not go into full production.


1967 July 21 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-14. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F670721A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1967 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7A.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,350 km (830 mi).

1967 August 9 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 172 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2914 . COSPAR: 1967-078A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 August 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 174 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2925 . COSPAR: 1967-082A. Apogee: 39,796 km (24,728 mi). Perigee: 430 km (260 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 715.00 min. Summary: Probable commsat failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1967 September 1 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure of Block I stage at 296 seconds. Remnants of spacecraft and stage fell near Novaya Zemlya.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 51 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 51. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1967-09-01 . COSPAR: F670901A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 September 11 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 175 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 2939 . COSPAR: 1967-085A. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 September 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 177 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 53. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2947 . COSPAR: 1967-088A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 September 26 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 180 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 54. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2966 . COSPAR: 1967-093A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 October 3 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-06 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1969-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2973 . COSPAR: 1967-095A. Apogee: 39,709 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 508 km (315 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 714.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1967 October 11 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 181 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 55. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 2981 . COSPAR: 1967-097A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 October 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 182 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2995 . COSPAR: 1967-098A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 October 22 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-07 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1969-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3008 . COSPAR: 1967-101A. Apogee: 39,709 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 508 km (315 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 714.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1967 October 24 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 184 - . Payload: Meteor no. 8. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3010 . COSPAR: 1967-102A. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 409 km (254 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 October 27 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 186 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 6. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3014 . COSPAR: 1967-105A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Docked with Cosmos 188; first automated rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. The dockings were timed to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution (in lieu of a succession of manned space feats that all had to be cancelled due to schedule delays). Achieved automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Capture achieved but hard docking and electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Star tracker failed and had to make a high-G ballistic re-entry. Recovered October 31, 1967 08:20 GMT.

1967 October 30 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 188 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 5. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Mnatsakanian. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3020 . COSPAR: 1967-107A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docking target craft for Cosmos 186, which achieved world's first automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Hard docking achieved but electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Ion flow sensor failed and Cosmos 188 had to make a high-G uncontrolled re-entry. When it deviated too far off course, it was destroyed by the on-board self-destruct system,. However officially the Soviet Union reported that it landed succesfully on November 2, 1967 at 09:10 GMT, and that its mission was 'investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices'. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 3 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 190 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3026 . COSPAR: 1967-110A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 November 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 193 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 58. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 3052 . COSPAR: 1967-117A. Apogee: 756 km (469 mi). Perigee: 745 km (462 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 December 3 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 194 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3055 . COSPAR: 1967-119A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 December 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 195 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 57. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3071 . COSPAR: 1967-124A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 January 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 199 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 59. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3099 . COSPAR: 1968-003C. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft failed to separate from Block I stage. Attempt was made to conduct mission without orientation system. APO self destruct system destroyed spacecraft on 126th revolution over Sea of Okhotsk. First generation, low resolution photo surveillance; recovery probably failed.

1968 February 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 201 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3118 . COSPAR: 1968-009A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 February 7 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-57. FAILURE: At T+524.6 sec Stage 3's engine 11D55 cut off prematurely because it ran out of fuel due to an excessive fuel consumption rate through the gas-generator.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • E-6LS s/n 112 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 112. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1968-02-07 . COSPAR: F680207A. Failed launch of an E-6LS radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. Suggestions for the abnormal consumption included the seizing up of a pintle valve for controlling fuel supply into the regulator or the seizing up of the fuel inlet control. The upper stages broke up in the atmosphere.

1968 March 5 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 205 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 56. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3140 . COSPAR: 1968-016A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 March 14 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 206 - . Payload: Meteor no. 9. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 3150 . COSPAR: 1968-019A. Apogee: 405 km (251 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Visual, IR cloud cover images. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 March 16 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 207 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3154 . COSPAR: 1968-021A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 March 21 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 208 - . Payload: Zenit-2M. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3156 . COSPAR: 1968-022A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed high energy gamma ray experiment capsule. First flight of modernised Zenit-2 area survey reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3167 . COSPAR: 1968-022C. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.08 min.

1968 April 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 210 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 60. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3168 . COSPAR: 1968-024A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 April 7 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-58.
  • Luna 14 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 113. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. USAF Sat Cat: 3178 . COSPAR: 1968-027A. Lunar Orbiter; studied lunar gravitational field, Earth-Moon gravitational relationship, and conducted further scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Not revealed until years later was that the E-6LS was primarily intended to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The Luna 14 spacecraft entered a 140 x 870 km x 42 degree lunar orbit on April 10, 1966. The spacecraft instrumentation was similar to that of Luna 10 and provided data for studies of the interaction of the earth and lunar masses, the lunar gravitational field, the propagation and stability of radio communications to the spacecraft at different orbital positions, solar charged particles and cosmic rays, and the motion of the Moon. This flight was the final flight of the second generation of the Luna series.

1968 April 14 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 212 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 8. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.92 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3183 . COSPAR: 1968-029A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Summary: Cosmos 212 docked with Cosmos 213 in the first completely successful test of the Soyuz 7K-OK attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Cosmos 212 was successfully recovered on April 19, 1968 at 08:10 GMT.. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 15 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 213 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 7. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3193 . COSPAR: 1968-030A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Cosmos 213 was the target for Cosmos 212 in a successful test of Soyuz 7K-OK rendezvous and docking systems. The Cosmos 213 launch was the most accurate yet. The spacecraft was placed in orbit only 4 km from Cosmos 212, ready for a first-orbit docking. Both spacecraft were recovered, but Cosmos 213 was dragged by heavy wind across the steppes when the parachute lines didn't jettison at touchdown. This failure caused the upcoming Soyuz 2/3 manned docking mission to be scaled back.
    Officially: Investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 18 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 214 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3203 . COSPAR: 1968-032A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 April 20 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 216 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 62. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3207 . COSPAR: 1968-034A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft landed in River Volga 1 km from shore and sank after 42 minutes. 85% of the data was ruined..

1968 April 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-08 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 3209 . COSPAR: 1968-035A. Apogee: 40,099 km (24,916 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 720.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 June 1 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 223 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 63. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Completed Operations Date: 1968-06-09 . Decay Date: 1968-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3274 . COSPAR: 1968-045A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 June 4 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 224 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3276 . COSPAR: 1968-046A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also measured atmospheric composition..

1968 June 12 - . 13:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 226 - . Payload: Meteor no. 10. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1983-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3282 . COSPAR: 1968-049A. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 579 km (359 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 June 18 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 227 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3294 . COSPAR: 1968-051A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 June 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 228 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 3298 . COSPAR: 1968-053A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3306 . COSPAR: 1968-053G. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.56 min.

1968 June 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 229 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3304 . COSPAR: 1968-054A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 July 5 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-09 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 3310 . COSPAR: 1968-057A. Apogee: 39,806 km (24,734 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 714.70 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 July 10 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 231 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 64. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3316 . COSPAR: 1968-058A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 July 16 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 232 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3322 . COSPAR: 1968-060A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also performed weather experiments..

1968 July 30 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 234 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3332 . COSPAR: 1968-062A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 August 9 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 235 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 61. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3339 . COSPAR: 1968-067A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Hard landing due to parachute sytem failure. 30% of the film damaged..

1968 August 27 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 237 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3348 . COSPAR: 1968-071A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 August 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 238 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 9. Mass: 6,520 kg (14,370 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.96 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3351 . COSPAR: 1968-072A. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Recovered September 1, 1968 9:03 GMT. Final test of redesigned Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft for Soyuz 3 manned mission..

1968 September 5 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 239 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3353 . COSPAR: 1968-073A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 September 14 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 240 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 66. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3388 . COSPAR: 1968-075A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 September 16 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 241 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3398 . COSPAR: 1968-077A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 September 23 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 243 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3418 . COSPAR: 1968-080A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed passive microwave radio telescope capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3452 . COSPAR: 1968-080C. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.23 min.

1968 October 5 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-10 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 3469 . COSPAR: 1968-085A. Apogee: 39,596 km (24,603 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 712.50 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 October 7 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 246 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3473 . COSPAR: 1968-087A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 October 11 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 247 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 65. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3484 . COSPAR: 1968-088A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 October 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 11. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3511 . COSPAR: 1968-093A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned docking target for Soyuz 3. Soyuz 2 launched on time at 12:00 local time, in 0 deg C temperatures and 5 m/s winds. Launch was on time 'as in Korolev's time', notes Kamanin. Docking with Soyuz 3 a failure. Recovered October 28, 1968 7:51 GMT, 5 km from its aim point. Maneuver Summary: 177km X 196km orbit to 184km X 230km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s.
    Officially: Complex testing of spaceship systems in conditions of space flight.

1968 October 26 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 3 - . Call Sign: Argon (Argon ). Crew: Beregovoi. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Volynov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 10. Mass: 6,575 kg (14,495 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3516 . COSPAR: 1968-094A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock. Complex testing of spaceship systems; development, in joint flight with space ship Soyuz 2 of processes of space ship manoeuvring and docking in artificial earth satellite orbit; development of elements of celestial navigation; conduct of research under space flight conditions. The failed docking was blamed on manual control of the Soyuz by Beregovoi, who repeatedly put the spacecraft in an orientation that nulled the automatic docking system. Beregovoi used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock - of 80 kg allocated, only 8 to 10 kg was remaining. Additional Details: here....

1968 October 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 251 - . Payload: Zenit-4M no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 18.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3528 . COSPAR: 1968-096A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed radio astronony and gamma ray experiment capsule; maneuverable..

1968 November 13 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 253 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 67. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3542 . COSPAR: 1968-102A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. On 13th orbit the SA-20-1 camera's shutter responded to an uncommanded order to open. Radiation levels inside reached 3 times normal levels. 53% of the data was lost..

1968 November 21 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 254 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 3562 . COSPAR: 1968-104A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 November 29 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 255 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 68. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3574 . COSPAR: 1968-105A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 December 10 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 258 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 69. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3602 . COSPAR: 1968-111A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 December 16 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 260 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1973-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3619 . COSPAR: 1968-115A. Apogee: 39,573 km (24,589 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.20 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1969 January 5 - . 06:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 5 - . Payload: 2V (V-69) s/n 330. Mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Babakin. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 2V (V-69). Decay Date: 1969-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 3642 . COSPAR: 1969-001A. Venera 5 is launched at 9:26 Moscow time from LC-31 in -23 deg C temperatures. All proceeds according to plan. Afterwards Kamanin meets Babakin. Venera 6 is planned for launch in 10 January. He also plans two moon landings in 1969 and two in 1970 of soil sample return spacecraft. Kamanin does not believe America can achieve a manned moon landing in 1969, and therefore that Babakin has a very good chance of stealing their thunder.

    Meanwhile Venera 5 was launched from its parking orbit towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. The spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 although it was of a stronger design. When the atmosphere of Venus was approached, a capsule weighing 405 kg and containing scientific instruments was jettisoned from the main spacecraft. During satellite descent towards the surface of Venus, a parachute opened to slow the rate of descent. For 53 min on May 16, 1969, while the capsule was suspended from the parachute, data from the Venusian atmosphere were returned. The spacecraft also carried a medallion bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. and a bas-relief of V.I. Lenin to the night side of Venus.


1969 January 10 - . 05:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 6 - . Payload: 2V (V-69) s/n 331. Mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 2V (V-69). Decay Date: 1969-05-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3648 . COSPAR: 1969-002A. Venera 6 was launched towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. When the atmosphere of Venus was approached, a capsule weighing 405 kg was jettisoned from the main spacecraft. This capsule contained scientific instruments. During descent towards the surface of Venus, a parachute opened to slow the rate of descent. For 51 min on May 17, 1969, while the capsule was suspended from the parachute, data from the Venusian atmosphere were returned. The spacecraft also carried a medallion bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. and a bas-relief of V.I. Lenin to the night side of Venus.

1969 January 12 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 263 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 70. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3651 . COSPAR: 1969-003A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 January 14 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 4 - . Call Sign: Amur (Amur - river). Crew: Shatalov. Backup Crew: Shonin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 12. Mass: 6,625 kg (14,605 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Shonin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3654 . COSPAR: 1969-004A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Soyuz 4 is launched with Vladimir Shatalov aboard without further problems at 10:30. This time the rockets gyroscopes, the capsule communications, and the television camera all functioned perfectly. Volynov and his crew for Soyuz 5 watched the launch from Area 17. Later Soyuz 4 would dock with Soyuz 5, and following a transfer of two cosmonauts, return with Shatalov, Yevgeni Khrunov and Alexsei Yeliseyev from Soyuz 5. Official purpose: scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit. This mission finally successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. In making the transfer Khrunov and Yeliseyev avoided the most spectacular survivable incident of the space age - the nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module.

1969 January 15 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 5 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 13. Mass: 6,585 kg (14,517 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3656 . COSPAR: 1969-005A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. At 3 am an An-12 arrives from Moscow with ten newspapers, and letters for Shatalov, to be delivered by the Soyuz 5 crew to him as the first 'space mail'. At 05:15 the State Commission convened and approved launch at 10:04:30. The countdown proceeds normally; meanwhile communications sessions are held with Shatalov on Soyuz 4. The commission is taken by automobile convoy from Area 2, to Area 17, where the Soyuz 5 crew declares itself ready for flight. At T-25 minutes, with the crew already aboard the spacecraft, a piece of electrical equipment fails and needs to be replaced. Engineer-Captain Viktor Vasilyevich Alyeshin goes to the fuelled booster and replaces it. While doing this he notices that the access hatch has been secured with only three bolts, instead of the four required. Nevertheless the launch proceeds successfully. After Soyuz 5 is in orbit, it and Soyuz 4 begin their mutual series of manoeuvres for rendezvous and docking. Officially the flight conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit.

1969 January 23 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 264 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3667 . COSPAR: 1969-008A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried radio astronony and gamma ray experiments; maneuverable..

1969 February 1 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. FAILURE: Upper stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Meteor - . Payload: Meteor no. 11. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Meteor. COSPAR: F690201A.

1969 February 25 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 266 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 71. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3761 . COSPAR: 1969-015A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 February 26 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 267 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3765 . COSPAR: 1969-017A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 6 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 270 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3777 . COSPAR: 1969-022A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 15 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 271 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3807 . COSPAR: 1969-023A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 22 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 273 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 77. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3831 . COSPAR: 1969-027A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 March 24 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 274 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3833 . COSPAR: 1969-028A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried science package..

1969 March 26 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-01 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 3835 . COSPAR: 1969-029A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 549 km (341 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.90 min. Summary: Cloud, snow, ice cover data. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1969 April 4 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 276 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3854 . COSPAR: 1969-032A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 April 9 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 278 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 78. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3883 . COSPAR: 1969-034A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 April 11 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-11 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3885 . COSPAR: 1969-035A. Apogee: 39,595 km (24,603 mi). Perigee: 483 km (300 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 712.10 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1969 April 15 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 279 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3893 . COSPAR: 1969-038A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 April 23 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 280 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3906 . COSPAR: 1969-040A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried weather experiments; maneuverable..

1969 May 13 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 281 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 72. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3939 . COSPAR: 1969-042A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 May 20 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 282 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3944 . COSPAR: 1969-044A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 May 29 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 284 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3971 . COSPAR: 1969-048A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 June 15 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 286 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3988 . COSPAR: 1969-052A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 June 24 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 287 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 76. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3991 . COSPAR: 1969-054A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 June 27 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 288 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3994 . COSPAR: 1969-055A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 July 10 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 289 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4034 . COSPAR: 1969-057A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 July 22 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 290 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 75. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4042 . COSPAR: 1969-060A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 July 22 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-12 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4043 . COSPAR: 1969-061A. Apogee: 39,526 km (24,560 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 711.00 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1969 August 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 293 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4072 . COSPAR: 1969-071A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried science package..

1969 August 19 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 294 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4074 . COSPAR: 1969-072A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 August 29 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 296 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4080 . COSPAR: 1969-075A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 2 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 297 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4082 . COSPAR: 1969-076A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 18 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 299 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4097 . COSPAR: 1969-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 24 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 301 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 79. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4106 . COSPAR: 1969-081A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 October 6 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-02 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2002-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4119 . COSPAR: 1969-084A. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Summary: Cloud and ice cover imaging; investigated IR, thermal reflection/radiation from Earth's atmosphere. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1969 October 11 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 6 - . Call Sign: Antey (Antaeus - mythological giant). Crew: Kubasov; Shonin. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 14. Mass: 6,577 kg (14,499 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Shonin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4122 . COSPAR: 1969-085A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Carried Vulkan welding furnace for vacuum welding experiments in depressurized orbital module. Was to have taken spectacular motion pictures of Soyuz 7 - Soyuz 8 docking but failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to new helium pressurization integrity test prior to mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 12 - . 10:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 7 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 15. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shonin; Kubasov; Mishin; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov; Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.94 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4124 . COSPAR: 1969-086A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 13 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 8 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 16. Mass: 6,646 kg (14,651 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4126 . COSPAR: 1969-087A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Recovered October 18, 1969 10:19 GMT. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 17 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 302 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4130 . COSPAR: 1969-089A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 October 24 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 306 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4182 . COSPAR: 1969-093A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1969 November 12 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 309 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 80. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4223 . COSPAR: 1969-098A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. First flight with Nauka external experiment container..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka 3KS. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1969-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4236 . COSPAR: 1969-098E. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.73 min.

1969 November 15 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 310 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4232 . COSPAR: 1969-100A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 December 3 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 313 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4262 . COSPAR: 1969-104A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1969 December 23 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 317 - . Payload: Zenit-4MK no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4280 . COSPAR: 1969-109A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried charged particle experiments; maneuverable..

1970 January 9 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 318 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4292 . COSPAR: 1970-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 January 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 322 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4315 . COSPAR: 1970-007A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 February 10 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 323 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4328 . COSPAR: 1970-010A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 February 19 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-13 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4336 . COSPAR: 1970-013A. Apogee: 39,170 km (24,330 mi). Perigee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 703.10 min. Summary: The first launch of the 8K78M vehicle from the Plesetsk launch site. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 March 4 - . 12:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 325 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 73. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4340 . COSPAR: 1970-015A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1970 March 13 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 326 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 74. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4346 . COSPAR: 1970-018A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1970 March 17 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-03 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1983-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4349 . COSPAR: 1970-019A. Apogee: 635 km (394 mi). Perigee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 March 27 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 328 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4355 . COSPAR: 1970-022A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 April 3 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 329 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4357 . COSPAR: 1970-023A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 April 8 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 331 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4364 . COSPAR: 1970-026A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 April 15 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 333 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4373 . COSPAR: 1970-030A. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 April 28 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-04 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2004-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4393 . COSPAR: 1970-037A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 534 km (331 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 May 12 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 344 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 81. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4401 . COSPAR: 1970-038A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Failure of SA-10B camera on 42nd orbit..

1970 May 20 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 345 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4403 . COSPAR: 1970-039A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Filipchenko; Grechko; Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1970 June 10 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 346 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4409 . COSPAR: 1970-042A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 17 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 349 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4416 . COSPAR: 1970-045A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 23 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-05 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 5. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 4419 . COSPAR: 1970-047A. Apogee: 872 km (541 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 June 26 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-14 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4430 . COSPAR: 1970-049A. Apogee: 39,172 km (24,340 mi). Perigee: 459 km (285 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 703.10 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 June 26 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 350 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4425 . COSPAR: 1970-050A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 July 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 352 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4446 . COSPAR: 1970-052A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 July 9 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 353 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4455 . COSPAR: 1970-053A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 July 21 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. COSPAR: F700721A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1970 August 7 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 355 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4484 . COSPAR: 1970-058A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 August 17 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 7 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 630. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4489 . COSPAR: 1970-060A. Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.

1970 August 22 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine 11D33 was late igniting and cut off early at 25 seconds after firing due to abnormal operation of the sequencer and a DC transformer failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 359 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 631. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4501 . COSPAR: 1970-065A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Summary: Probable Venus probe failure..

1970 August 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 360 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4508 . COSPAR: 1970-068A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; deployed capsule..

1970 September 8 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 361 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4524 . COSPAR: 1970-071A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 September 17 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 363 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4538 . COSPAR: 1970-074A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 September 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 364 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4553 . COSPAR: 1970-075A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 September 29 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-15 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4569 . COSPAR: 1970-077A. Apogee: 39,296 km (24,417 mi). Perigee: 492 km (305 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 706.30 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 October 1 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 366 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4561 . COSPAR: 1970-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 October 8 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 368 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4571 . COSPAR: 1970-080A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Bion precursor mission. Conducted biological investigations and study of the physical characteristics of outer space..

1970 October 9 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 370 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4576 . COSPAR: 1970-082A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 October 15 - . 11:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-06 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1999-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4583 . COSPAR: 1970-085A. Apogee: 443 km (275 mi). Perigee: 441 km (274 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 October 30 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 376 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4599 . COSPAR: 1970-092A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 November 11 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 377 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4695 . COSPAR: 1970-096A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 November 24 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 379 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 1. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 4,683.78 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4760 . COSPAR: 1970-099A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. LK moon lander test using the T2K version. First use of the Soyuz 11A511L booster modified especially for this purpose. The spacecraft made a series of engine burns, simulating the lunar landing profile. After 3.5 days in orbit, the first burn was made in imitation of a descent to the lunar surface after separation of the Block D lunar crasher stage. The orbit changed from 192 km X 233 km to 196 km X 1206 km orbit; delta V: 263 m/s. After 4 days in orbit, a large manoeuvre was made simulating the ascent from the lunar surface. The orbit was changed from 188 km X 1198 km to 177 km X 14,041 km; delta V: 1518 m/s. These main manoeuvres were followed by a series of small adjustments simulating rendezvous and docking with the LOK. The LK tested out without major problems and decayed from orbit on September 21, 1983.

1970 November 27 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-16 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4779 . COSPAR: 1970-101A. Apogee: 39,895 km (24,789 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 December 3 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 383 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4787 . COSPAR: 1970-104A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 10 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 384 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4791 . COSPAR: 1970-105A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1970 December 15 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 386 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4804 . COSPAR: 1970-110A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 18 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 389 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2003-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4813 . COSPAR: 1970-113A. Apogee: 568 km (352 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

1970 December 25 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-17 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4829 . COSPAR: 1970-114A. Apogee: 39,881 km (24,780 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 January 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 390 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4845 . COSPAR: 1971-001A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 January 20 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-07 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 7. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2005-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4849 . COSPAR: 1971-003A. Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 January 21 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 392 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4872 . COSPAR: 1971-004A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 February 18 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 396 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 4959 . COSPAR: 1971-014A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 February 26 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 398 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 2. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,463.78 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4966 . COSPAR: 1971-016A. Apogee: 1,958 km (1,216 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 106.70 min. Second space test of the LK moon lander test using the T2K version. Followed the same programme as Cosmos 379.
    Maneuver Summary:
    189km X 252km orbit to 186km X 1189km orbit. Delta V: 251 m/s
    186km X 1189km orbit to 200km X 10905km orbit. Delta V: 1320 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2832 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1971 March 3 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 399 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5003 . COSPAR: 1971-017A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 March 5 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-2M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. COSPAR: F710305A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1971 March 26 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Yantar-1FKT development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 182-63 'On development of the Yantar-1KFT reconnaissance and cartographic satellite and the 11A511K launcher' was issued..

1971 March 27 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 401 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5086 . COSPAR: 1971-023A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 April 2 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 403 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 5108 . COSPAR: 1971-026A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 April 7 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 405 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 5117 . COSPAR: 1971-028A. Apogee: 603 km (374 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1971 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 406 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5124 . COSPAR: 1971-029A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 April 17 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-08 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 8. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1991-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5142 . COSPAR: 1971-031A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 25.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.

1971 May 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 410 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5207 . COSPAR: 1971-040A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5228 . COSPAR: 1971-040C. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.02 min.

1971 May 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 420 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5230 . COSPAR: 1971-043A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 May 28 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 424 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5248 . COSPAR: 1971-048A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.


1971 June 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 427 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5289 . COSPAR: 1971-055A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 June 24 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 428 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5305 . COSPAR: 1971-057A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed electron and gamma ray science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5315 . COSPAR: 1971-057G. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.88 min.

1971 June 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. COSPAR: F710625A. Summary: Photo surveillance mission..

1971 July 16 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-09 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 9. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1991-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5327 . COSPAR: 1971-059A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 342 km (212 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 July 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 429 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5331 . COSPAR: 1971-061A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 430 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5340 . COSPAR: 1971-062A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 28 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-18 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5367 . COSPAR: 1971-064A. Apogee: 39,877 km (24,778 mi). Perigee: 478 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 July 30 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 431 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5364 . COSPAR: 1971-065A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 August 5 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 432 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5379 . COSPAR: 1971-066A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 August 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 434 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 3. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,296.77 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5407 . COSPAR: 1971-069A. Apogee: 1,253 km (778 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Final LK moon lander test using the T2K version.
    Maneuver Summary:
    188km X 267km orbit to 190km X 1261km orbit. Delta V: 266 m/s
    188km X 1262km orbit to 180km X 11384km orbit. Delta V: 1333 m/s
    Total Delta V: 1599 m/s. Ten years later the spacecraft was due to re-enter over Australia soon after the Skylab scare. The Soviet Union told the people of Australia not to worry, it was only an experimental lunar cabin - the first inadvertent admission that their manned lunar project even existed!

1971 August 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. COSPAR: F710819A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1971 September 14 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 438 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5475 . COSPAR: 1971-077A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 439 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5478 . COSPAR: 1971-078A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 September 28 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 441 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5486 . COSPAR: 1971-081A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 442 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5493 . COSPAR: 1971-084A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 October 7 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 443 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5536 . COSPAR: 1971-085A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5562 . COSPAR: 1971-085F. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1971 October 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 452 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5558 . COSPAR: 1971-088A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 2 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 454 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5585 . COSPAR: 1971-094A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 19 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 456 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5611 . COSPAR: 1971-098A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 24 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-01 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1976-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5620 . COSPAR: 1971-100A. Apogee: 39,553 km (24,577 mi). Perigee: 516 km (320 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1971 December 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-2M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. COSPAR: F711203A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: F711203B.

1971 December 6 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 463 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5661 . COSPAR: 1971-107A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 464 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5670 . COSPAR: 1971-108A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 16 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 466 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5687 . COSPAR: 1971-112A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 19 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-19 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5712 . COSPAR: 1971-115A. Apogee: 39,126 km (24,311 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 703.50 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 December 27 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 470 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5727 . COSPAR: 1971-118A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1971 December 29 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-10 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 10. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 5731 . COSPAR: 1971-120A. Apogee: 912 km (566 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.50 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1972 January 12 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 471 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5764 . COSPAR: 1972-001A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 February 3 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 473 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 5821 . COSPAR: 1972-006A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 February 16 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 474 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5839 . COSPAR: 1972-008A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 March 1 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 476 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1991-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5852 . COSPAR: 1972-011A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 379 km (235 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

1972 March 4 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 477 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5862 . COSPAR: 1972-013A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated particle flux and radiation experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 477 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5882 . COSPAR: 1972-013E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.38 min.

1972 March 15 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 478 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 5885 . COSPAR: 1972-015A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 March 27 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 8 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 670. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1972-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5912 . COSPAR: 1972-021A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Venus atmospheric probe. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere on 22 July 1972. Descent speed was reduced from 41,696 km/hr to about 900 km/hr by aerobraking. The 2.5 meter diameter parachute opened at an altitude of 60 km, and a refrigeration system was used to cool the interior components. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing. The probe confirmed the earlier data on the high Venus surface temperature and pressure returned by Venera 7, and also measured the light level as being suitable for surface photography, finding it to be similar to the amount of light on Earth on an overcast day.

1972 March 30 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-11 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 11. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 5917 . COSPAR: 1972-022A. Apogee: 877 km (544 mi). Perigee: 855 km (531 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1972 March 31 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine cut off 125 seconds after ignition due to timer failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 482 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 671. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1981-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5919 . COSPAR: 1972-023A. Apogee: 9,806 km (6,093 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 201.40 min.

1972 April 3 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 483 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 5924 . COSPAR: 1972-024A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 April 4 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-20 - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 27. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5927 . COSPAR: 1972-025A. Apogee: 40,006 km (24,858 mi). Perigee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..
  • SRET 1 - . Payload: MAS/SRET 1. Mass: 15 kg (33 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SRET. Decay Date: 1974-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 5928 . COSPAR: 1972-025B. Apogee: 39,250 km (24,380 mi). Perigee: 458 km (284 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 704.70 min. Summary: Test satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1972 April 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 484 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5933 . COSPAR: 1972-026A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 484 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6002 . COSPAR: 1972-026C. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 87.94 min.

1972 April 7 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Intercosmos 6 - . Payload: Energia s/n 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Energia. Completed Operations Date: 1972-04-11 . Decay Date: 1972-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5936 . COSPAR: 1972-027A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. .

1972 April 14 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 1 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 501. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1981-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5941 . COSPAR: 1972-029A. Apogee: 199,667 km (124,067 mi). Perigee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,782.10 min. Summary: Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 486 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5945 . COSPAR: 1972-030A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 May 5 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 488 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6016 . COSPAR: 1972-034A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 May 17 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 490 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6021 . COSPAR: 1972-036A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated electron flux cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 490 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6040 . COSPAR: 1972-036D. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.17 min.

1972 May 19 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-02 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1977-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6031 . COSPAR: 1972-037A. Apogee: 39,293 km (24,415 mi). Perigee: 479 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 706.00 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1972 May 25 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 491 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6035 . COSPAR: 1972-038A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 9 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 492 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6049 . COSPAR: 1972-040A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 21 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 493 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6053 . COSPAR: 1972-042A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 June 23 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 495 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6060 . COSPAR: 1972-044A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 26 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 496 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 9.95 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6066 . COSPAR: 1972-045A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Recovered July 6, 1972 13:54 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test..

1972 June 29 - . 03:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 2 - . Payload: SO-M no. 2. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1982-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6068 . COSPAR: 1972-046A. Apogee: 201,804 km (125,394 mi). Perigee: 517 km (321 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 5,849.20 min. Summary: Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 June 30 - . 18:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-12 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 12. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6079 . COSPAR: 1972-049A. Apogee: 893 km (554 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1972 July 6 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 499 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6090 . COSPAR: 1972-051A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 13 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 502 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 6105 . COSPAR: 1972-055A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; carried science package..

1972 July 19 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 503 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6114 . COSPAR: 1972-056A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 28 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 512 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6130 . COSPAR: 1972-059A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 August 2 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 513 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6135 . COSPAR: 1972-060A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 August 18 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 515 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 6150 . COSPAR: 1972-063A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 August 30 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 517 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6168 . COSPAR: 1972-067A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 September 2 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. COSPAR: F720902A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1972 September 15 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 518 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 6186 . COSPAR: 1972-070A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 518 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6198 . COSPAR: 1972-070C. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.17 min.

1972 September 16 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 519 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6188 . COSPAR: 1972-071A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 September 19 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 520 - . Payload: Oko #1. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 6192 . COSPAR: 1972-072A. Apogee: 33,393 km (20,749 mi). Perigee: 6,841 km (4,250 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 715.30 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 355 degree longitude of ascending node..

1972 September 30 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-03 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1978-01-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6208 . COSPAR: 1972-075A. Apogee: 39,170 km (24,330 mi). Perigee: 470 km (290 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 703.30 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1972 October 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 522 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6219 . COSPAR: 1972-077A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 October 14 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-21 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6231 . COSPAR: 1972-081A. Apogee: 34,684 km (21,551 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 615.40 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1972 October 18 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 525 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6248 . COSPAR: 1972-083A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated Nauka autonomous subsatellite 16KS No 161 / 1L which tested Kondor control system for Yantar satellite..
  • Nauka Cosmos 525 - . Payload: Nauka 16KS No. 1L. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6258 . COSPAR: 1972-083C. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 88.99 min.

1972 October 26 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-13 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 13. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6256 . COSPAR: 1972-085A. Apogee: 880 km (540 mi). Perigee: 851 km (528 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1972 October 31 - . 13:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 527 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6260 . COSPAR: 1972-086A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 November 25 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 537 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6287 . COSPAR: 1972-093A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 December 2 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-22 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6294 . COSPAR: 1972-095A. Apogee: 39,608 km (24,611 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1972 December 12 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-04 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1975-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6308 . COSPAR: 1972-098A. Apogee: 39,284 km (24,409 mi). Perigee: 507 km (315 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 706.40 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1972 December 14 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 538 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6311 . COSPAR: 1972-099A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 December 27 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 541 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6326 . COSPAR: 1972-105A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1972 December 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 542 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1983-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6328 . COSPAR: 1972-106A. Apogee: 640 km (390 mi). Perigee: 527 km (327 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

1973 January 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 543 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 6339 . COSPAR: 1973-002A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 February 1 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 547 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6353 . COSPAR: 1973-006A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 February 3 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-23 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6356 . COSPAR: 1973-007A. Apogee: 39,602 km (24,607 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.20 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 February 8 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 548 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 6359 . COSPAR: 1973-008A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 February 15 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 3 - . Payload: SO-M no. 3. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1976-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 6364 . COSPAR: 1973-009A. Apogee: 199,442 km (123,927 mi). Perigee: 896 km (556 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,768.60 min. Summary: Solar flare monitor. Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1973 March 1 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 550 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6376 . COSPAR: 1973-011A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 March 6 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 551 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6378 . COSPAR: 1973-012A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 March 20 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-14 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 14. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6392 . COSPAR: 1973-015A. Apogee: 878 km (545 mi). Perigee: 860 km (530 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1973 March 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 552 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6394 . COSPAR: 1973-016A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated Nauka autonomous subsatellite 16KS No 162 / 2L which tested Kondor control system for Yantar satellite..
  • Nauka Cosmos 552 - . Payload: Nauka 16KS No. 2L. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6397 . COSPAR: 1973-016C. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.25 min.

1973 April 5 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-05 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1979-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6418 . COSPAR: 1973-018A. Apogee: 39,822 km (24,744 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 April 19 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 554 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 38.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6432 . COSPAR: 1973-021A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; exploded in orbit..

1973 April 25 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 555 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6440 . COSPAR: 1973-024A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 555 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-05-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6445 . COSPAR: 1973-024D. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.45 min.

1973 May 5 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 556 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 6446 . COSPAR: 1973-025A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 May 18 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 559 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6647 . COSPAR: 1973-030A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: First flight of Soyuz U launch vehicle. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 May 23 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 560 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 6652 . COSPAR: 1973-031A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 May 25 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 561 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6657 . COSPAR: 1973-033A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated gamma ray telescope experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 561 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6662 . COSPAR: 1973-033D. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1973 May 29 - . 10:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-15 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 15. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6659 . COSPAR: 1973-034A. Apogee: 879 km (546 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1973 June 6 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 563 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6667 . COSPAR: 1973-036A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 June 10 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 572 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6684 . COSPAR: 1973-038A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 June 15 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 573 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 35. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6694 . COSPAR: 1973-041A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Soyuz test flight. Recovered June 17, 1973 6:01 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test, probably using one of the spacecraft allocated to the failed Salyut 2 or Cosmos 557 stations..

1973 June 21 - . 13:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 575 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6709 . COSPAR: 1973-043A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..

1973 June 27 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 576 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6713 . COSPAR: 1973-044A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1973 July 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. COSPAR: F730704A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1973 July 11 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-06 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1978-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 6722 . COSPAR: 1973-045A. Apogee: 39,292 km (24,414 mi). Perigee: 479 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 706.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 July 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 577 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6745 . COSPAR: 1973-048A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 August 1 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 578 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6759 . COSPAR: 1973-051A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 August 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 579 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6789 . COSPAR: 1973-055A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 August 24 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 581 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6798 . COSPAR: 1973-059A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 August 30 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-24 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 6805 . COSPAR: 1973-061A. Apogee: 39,893 km (24,788 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 August 30 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 583 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6809 . COSPAR: 1973-062A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..

1973 September 6 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 584 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6818 . COSPAR: 1973-063A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 September 21 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 587 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 6832 . COSPAR: 1973-066A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Second flight of Soyuz U launch vehicle. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 September 27 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 12 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 36. Mass: 6,720 kg (14,810 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Grechko; Gubarev; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 12. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6836 . COSPAR: 1973-067A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations.

1973 October 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 596 - . Payload: FEU-170 s/n 1L. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6856 . COSPAR: 1973-070A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. First test of small film return capsules planned for Yantar spacecraft. SpK capsule FEU-170 No. 1L experienced an electrical short circuit, which led to failure to separate the shell of the capsule after reentry, preventing parachute deployment. The capsule crashed into the ground.
  • Cosmos 596 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170 s/n 1L. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6856 . COSPAR: 1973-070xx. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min.

1973 October 6 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 597 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6858 . COSPAR: 1973-071A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 10 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 598 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 6862 . COSPAR: 1973-072A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 15 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 599 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6867 . COSPAR: 1973-073A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 October 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 600 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6873 . COSPAR: 1973-074A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 19 - . 10:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-07 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1983-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6877 . COSPAR: 1973-076A. Apogee: 40,055 km (24,888 mi). Perigee: 555 km (344 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 722.90 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 October 20 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 602 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6885 . COSPAR: 1973-077A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 27 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 603 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6900 . COSPAR: 1973-079A. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 604 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 5. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6907 . COSPAR: 1973-080A. Apogee: 424 km (263 mi). Perigee: 413 km (256 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.90 min.

1973 October 31 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 605 - . Payload: Bion no. 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 21.50 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6913 . COSPAR: 1973-083A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the influence of space flight on living organisms and testing of life-support systems for biological entities. Capsule recovered 53 deg 29 min N, 65 deg 27 min E..

1973 November 2 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 606 - . Payload: Oko #2. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 6916 . COSPAR: 1973-084A. Apogee: 35,385 km (21,987 mi). Perigee: 4,964 km (3,084 mi). Inclination: 69.5000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 520. Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 359 degree longitude of ascending node..

1973 November 10 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 607 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6926 . COSPAR: 1973-087A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable (?)..

1973 November 14 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-25 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6932 . COSPAR: 1973-089A. Apogee: 39,607 km (24,610 mi). Perigee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1973 November 21 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 609 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 6943 . COSPAR: 1973-092A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 November 28 - . 11:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 612 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6953 . COSPAR: 1973-095A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 November 30 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 613 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 34L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6957 . COSPAR: 1973-096A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered January 29, 1974 5:29 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T duration test..

1973 November 30 - . 13:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-26 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1985-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6958 . COSPAR: 1973-097A. Apogee: 40,829 km (25,369 mi). Perigee: 619 km (384 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 740.00 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 December 17 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 616 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6979 . COSPAR: 1973-102A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1973 December 18 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 13 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33A. Mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Lebedev; Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 13. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.87 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6982 . COSPAR: 1973-103A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. The crew conducted astrophysical observations of stars in the ultraviolet range. Additional experiments included spectrozonal photography of specific areas of the earth's surface, and continued testing of space craft's on-board systems.

1973 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 625 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6995 . COSPAR: 1973-105A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 December 25 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-08 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1984-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7000 . COSPAR: 1973-106A. Apogee: 39,934 km (24,813 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1974 January 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 629 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 7100 . COSPAR: 1974-003A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. First successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170-13 No. 1702 / 2L successfully recovered..
  • Cosmos 629 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170-13 s/n 2L. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 7100 . COSPAR: 1974-003xx. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1974 January 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 630 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7104 . COSPAR: 1974-004A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 February 12 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 632 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7117 . COSPAR: 1974-006A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 March 5 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-16 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 16. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7209 . COSPAR: 1974-011A. Apogee: 877 km (544 mi). Perigee: 821 km (510 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1974 March 14 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 635 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7216 . COSPAR: 1974-014A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated Nauka autonomous subsatellite 17KS M15000-171 / 1L which tested astro-visir and radio altimeter systems for Yantar..
  • Nauka Cosmos 635 - . Payload: Nauka 17KS No. 1L. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7222 . COSPAR: 1974-014E. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.52 min.

1974 March 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 636 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 7225 . COSPAR: 1974-016A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 April 3 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 638 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 71-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 9.89 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7234 . COSPAR: 1974-018A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered April 13, 1974 5:05 GMT. Soyuz ASTP Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 309km orbit to 190km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    190km X 266km orbit to 240km X 300km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    240km X 300km orbit to 258km X 274km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    Total Delta V: 47 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 April 4 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 639 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7240 . COSPAR: 1974-019A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 April 11 - . 12:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 640 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 7245 . COSPAR: 1974-021A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule (?)..

1974 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4MK - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. COSPAR: F740412A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1974 April 20 - . 20:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-27 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1983-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 7260 . COSPAR: 1974-023A. Apogee: 39,752 km (24,700 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1974 April 24 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-17 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 17. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7274 . COSPAR: 1974-025A. Apogee: 879 km (546 mi). Perigee: 855 km (531 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 April 26 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-09 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 7276 . COSPAR: 1974-026A. Apogee: 35,168 km (21,852 mi). Perigee: 1,309 km (813 mi). Inclination: 64.4000 deg. Period: 640.60 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1974 April 29 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 649 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7280 . COSPAR: 1974-027A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 May 15 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 652 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 7292 . COSPAR: 1974-030A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 May 15 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 653 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 7293 . COSPAR: 1974-031A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 May 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: A problem in separation of the second and third stages of resulted in radio contact being lost with the spacecraft at T+439.6 sec. This automatically triggered the destruct charge in the Yantar OSA Descent Module, destroying the spacecraft and booster.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Yantar-2K failure. - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 1. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. COSPAR: F740523A. Summary: First test launch of Yantar second generation reconnaissance spacecraft..

1974 May 27 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 656 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 61. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7313 . COSPAR: 1974-036A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Unmanned test flight of the Soyuz 7K-T(A9) Soyuz variant designed for docking with the military Almaz space station. Recovered May 29, 1974 7:50 GMT..

1974 May 30 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 657 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7317 . COSPAR: 1974-038A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 June 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 658 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7328 . COSPAR: 1974-041A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 June 13 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 659 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7334 . COSPAR: 1974-043A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 June 29 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 664 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7351 . COSPAR: 1974-049A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1974 June 29 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 665 - . Payload: Oko #3. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1990-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7352 . COSPAR: 1974-050A. Apogee: 39,653 km (24,639 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 61.8000 deg. Period: 709.60 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 315 degree longitude of ascending node..

1974 July 3 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 14 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Artyukhin; Popovich. Backup Crew: Demin; Sarafanov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Volynov; Zholobov; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 62. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Artyukhin; Popovich; Demin; Sarafanov; Rozhdestvensky; Volynov; Zholobov; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 14. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 15.73 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7361 . COSPAR: 1974-051A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. On 4 July Soyuz 14 docked with the Salyut 3 space station after 15 revolutions of the earth. The planned experimental program included manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. After the crew's return research continued in the development of the on-board systems and the principles of remote control of such a station.

1974 July 9 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-18 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 7363 . COSPAR: 1974-052A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 883 km (548 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.90 min. Summary: Conducted experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Also tested plasma engine.

1974 July 12 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 666 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7367 . COSPAR: 1974-053A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 July 23 - . 01:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-10 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 7376 . COSPAR: 1974-056A. Apogee: 38,868 km (24,151 mi). Perigee: 1,501 km (932 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1974 July 25 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 667 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7383 . COSPAR: 1974-057A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 July 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 669 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7389 . COSPAR: 1974-059A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 669 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7404 . COSPAR: 1974-059G. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.69 min.

1974 August 6 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 670 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 1L. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 2.99 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7405 . COSPAR: 1974-061A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered August 8, 1974 23:59 GMT..

1974 August 7 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 671 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 7409 . COSPAR: 1974-062A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 August 12 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 672 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 72-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7413 . COSPAR: 1974-064A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. ASTP precursor. Recovered August 18, 1974 5:02 GMT. Soyuz ASTP test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    195km X 305km orbit to 195km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    195km X 221km orbit to 223km X 223km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    223km X 223km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 227km X 237km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    Total Delta V: 39 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 August 16 - . 03:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 673 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1991-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7417 . COSPAR: 1974-066A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 399 km (247 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.70 min.

1974 August 26 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 15 - . Call Sign: Duna (Danube ). Crew: Demin; Sarafanov. Backup Crew: Volynov; Zholobov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 63. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Demin; Sarafanov; Volynov; Zholobov; Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 15. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7421 . COSPAR: 1974-067A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 15 was to conduct the second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, but the Igla rendezvous system failed and no docking was made. The two day flight could only be characterised as '... research in manoeuvring and docking with the OPS in various modes, and development of methods for evacuation and landing from space complex in new conditions....'

    As Chelomei had complained, Soyuz had no reserves or backup systems for repeated manual docking attempts and had to be recovered after a two-day flight. The state commission found that the Igla docking system of the Soyuz needed serious modification. This could not be completed before Salyut 3 decayed. Therefore the planned Soyuz 16 spacecraft became excess to the program (it was later flown as Soyuz 20 to a civilian Salyut station, even though over its two year rated storage life).

    Officially: Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-3 orbital scientific station.


1974 August 29 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 674 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7423 . COSPAR: 1974-068A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 August 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-2M - . Payload: Zenit-2M. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. COSPAR: F740830A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170 No. 3L. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: F740830B.

1974 September 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 685 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7445 . COSPAR: 1974-073A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 October 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 688 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 7473 . COSPAR: 1974-078A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 October 22 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 690 - . Payload: Bion no. 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 20.50 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7478 . COSPAR: 1974-080A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Biological research. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1974 October 24 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-28 - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 26. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1985-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7480 . COSPAR: 1974-081A. Apogee: 40,633 km (25,248 mi). Perigee: 607 km (377 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 735.80 min. Summary: Decay date suspect Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1974 October 25 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 691 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7483 . COSPAR: 1974-082A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 October 28 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-19 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 19. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7490 . COSPAR: 1974-083A. Apogee: 882 km (548 mi). Perigee: 842 km (523 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 November 1 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 692 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7502 . COSPAR: 1974-087A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. Second successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170 No. 4L successfully recovered..
  • Cosmos 692 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170 s/n 4L. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: 1974-087xx.

1974 November 4 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 693 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 7509 . COSPAR: 1974-088A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1974 November 16 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 694 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7533 . COSPAR: 1974-090A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 November 21 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-01 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 11. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1986-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7540 . COSPAR: 1974-092A. Apogee: 40,095 km (24,913 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1974 November 27 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 696 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7551 . COSPAR: 1974-095A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 December 2 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 16 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov. Support Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 73-EPSA. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 16. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.93 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7561 . COSPAR: 1974-096A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations.

1974 December 13 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 697 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 2. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7571 . COSPAR: 1974-098A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Yantar second generation reconnaissance spacecraft. After failure of the first Yantar-2K launch, a review board recommended modifications to the Soyuz U launch vehicle. This second Yantar still used the Sokol control system from the Zenit and lacked the SpK small film recovery capsules. As planned, after 12 days, the main descent capsule was successfully recovered with its film.

1974 December 17 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-20 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 20. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7574 . COSPAR: 1974-099A. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 December 21 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-11 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1988-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7583 . COSPAR: 1974-102A. Apogee: 40,065 km (24,895 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 61.9000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1974 December 27 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 701 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7596 . COSPAR: 1974-106A. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 January 10 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 17 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Backup Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 38. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Gubarev; Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 17. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 29.56 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7604 . COSPAR: 1975-001A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station..

1975 January 17 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 702 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7606 . COSPAR: 1975-002A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1975 January 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 704 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7617 . COSPAR: 1975-005A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 January 30 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 706 - . Payload: Oko #4. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 7625 . COSPAR: 1975-007A. Apogee: 35,365 km (21,974 mi). Perigee: 4,977 km (3,092 mi). Inclination: 67.8000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation planes 7/8 - 182 degree longitude of ascending node..

1975 February 6 - . 04:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-12 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1985-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 7641 . COSPAR: 1975-009A. Apogee: 40,746 km (25,318 mi). Perigee: 653 km (405 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 738.70 min. Summary: Decay date suspect Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1975 February 12 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 709 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7664 . COSPAR: 1975-013A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 February 26 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 710 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7675 . COSPAR: 1975-015A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 March 12 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 719 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7691 . COSPAR: 1975-018A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 March 21 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 720 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT Mod. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7696 . COSPAR: 1975-019A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule..

1975 March 26 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 721 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7705 . COSPAR: 1975-020A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 721 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 7721 . COSPAR: 1975-020F. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.59 min.

1975 March 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 722 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7709 . COSPAR: 1975-021A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 1 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-21 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 21. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7714 . COSPAR: 1975-023A. Apogee: 884 km (549 mi). Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 April 5 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. FAILURE: During second-third stage separation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Soyuz 18-1 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 39. Mass: 6,830 kg (15,050 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 0.0149 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-05 . COSPAR: F750405A. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi). Carried Oleg Makarov, Vasili Lazarev for rendezvous with Salyut 4; but during second-third stage seperation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited. The crew demanded that the abort procedures be implemented but ground control could not see the launch vehicle gyrations in their telemetry. Soyuz finally was separated from by ground control command at 192 km, and following a 20.6+ G reentry, the capsule landed in the Altai mountains, tumbled down a mountainside, and snagged in some bushes just short of a precipice. The crew was worried that they may have landed in China and would face internment, but after an hour sitting in the cold next to the capsule, they were discovered by locals speaking Russian. Total flight duration was 1574 km and flight time 21 minutes 27 seconds. Lazarev suffered internal injuries from the high-G reentry and tumble down the mountain side and never flew again. Both cosmonauts were denied their 3000 ruble spaceflight bonus pay and had to apeal all the way to Brezhnev before being paid.

1975 April 14 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-02 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 12. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1988-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7738 . COSPAR: 1975-029A. Apogee: 39,323 km (24,434 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 61.9000 deg. Period: 700.50 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1975 April 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 727 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7742 . COSPAR: 1975-030A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 18 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 728 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7745 . COSPAR: 1975-031A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 728 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 7779 . COSPAR: 1975-031G. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.63 min.

1975 April 24 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 730 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7770 . COSPAR: 1975-035A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 29 - . 10:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-29 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. USAF Sat Cat: 7780 . COSPAR: 1975-036A. Apogee: 38,379 km (23,847 mi). Perigee: 1,983 km (1,232 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1975 May 21 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 731 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7810 . COSPAR: 1975-041A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 731 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7885 . COSPAR: 1975-041H. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.35 min.

1975 May 24 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 18 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Ponomaryov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 40. Mass: 6,825 kg (15,046 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Sevastyanov; Kovalyonok; Ponomaryov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 62.97 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7818 . COSPAR: 1975-044A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station. The crew remained aloft aboard the station during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint flight..

1975 May 28 - . 07:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 740 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 7821 . COSPAR: 1975-046A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 May 30 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 741 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7877 . COSPAR: 1975-047A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Zenit-2M (area survey photo reconnaissance) satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1975 June 3 - . 13:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 742 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7900 . COSPAR: 1975-048A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 June 5 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 178 'On development of the 11A511U2 launch vehicle' was issued..

1975 June 5 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-30 - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 24. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1987-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7903 . COSPAR: 1975-049A. Apogee: 38,307 km (23,802 mi). Perigee: 121 km (75 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 679.10 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..
  • SRET 2 - . Payload: SRET 2 (MAS 2). Mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SRET. Decay Date: 1988-07-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 7910 . COSPAR: 1975-049B. Apogee: 40,825 km (25,367 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 737.80 min. SRET 2 technological research and study satellite. Launched from Soviet Union with a Soviet launch vehicle with the Molniya satellite. Mass 30 kg. Study of the behaviour of a passive cryogenic radiation system, study of the aging of thermal casings and pl astic films.

1975 June 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 743 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7925 . COSPAR: 1975-053A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 June 20 - . 06:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 744 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 7. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1991-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7968 . COSPAR: 1975-056A. Apogee: 380 km (230 mi). Perigee: 367 km (228 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

1975 June 25 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 746 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7985 . COSPAR: 1975-059A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 June 27 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 747 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7990 . COSPAR: 1975-060A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 747 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 8013 . COSPAR: 1975-060F. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.19 min.

1975 July 3 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 748 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8006 . COSPAR: 1975-061A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 July 8 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-13 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8015 . COSPAR: 1975-063A. Apogee: 38,492 km (23,917 mi). Perigee: 1,887 km (1,172 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 718.30 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1975 July 11 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-01 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 1. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8026 . COSPAR: 1975-064A. Apogee: 876 km (544 mi). Perigee: 844 km (524 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov; Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Leonov; Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80°, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.


1975 July 23 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 751 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 8040 . COSPAR: 1975-068A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1975 July 31 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 753 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 8059 . COSPAR: 1975-071A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 August 13 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 754 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 8069 . COSPAR: 1975-073A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 August 22 - . 02:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 756 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 8. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 8127 . COSPAR: 1975-076A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.50 min.

1975 August 27 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 757 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 8147 . COSPAR: 1975-078A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 September 2 - . 13:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-31 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1985-11-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 8187 . COSPAR: 1975-079A. Apogee: 40,598 km (25,226 mi). Perigee: 633 km (393 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 735.60 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1975 September 5 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 758 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 3. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 8191 . COSPAR: 1975-080A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Third Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance flight, the first with the new Kondor attitude control system. This system experienced problems and failed on the second day of flight. The spacecraft's destruct package was activated by ground command and the spacecraft was destroyed on 6 September 1975 in its second day of flight.

1975 September 9 - . 00:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-14 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8195 . COSPAR: 1975-081A. Apogee: 38,534 km (23,943 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 718.20 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 September 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 759 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 8275 . COSPAR: 1975-084A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1975 September 16 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 760 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 8281 . COSPAR: 1975-085A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 September 18 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-22 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 22. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8293 . COSPAR: 1975-087A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 800 km (490 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 September 23 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 769 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 8322 . COSPAR: 1975-088A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. Third successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170-13 No. 5L successfully recovered..
  • Cosmos 769 Nauka - . Payload: FEU-170-13 s/n 5L. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: 1975-088xx.

1975 September 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 771 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8327 . COSPAR: 1975-090A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1975 September 29 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 772 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 2L. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 3.99 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8338 . COSPAR: 1975-093A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered October 3, 1975 4:10 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Transmitted only on 166 MHz frequency, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    193 km X 270 km orbit to 195 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    196 km X 300 km orbit to 196 km X 328 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 16 m/s

1975 October 1 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 774 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8345 . COSPAR: 1975-095A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 October 17 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 776 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8369 . COSPAR: 1975-101A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 776 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8412 . COSPAR: 1975-101D. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.16 min.

1975 November 4 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 779 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8420 . COSPAR: 1975-104A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 November 14 - . 19:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-03 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 13. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 8425 . COSPAR: 1975-105A. Apogee: 38,527 km (23,939 mi). Perigee: 1,823 km (1,132 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 November 17 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 20 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 64. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 90.49 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8430 . COSPAR: 1975-106A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned long duration test of the Soyuz transport vehicle; docked with Salyut 4. Recovered February 16, 1976 2:24 GMT. Comprehensive checking of improved on-board systems of the space craft under various flight conditions. Carried a biological payload. Living organisms were exposed to three months in space.

1975 November 21 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 780 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 8442 . COSPAR: 1975-108A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 780 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8460 . COSPAR: 1975-108D. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.15 min.

1975 November 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 782 - . Payload: Bion no. 3. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 19.50 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8450 . COSPAR: 1975-110A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Biological research. Continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 64 deg 11 min E. The Cosmos 782 mission marked the first time that the United States participated in the Soviet Cosmos Program. Scientists from France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. participated in these investigations. Additional Details: here....

1975 December 3 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 784 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8463 . COSPAR: 1975-113A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 784 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8485 . COSPAR: 1975-113G. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.71 min.

1975 December 16 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 786 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8489 . COSPAR: 1975-120A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 December 17 - . 11:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-15 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1987-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 8492 . COSPAR: 1975-121A. Apogee: 24,113 km (14,983 mi). Perigee: 103 km (64 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 416.90 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 December 22 - . 02:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 4 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 504. Mass: 905 kg (1,995 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1977-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 8510 . COSPAR: 1975-122A. Apogee: 199,000 km (123,000 mi). Perigee: 634 km (393 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,740.00 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1975 December 25 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-23 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 23. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8519 . COSPAR: 1975-124A. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 December 27 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-04 - . Payload: Molniya-3 no. s/n 15. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1986-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8521 . COSPAR: 1975-125A. Apogee: 40,708 km (25,294 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 733.80 min. Decay date suspect Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 January 7 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 788 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 8551 . COSPAR: 1976-002A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 January 22 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-32 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 8601 . COSPAR: 1976-006A. Apogee: 38,210 km (23,740 mi). Perigee: 2,247 km (1,396 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 719.80 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 January 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 799 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 8616 . COSPAR: 1976-009A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 February 11 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 802 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 8681 . COSPAR: 1976-013A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 February 20 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 805 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 4. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 20.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8699 . COSPAR: 1976-018A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Fourth Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance flight and the first with two SpK small film recovery capsules. First flight of the completely equipped satellite. The main reentry capsule and its film cargo were returned successfully. Both SpK capsules successfully separated from the Yantar in the course of the flight, but neither was recovered. The parachutes of the first did not deploy and the capsule crashed into the ground. The solid motor of the second capsule did not fire as programmed and the capsule did not deorbit at the expected time.

1976 March 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 806 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 8737 . COSPAR: 1976-020A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 March 11 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-33 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1990-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 8741 . COSPAR: 1976-021A. Apogee: 37,773 km (23,471 mi). Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 669.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.

1976 March 16 - . 17:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 808 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 9. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 8754 . COSPAR: 1976-024A. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

1976 March 18 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 809 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 8758 . COSPAR: 1976-025A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 March 19 - . 19:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-34 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1985-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 8762 . COSPAR: 1976-026A. Apogee: 39,722 km (24,682 mi). Perigee: 617 km (383 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 717.40 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 March 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 810 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8772 . COSPAR: 1976-028A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 March 31 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 811 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8781 . COSPAR: 1976-030A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1976 April 7 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-24 - . Payload: Meteor M s/n 37. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8799 . COSPAR: 1976-032A. Apogee: 881 km (547 mi). Perigee: 832 km (516 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1976 April 9 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 813 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-04-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8801 . COSPAR: 1976-033A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 April 28 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 815 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8811 . COSPAR: 1976-036A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 May 5 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 817 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8823 . COSPAR: 1976-040A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 May 12 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-05 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 16. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 8833 . COSPAR: 1976-041A. Apogee: 37,589 km (23,356 mi). Perigee: 93 km (57 mi). Inclination: 62.1000 deg. Period: 664.30 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 May 15 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-25 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 8845 . COSPAR: 1976-043A. Apogee: 884 km (549 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth..

1976 May 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 819 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8853 . COSPAR: 1976-045A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 May 21 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 820 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 2. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8856 . COSPAR: 1976-046A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1976 May 26 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 821 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8862 . COSPAR: 1976-048A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 June 8 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 824 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8877 . COSPAR: 1976-052A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 June 16 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 833 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8898 . COSPAR: 1976-055A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 June 24 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 834 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 8914 . COSPAR: 1976-058A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 June 29 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 835 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8922 . COSPAR: 1976-060A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 July 1 - . 08:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 837 - . Payload: Molniya-2 s/n 27. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1983-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8927 . COSPAR: 1976-062A. Apogee: 936 km (581 mi). Perigee: 438 km (272 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Failed Molniya..

1976 July 6 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 21 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Volynov; Zholobov. Backup Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Support Crew: Berezovoi; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 41. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Zholobov; Rozhdestvensky; Zudov; Berezovoi; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Lisun. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 21. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 49.27 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8934 . COSPAR: 1976-064A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Soyuz 21 with Volynov and Zholobov aboard hard-docked with the station on 6 July 1976 after failure of the Igla system at the last stage of rendezvous. Towards the end of the two month mission an early return to earth was requested due to the poor condition of flight engineer Zholobov (who was suffering from space sickness and psychological problems).

1976 July 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 840 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9019 . COSPAR: 1976-068A. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 July 22 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 844 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 5. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 3.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9046 . COSPAR: 1976-072A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Fifth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight. One of the solar panels would not unfold. Ground control activiated the destruct package and the spacecraft was destroyed on 25 July..

1976 July 23 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-35 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1987-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 9049 . COSPAR: 1976-074A. Apogee: 38,911 km (24,178 mi). Perigee: 483 km (300 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 698.40 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 August 4 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 847 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9214 . COSPAR: 1976-079A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 August 12 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 848 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9280 . COSPAR: 1976-082A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 848 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1976-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9374 . COSPAR: 1976-082D. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.29 min.

1976 August 27 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 851 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 10. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1989-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9389 . COSPAR: 1976-085A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.70 min.

1976 August 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 852 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 9391 . COSPAR: 1976-086A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 September 1 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 853 - . Payload: Molniya-2 s/n 26. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1976-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 9398 . COSPAR: 1976-088A. Apogee: 461 km (286 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Failed Molniya..

1976 September 3 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 854 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9405 . COSPAR: 1976-090A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 September 15 - . 09:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 22 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Aksyonov; Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Malyshev; Strekalov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Popov. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 74 modified with MF6 camera. Mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Bykovsky; Malyshev; Strekalov; Andreyev; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 22. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-MF6. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9421 . COSPAR: 1976-093A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Tested and perfected scientific-technical methods and devices for studying the geological characteristics of the earth's surface from outer space for economic purposes.

1976 September 21 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 855 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9433 . COSPAR: 1976-095A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1976 September 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 856 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9435 . COSPAR: 1976-096A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 856 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9448 . COSPAR: 1976-096E. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.39 min.

1976 September 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 857 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 9439 . COSPAR: 1976-097A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 October 4 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Launch vehicle destroyed at T+95 seconds.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Zenit-4MKT no. 3 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 3. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. COSPAR: F761004A. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1976 October 10 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 859 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 9471 . COSPAR: 1976-099A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1976 October 14 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 23 - . Call Sign: Radon (Radon ). Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Backup Crew: Glazkov; Gorbatko. Support Crew: Berezovoi; Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 65. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Berezovoi; Lisun. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 23. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9477 . COSPAR: 1976-100A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. The Soyuz 23 ferry spacecraft suffered a docking system failure. Sensors indicated an incorrect lateral velocity, causing unnecessary firing of the thrusters during rendezvous. The automatic system was turned off, but no fuel remained for a manual docking by the crew.

1976 October 15 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-26 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 26. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 9481 . COSPAR: 1976-102A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 836 km (519 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1976 October 22 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 862 - . Payload: Oko #5. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 9495 . COSPAR: 1976-105A. Apogee: 36,759 km (22,840 mi). Perigee: 3,620 km (2,240 mi). Inclination: 68.3000 deg. Period: 718.30 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 86 degree longitude of ascending node..

1976 October 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 863 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9499 . COSPAR: 1976-106A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 November 1 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 865 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 9515 . COSPAR: 1976-109A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 865 - . Payload: MKA?. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 9525 . COSPAR: 1976-109G. Apogee: 431 km (267 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.98 min.

1976 November 11 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 866 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9532 . COSPAR: 1976-110A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 November 23 - . 16:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 867 - . Payload: Zenit-6 no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 9552 . COSPAR: 1976-111A. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1976 November 25 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 5 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 505. Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1979-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 9557 . COSPAR: 1976-112A. Apogee: 198,560 km (123,370 mi). Perigee: 777 km (482 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 5,728.00 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1976 November 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 869 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 3L. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 17.77 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9564 . COSPAR: 1976-114A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered December 17, 1976 10:31 GMT. Transmitted only on 20.008 MHz and 166 MHz frequencies, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    196 km X 290 km orbit to 187 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
    187 km X 335 km orbit to 259 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s
    259 km X 335 km orbit to 260 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    260 km X 345 km orbit to 265 km X 368 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    265 km X 368 km orbit to 267 km X 391 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    267 km X 391 km orbit to 300 km X 310 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    Total Delta V: 83 m/s

1976 December 2 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-16 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1991-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 9574 . COSPAR: 1976-116A. Apogee: 36,437 km (22,640 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 641.50 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 December 9 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 879 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9599 . COSPAR: 1976-119A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 December 17 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 884 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 9614 . COSPAR: 1976-123A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 December 28 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-06 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 17. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 9635 . COSPAR: 1976-127A. Apogee: 13,594 km (8,446 mi). Perigee: 426 km (264 mi). Inclination: 59.5000 deg. Period: 257.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 January 6 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 888 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 9658 . COSPAR: 1977-001A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 January 6 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-02 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 2. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 9661 . COSPAR: 1977-002A. Apogee: 893 km (554 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service..

1977 January 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 889 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9735 . COSPAR: 1977-003A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 February 7 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 24 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Glazkov; Gorbatko. Backup Crew: Berezovoi; Lisun. Support Crew: Kozelsky; Preobrazhensky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 66. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glazkov; Gorbatko; Berezovoi; Lisun; Kozelsky; Preobrazhensky. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 24. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 17.73 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9804 . COSPAR: 1977-008A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Soyuz 24 docked with Salyut 5 and brought repair equipment and equipment for a change of cabin atmosphere. This special apparatus was designed to allow the entire station to be vented through the EVA airlock. Because of this the planned EVA was cancelled. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. The crew changed the cabin air anyway, then returned to earth. The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterised as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission.

1977 February 9 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 892 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9812 . COSPAR: 1977-009A. Apogee: 427 km (265 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 February 11 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-17 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 9829 . COSPAR: 1977-010A. Apogee: 38,214 km (23,745 mi). Perigee: 2,176 km (1,352 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 718.50 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 February 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4MK - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Decay Date: 1977-03-30 . COSPAR: F770222A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1977 February 26 - . 21:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 895 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 11. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9853 . COSPAR: 1977-015A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 433 km (269 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.30 min.

1977 March 3 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 896 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9857 . COSPAR: 1977-016A. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 March 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 897 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9860 . COSPAR: 1977-017A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 March 17 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 898 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9871 . COSPAR: 1977-020A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 898 - . Payload: Nauka?. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9887 . COSPAR: 1977-020D. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.77 min.

1977 March 24 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-36 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 9880 . COSPAR: 1977-021A. Apogee: 38,042 km (23,638 mi). Perigee: 2,288 km (1,421 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.30 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.

1977 April 5 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-27 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 27. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 9903 . COSPAR: 1977-024A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 844 km (524 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1977 April 7 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 902 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 9908 . COSPAR: 1977-026A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 April 11 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 903 - . Payload: Oko #6. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 9911 . COSPAR: 1977-027A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 4,559 km (2,832 mi). Inclination: 67.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 163 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 April 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 904 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 9930 . COSPAR: 1977-028A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 April 26 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 905 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 6. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9937 . COSPAR: 1977-030A. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Sixth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight and first completely successful flight. Both small SpK film capsules successfully recovered during course of flight, as was the main OSA cabin with its camera, computer, and main film cannisters. First full duration Yantar flight.

1977 April 28 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-07 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 19. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 9941 . COSPAR: 1977-032A. Apogee: 38,201 km (23,736 mi). Perigee: 2,169 km (1,347 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 May 5 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 907 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9944 . COSPAR: 1977-033A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 May 17 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 908 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 10007 . COSPAR: 1977-035A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 May 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 912 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10021 . COSPAR: 1977-040A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1977 May 31 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 914 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10030 . COSPAR: 1977-043A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 914 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10046 . COSPAR: 1977-043E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.41 min.

1977 June 8 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 915 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10038 . COSPAR: 1977-045A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 June 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 916 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10040 . COSPAR: 1977-046A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1977 June 16 - . 01:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 917 - . Payload: Oko #7. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10059 . COSPAR: 1977-047A. Apogee: 36,143 km (22,458 mi). Perigee: 4,196 km (2,607 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 717.50 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 245 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 June 22 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 920 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10086 . COSPAR: 1977-052A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 June 24 - . 05:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-37 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10092 . COSPAR: 1977-054A. Apogee: 4,564 km (2,835 mi). Perigee: 106 km (65 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 134.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1977 June 29 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-28 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Decay Date: 1993-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10113 . COSPAR: 1977-057A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service. .

1977 June 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 922 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10115 . COSPAR: 1977-058A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 July 7 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 925 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 12. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10134 . COSPAR: 1977-061A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

1977 July 12 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 927 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10139 . COSPAR: 1977-063A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 20 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 931 - . Payload: Oko #8. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10150 . COSPAR: 1977-068A. Apogee: 36,549 km (22,710 mi). Perigee: 3,770 km (2,340 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 665. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 July 20 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 932 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10153 . COSPAR: 1977-069A. Apogee: 358 km (222 mi). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 27 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 934 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10164 . COSPAR: 1977-072A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 29 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 935 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10168 . COSPAR: 1977-073A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 August 3 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 936 - . Payload: Bion no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.60 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10172 . COSPAR: 1977-074A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Biological research. Scientists from the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic conducted experiments in physics and biology on the mission. The biosatellite was recovered at 51 deg 53 min N, 61 deg 30 min E, near Kustanay in Central Asia after remaining in orbit for 18.5 days. Additional Details: here....

1977 August 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-4MKM - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Decay Date: 1977-08-30 . COSPAR: F770810A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1977 August 24 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 938 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10281 . COSPAR: 1977-078A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 August 27 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 947 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10299 . COSPAR: 1977-081A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 August 30 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-38 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10315 . COSPAR: 1977-082A. Apogee: 38,159 km (23,710 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 677.50 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.

1977 September 2 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 948 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 5. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10319 . COSPAR: 1977-083A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1977 September 6 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 949 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 7. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10326 . COSPAR: 1977-085A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance state acceptance test flight. Completely successful and led to acceptance of Yantar-2K into Red Army service in 1978. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission.

1977 September 13 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 950 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 10351 . COSPAR: 1977-086A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 September 16 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 953 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10359 . COSPAR: 1977-089A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 September 20 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 955 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 13. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10362 . COSPAR: 1977-091A. Apogee: 501 km (311 mi). Perigee: 493 km (306 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.60 min.

1977 September 22 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 6 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 506. Mass: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. USAF Sat Cat: 10370 . COSPAR: 1977-093A. Apogee: 196,379 km (122,024 mi). Perigee: 1,850 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 74.4000 deg. Period: 5,683.20 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1977 September 30 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 957 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10385 . COSPAR: 1977-098A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1977 October 9 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 25 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Kovalyonok; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 42. Mass: 6,860 kg (15,120 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kovalyonok; Ryumin; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 25. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.03 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10401 . COSPAR: 1977-099A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6..

1977 October 11 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 958 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10403 . COSPAR: 1977-100A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1977 October 28 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-08 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 18. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 10455 . COSPAR: 1977-105A. Apogee: 38,508 km (23,927 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1977 December 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 964 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10498 . COSPAR: 1977-110A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 December 10 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 26 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Grechko; Romanenko. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 43. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Romanenko; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 37.42 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10506 . COSPAR: 1977-113A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station..

1977 December 12 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 966 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10510 . COSPAR: 1977-115A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 966 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10538 . COSPAR: 1977-115D. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.24 min.

1977 December 14 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-03 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 3. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 10514 . COSPAR: 1977-117A. Apogee: 874 km (543 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service..

1977 December 20 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 969 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10527 . COSPAR: 1977-120A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 December 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 973 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10540 . COSPAR: 1977-124A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.5000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 973 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10558 . COSPAR: 1977-124D. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.61 min.

1978 January 6 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 974 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10554 . COSPAR: 1978-001A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 10 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 27 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Makarov. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 44. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Makarov; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-1; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 64.95 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10560 . COSPAR: 1978-003A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6..

1978 January 10 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 975 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 14. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2001-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10561 . COSPAR: 1978-004A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

1978 January 13 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 984 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10592 . COSPAR: 1978-006A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 January 20 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 1 - . Payload: Progress s/n 102. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 18.73 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . Decay Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10603 . COSPAR: 1978-008A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 22 Jan 1978 10:12:14 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1978 05:54:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 8 Feb 1978 02:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.91 days. Total docked time 14.82 days.

1978 January 24 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-09 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 20. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10605 . COSPAR: 1978-009A. Apogee: 36,195 km (22,490 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 636.80 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1978 January 24 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 986 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10607 . COSPAR: 1978-010A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 31 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 987 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 10639 . COSPAR: 1978-013A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 February 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 988 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10666 . COSPAR: 1978-015A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks..

1978 February 14 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 989 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10672 . COSPAR: 1978-017A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 March 2 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 28 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Gubarev; Remek. Backup Crew: Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 45. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gubarev; Remek; Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-2; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.93 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10694 . COSPAR: 1978-023A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists.

1978 March 2 - . 22:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-39 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10696 . COSPAR: 1978-024A. Apogee: 39,957 km (24,828 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1978 March 4 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 992 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10699 . COSPAR: 1978-025A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 March 10 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 993 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10725 . COSPAR: 1978-027A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 March 17 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 995 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10735 . COSPAR: 1978-030A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 March 30 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 999 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 10773 . COSPAR: 1978-033A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1001 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 4L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 10.87 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10783 . COSPAR: 1978-036A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
    Maneuver Summary:
    202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
    306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1978 April 6 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1002 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10785 . COSPAR: 1978-037A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 April 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1003 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10811 . COSPAR: 1978-040A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 May 5 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1004 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 10846 . COSPAR: 1978-043A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1004 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10852 . COSPAR: 1978-043G. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.68 min.

1978 May 12 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1005 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 15. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10860 . COSPAR: 1978-045A. Apogee: 494 km (306 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1978 May 16 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1007 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10895 . COSPAR: 1978-048A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1978 May 23 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1010 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 6. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10915 . COSPAR: 1978-052A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1978 May 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1012 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10919 . COSPAR: 1978-054A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 June 2 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-40 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 10925 . COSPAR: 1978-055A. Apogee: 38,729 km (24,065 mi). Perigee: 1,627 km (1,010 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1978 June 10 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1021 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10939 . COSPAR: 1978-057A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 June 12 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1022 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10944 . COSPAR: 1978-059A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 June 15 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 29 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Backup Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 46. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok; Lyakhov; Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10952 . COSPAR: 1978-061A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments..

1978 June 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 30 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Hermaszewski; Klimuk. Backup Crew: Jankowski; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 67. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Hermaszewski; Klimuk; Jankowski; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-3; Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 7.92 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10968 . COSPAR: 1978-065A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station, under the Intercosmos programme, a second, international, crew consisting of P.I. Klimuk (USSR) and M. Hermaszewski (Poland) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments..

1978 June 28 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1024 - . Payload: Oko #9. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10970 . COSPAR: 1978-066A. Apogee: 35,365 km (21,974 mi). Perigee: 4,984 km (3,096 mi). Inclination: 67.3000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 931. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 July 2 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1026 - . Payload: Energia s/n 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Energia. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10977 . COSPAR: 1978-069A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space..

1978 July 7 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 2 - . Payload: Progress s/n 101. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.59 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . Decay Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 10979 . COSPAR: 1978-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Jul 1978 12:58:59 GMT. Undocked on 2 Aug 1978 04:57:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Aug 1978 01:31:07 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.92 days. Total docked time 23.67 days.

1978 July 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-41 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10984 . COSPAR: 1978-072A. Apogee: 38,306 km (23,802 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 61.8000 deg. Period: 681.90 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1978 August 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1028 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 14. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10995 . COSPAR: 1978-076A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Successful full duration flight. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1978 August 7 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 3 - . Payload: Progress s/n 103. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 15.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . Decay Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 10999 . COSPAR: 1978-077A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Aug 1978 23:59:30 GMT. Undocked on 21 Aug 1978 15:42:50 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Aug 1978 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.10 days. Total docked time 11.66 days.

1978 August 22 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-42 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 11007 . COSPAR: 1978-080A. Apogee: 34,374 km (21,358 mi). Perigee: 1,181 km (733 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 622.70 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1978 August 26 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 31 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky; Jaehn. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Koellner. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 47. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Jaehn; Gorbatko; Koellner. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-4; Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 67.84 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11010 . COSPAR: 1978-081A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivered to the Salyut-6 station the third international 'Intercosmos' crew consisting of V F Bykovsky (USSR) and S Jaehn (German Democratic Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1978 August 29 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1029 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11012 . COSPAR: 1978-082A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 September 6 - . 03:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1030 - . Payload: Oko #10. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2004-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11015 . COSPAR: 1978-083A. Apogee: 36,185 km (22,484 mi). Perigee: 4,131 km (2,566 mi). Inclination: 66.2000 deg. Period: 717.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 39 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 September 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1031 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11022 . COSPAR: 1978-085A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 September 19 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1032 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11029 . COSPAR: 1978-088A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1032 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11038 . COSPAR: 1978-088D. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.07 min.

1978 October 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1033 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 7. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 11039 . COSPAR: 1978-089A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1978 October 3 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 4 - . Payload: Progress s/n 105. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . Decay Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 11040 . COSPAR: 1978-090A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 6 Oct 1978 01:00:15 GMT. Undocked on 24 Oct 1978 13:01:52 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Oct 1978 16:28:13 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.22 days. Total docked time 18.50 days.

1978 October 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1042 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11052 . COSPAR: 1978-092A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 October 10 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1043 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 17. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1998-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11055 . COSPAR: 1978-094A. Apogee: 433 km (269 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

1978 October 13 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-10 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 22. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 11057 . COSPAR: 1978-095A. Apogee: 33,590 km (20,870 mi). Perigee: 1,560 km (960 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 614.90 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1978 October 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1044 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11065 . COSPAR: 1978-097A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 October 30 - . 05:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 7 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 507. Mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1980-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11088 . COSPAR: 1978-101A. Apogee: 202,627 km (125,906 mi). Perigee: 472 km (293 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 5,881.10 min. Magnetospheric investigations. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun, of solar plasma fluxes and of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and the magnetosphere of the earth; investigation of galactic ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific apparatus produced in the USSR, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, France, the Hungarian People's Republic and Sweden.

1978 November 1 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1046 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11098 . COSPAR: 1978-102A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; deployed capsule..

1978 November 15 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1047 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11108 . COSPAR: 1978-104A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1049 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11118 . COSPAR: 1978-107A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 28 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1050 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11121 . COSPAR: 1978-108A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 7 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1059 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11137 . COSPAR: 1978-110A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 8 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1060 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11139 . COSPAR: 1978-111A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 December 14 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1061 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11148 . COSPAR: 1978-114A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1061 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11167 . COSPAR: 1978-114C. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.43 min.

1978 December 19 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1063 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 18. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2001-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11155 . COSPAR: 1978-117A. Apogee: 524 km (325 mi). Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.10 min.

1978 December 23 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1066 - . Payload: Astrofizika s/n 1. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astrofizika. USAF Sat Cat: 11165 . COSPAR: 1978-121A. Apogee: 890 km (550 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Probable failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1978 December 26 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1068 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11169 . COSPAR: 1978-123A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 28 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1069 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11173 . COSPAR: 1978-124A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1979 January 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1070 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11229 . COSPAR: 1979-001A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1070 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11245 . COSPAR: 1979-001F. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.29 min.

1979 January 13 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1071 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11233 . COSPAR: 1979-002A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 January 18 - . 15:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-11 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 23. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1998-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11240 . COSPAR: 1979-004A. Apogee: 39,973 km (24,838 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1979 January 25 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-29 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 11251 . COSPAR: 1979-005A. Apogee: 596 km (370 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. Obtaining information needed for research into the natural resources of the earth and the development of methods for remote sensing of the underlying surface, and obtaining meteorological information. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific ap paratus from the German Democratic Republic.

1979 January 30 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1073 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 29.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11255 . COSPAR: 1979-006A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 January 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1074 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 5L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 60.04 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11259 . COSPAR: 1979-008A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 1, 1979 10:09 GMT. Soyuz T Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    197 km X 240 km orbit to 255 km X 297 km orbit. Delta V: 33 m/s
    255 km X 297 km orbit to 264 km X 306 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    264 km X 306 km orbit to 309 km X 321 km orbit. Delta V: 17 m/s
    309 km X 321 km orbit to 279 km X 357 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    279 km X 357 km orbit to 352 km X 402 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    352 km X 402 km orbit to 363 km X 384 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 112 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1979 February 13 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1077 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 19. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11268 . COSPAR: 1979-012A. Apogee: 491 km (305 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1979 February 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Zenit-2M - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. COSPAR: F790216A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Spacecraft: Nauka. COSPAR: F790216B.

1979 February 22 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1078 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11276 . COSPAR: 1979-016A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 February 25 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 32 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Lebedev; Popov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 48. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lyakhov; Ryumin; Lebedev; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 110.18 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11281 . COSPAR: 1979-018A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported a team consisting of V A Lyakhov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 space station to conduct scientific investigations and experiments and repair work. Recovered June 15, 1979 16:18 GMT. Returned unmanned..

1979 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1079 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 15. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11283 . COSPAR: 1979-019A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance. Spacecraft depressurization led to malfunction of spacecraft. Deorbited after 12 days..

1979 March 1 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-04 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 4. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 11288 . COSPAR: 1979-021A. Apogee: 872 km (541 mi). Perigee: 839 km (521 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service with the aid of advanced equipment..

1979 March 12 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 5 - . Payload: Progress s/n 104. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.77 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . Decay Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . USAF Sat Cat: 11292 . COSPAR: 1979-022A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 14 Mar 1979 07:19:21 GMT. Undocked on 3 Apr 1979 16:10:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Apr 1979 00:10:22 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.40 days. Total docked time 20.37 days.

1979 March 14 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1080 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11294 . COSPAR: 1979-023A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 March 31 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1090 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11313 . COSPAR: 1979-027A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1979 April 10 - . 17:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
1979 April 12 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-43 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1989-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11328 . COSPAR: 1979-031A. Apogee: 39,936 km (24,815 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 713.40 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1979 April 14 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1093 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 20. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11331 . COSPAR: 1979-032A. Apogee: 487 km (302 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.20 min.

1979 April 20 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1095 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11335 . COSPAR: 1979-034A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 April 27 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1097 - . Payload: Yantar-4K1 s/n 1. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11348 . COSPAR: 1979-037A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: First flight test of Yantar-4K1 satellite. Returned as planned after 30 days. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1979 May 13 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 6 - . Payload: Progress s/n 106. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.61 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . Decay Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 11356 . COSPAR: 1979-039A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 15 May 1979 06:19:22 GMT. Undocked on 8 Jun 1979 07:59:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Jun 1979 18:52:46 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.54 days. Total docked time 24.07 days.

1979 May 15 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1098 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11358 . COSPAR: 1979-040A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1979 May 17 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1099 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 8. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11360 . COSPAR: 1979-041A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1979 May 25 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1102 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11368 . COSPAR: 1979-043A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Nauka subsatellite 32KS jettisoned into independent orbit in the course of the mission. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1102 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11390 . COSPAR: 1979-043D. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 87.91 min.

1979 May 31 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1103 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11376 . COSPAR: 1979-045A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.80 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 June 5 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-12 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 21. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1992-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11384 . COSPAR: 1979-048A. Apogee: 19,362 km (12,030 mi). Perigee: 126 km (78 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 339.60 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1979 June 6 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: