Encyclopedia Astronautica
Index


Apollo (ASTP).
  • Crew: Brand, Slayton, Stafford. First international joint manned space mission; first docking between two spacecraft launched from different countries. Crew nearly killed by toxic propellant vapours dumped into the cabin air supply during re-entry. Backup crew: Bean, Evans, Lousma.

Apollo 10.

  • Crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. Speed record (11,107 m/s). Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Backup crew: Cooper, Eisele, Mitchell.

Apollo 11.

  • Crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Collins. First manned lunar landing. The end of the moon race and public support for large space programs. The many changes made after the Apollo 204 fire paid off; all went according to plan, virtually no problems. Backup crew: Anders, Haise, Lovell.

Apollo 12.

  • Crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon. Second manned lunar landing. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 that landed in 1967. Lightning struck the booster twice during ascent. Decision was made to press on to moon, despite possibility landing pyrotechnics damaged. Backup crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden.

Apollo 13.

  • Crew: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Fuel cell tank exploded en route to the moon, resulting in loss of all power and oxygen. Only through use of the still-attached LM as a lifeboat could the crew survive to return to earth. Backup crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young.Support crew: Brand, Lousma, Kerwin.

Apollo 14.

  • Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Backup crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans.Support crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue.

Apollo 15.

  • Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rille. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown. Backup crew: Brand, Gordon, Schmitt.

Apollo 16.

  • Crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young. Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted. Backup crew: Haise, Mitchell, Roosa.

Apollo 17.

  • Crew: Cernan, Evans, Schmitt. Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon. Backup crew: Duke, Roosa, Young.

Apollo 18.

  • Crew: Gordon, Brand, Schmitt. Apollo 18 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in the moon's Schroter's Valley, a riverlike channel-way. The original February 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: Allen, Henize, Parker.

Apollo 19.

  • Crew: Haise, Pogue, Carr. Apollo 19 was originally planned to land in the Hyginus Rille region, which would allow study of lunar linear rilles and craters.The original July 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: England, Hartsfield, Peterson.

Apollo 20.

  • Crew: Roosa, Lind, Lousma. Apollo 20 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in Crater Copernicus, a spectacular large crater impact area. Later Copernicus was assigned to Apollo 19, and the preferred landing site for Apollo 20 was the Marius Hills or Tycho.

Apollo 204.

  • Crew: Chaffee, Grissom, White. The first manned flight of the Apollo CSM, the Apollo C category mission. Crew killed in a fire while testing their capsule on the pad on 27 January 1967, still weeks away from launch. Set back Apollo program by 18 months. Backup crew: McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart, Schirra, Eisele, Cunningham.

Apollo 205.

  • Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. Planned second solo flight test of the Block I Apollo CSM on a Saturn IB. Cancelled after the Apollo 204 fire. Backup crew: Borman, Collins, Stafford.

Apollo 207.

  • Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. Planned Apollo D mission. Two Saturn IB launches would put Apollo CSM and LM into orbit. CSM crew would dock with LM, test it in earth orbit. Cancelled after Apollo 204 fire. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young.

Apollo 503.

  • Crew: Borman, Collins, Anders. Cancelled Apollo E mission - test of the Apollo lunar module in high earth orbit. Lunar module was not ready. Instead mission flown only with CSM into lunar orbit only as Apollo 8. Backup crew: Conrad, Williams Clifton, Gordon.

Apollo 7.

  • Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. First manned test of the Apollo spacecraft. Although the systems worked well, the crew became grumpy with head colds and talked back to the ground. As a result, NASA management determined that none of them would fly again. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young.

Apollo 8.

  • Crew: Anders, Borman, Lovell. First manned flight to lunar orbit. Speed (10,807 m/s) and altitude (378,504 km) records. Mission resulted from audacious decision to send crew around moon to beat Soviets on only second manned Apollo CSM mission and third Saturn V launch. Backup crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Haise.

Apollo 9.

  • Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. First manned test of the Lunar Module. First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft incapable of returning to earth. If rendezvous of the Lunar Module with the Apollo CSM had failed, crew would have been stranded in orbit. Backup crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon.

Apollo SA-11.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SA-12.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SA-13.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SA-14.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Buran 5.

  • Crew: Volk, Tolboyev. Cancelled Buran Flight 5 (3K1) would have been the first flight of the third orbiter. It would be the first manned Buran flight; the third orbiter was the first outfitted with life support systems and ejection seats. Backup crew: Zabolotski, Sultanov.

Cosmos 1100.

  • Planned manned single-orbit flight aboard the TKS space capsule during a series of two-TKS-launched-by-one-Proton flight tests. Flown unmanned due to inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches.

Cosmos 997.

  • Planned manned single-orbit flight aboard the TKS space capsule during a series of two-TKS-launched-by-one-Proton flight tests. Flown unmanned due to inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches.

DOS 2-1.

  • Crew: Gubarev, Sevastyanov, Voronov. Backup crew: Klimuk, Artyukhin.

DOS 2-2.

  • Crew: Klimuk, Artyukhin. Backup crew: Bykovsky, Alekseyev.

DOS 2-3.

  • Crew: Bykovsky, Alekseyev. Backup crew: Gorbatko.

DOS 2-4.

  • Crew: Gorbatko, Sevastyanov. Backup crew: Bykovsky, Alekseyev.

Dynasoar 10.

  • Planned eighth manned flight, second multi-orbit flight, and final flight of the Dynasoar program would have the objectives to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963

Dynasoar 3.

  • Crew: Wood. Dynasoar first manned single-orbit flight. Project cancelled December 1963.

Dynasoar 4.

  • Planned second manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Project cancelled in December 1963

Dynasoar 5.

  • Third manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight; would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963.

Dynasoar 6.

  • Fourth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight; would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and systems evaluation. Project cancelled in December 1963.

Dynasoar 7.

  • Fifth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Would demonstrate reuse of a minimally-refurbished spacecraft flown on an earlier mission. Project cancelled in December 1963

Dynasoar 8.

  • Sixth manned Dynasoar single-orbit flight. Would demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963

Dynasoar 9.

  • Planned first multi-orbit flight and seventh manned flight of Dynasoar would have the objectives to demonstrate maneuver in orbit and during re-entry, and a precision recovery. Project cancelled in December 1963

Gemini 10.

  • Crew: Collins, Young. First free space walk from one spacecraft to another. First rendezvous with two different spacecraft in one flight. Altitude (763 km) record. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena wa stored. Backup crew: Bean, Williams Clifton.

Gemini 11.

  • Crew: Conrad, Gordon. Speed (8,003 m/s) and altitude (1,372 km) records. First docking with another spacecraft on first orbit after launch. First test of tethered spacecraft. Backup crew: Anders, Armstrong.

Gemini 12.

  • Crew: Aldrin, Lovell. First completely successful space walk. Final Gemini flight. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking. Successful EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints. Backup crew: Cernan, Cooper.

Gemini 3.

  • Crew: Grissom, Young. First spacecraft to maneuver in orbit. First manned flight of Gemini spacecraft. First American to fly twice into space. Manual reentry, splashed down 97 km from carrier. Backup crew: Schirra, Stafford.

Gemini 4.

  • Crew: McDivitt, White. First American space walk. First American long-duration spaceflight. Astronaut could barely get back into capsule after spacewalk. Failure of spacecraft computer resulted in high-G ballistic re-entry. Backup crew: Borman, Lovell.

Gemini 5.

  • Crew: Conrad, Cooper. First American flight to seize duration record from Soviet Union. Mission plan curtailed due to fuel cell problems; mission incredibly boring, spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time. Splashed down 145 km from aim point. Backup crew: Armstrong, See.

Gemini 6.

  • Crew: Schirra, Stafford. First rendezvous of two spacecraft. Originally was to dock with an Agena target, but this blew up on way to orbit. Decision to rendezvous with upcoming Gemini 7 instead. Mission almost lost when booster ignited, then shut down on pad. Backup crew: Grissom, Young.

Gemini 7.

  • Crew: Borman, Lovell. Record flight duration (14 days) to that date. Incredibly boring mission, made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. Monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6. Backup crew: Collins, White.

Gemini 8.

  • Crew: Armstrong, Scott. First docking of two spacecraft. After docking with Agena target, a stuck thruster aboard Gemini resulted in the crew nearly blacking out before the resulting spin could be stopped. An emergency landing in the mid-Pacific Ocean followed. Backup crew: Conrad, Gordon.

Gemini 9.

  • Crew: Cernan, Stafford. Third rendezvous mission of Gemini program. Agena target blew up on way to orbit; substitute target's shroud hung up, docking impossible. EVA almost ended in disaster when astronaut's face plate fogged over; barely able to return to spacecraft. Backup crew: Aldrin, Lovell.

Gemini 9A.

  • Crew: Bassett, See. Planned mission, cancelled when prime crew killed in T-38 trainer crash. All subsequent crew assignments were reshuffled. This ended up determining who would be the first man on the moon. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford.

HSM-3B.

  • Alternate designation for STS-109 manned spaceflight.

HSM-5.

  • Alternate designation for STS-128A manned spaceflight.

HST-SM4.

  • Alternate designation for STS-125 manned spaceflight.

ISS 7A.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-105 manned spaceflight.

ISS Astrolab.

  • Europe's first long-duration mission to the ISS. Crew: Reiter.Thomas Reiter lived and worked on board the ISS for five months. Backup crew: Eyharts.

ISS Cervantes.

  • Crew: Duque. Spanish / ESA astronaut. Primary mission was to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Kuipers.

ISS Delta.

  • Crew: Kuipers. European Space Agency / Netherlands space mission to the ISS. Primary mission was to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Thiele.

ISS Eneide.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-8 manned spaceflight.

ISS EO-1.

  • Crew: Gidzenko, Krikalyov, Shepherd. First ISS resident crew. Backup crew: Bowersox, Dezhurov, Tyurin.

ISS EO-10.

  • Crew: Sharipov, Chiao. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-9 crew. Backup crew: McArthur, Tokarev.

ISS EO-11.

  • Crew: Krikalyov, Phillips. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-10 crew. Backup crew: Tyurin, Tani.

ISS EO-12.

  • Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station. Crew: Tokarev, McArthur. Backup crew: Williams Jeffrey, Tyurin.

ISS EO-13.

  • Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station. Crew: Vinogradov, Williams Jeffrey. Backup crew: Fincke, Yurchikhin, Eyharts.

ISS EO-14.

  • Six-month long-term resident crew of the International Space Station. Crew: Tyurin, Lopez-Alegria. Backup crew: Whitson, Malenchenko.

ISS EO-14-1.

  • Crew: Williams. Backup crew: Anderson Clayton.

ISS EO-15.

  • Six-month, long-term, all-Russian resident crew of the International Space Station. Crew: Kotov, Yurchikhin. Soyuz reentered with the forward hatch taking the re-entry heating, until the connecting strut burned through. 8.6 G ballistic re-entry, landing 340 km short. Backup crew: Romanenko Roman, Korniyenko.

ISS EO-15-1.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Anderson Clayton. Record duration female mission. Williams replaced Reiter as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: Chamitoff.

ISS EO-15-2.

  • Anderson replaced Williams as third long-duration crew member aboard the station.

ISS EO-16.

  • Crew: Whitson, Malenchenko. First female space station commander. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Backup crew: Sharipov, Fincke.

ISS EO-16-1.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Tani. Tani replaced Anderson as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: Magnus.

ISS EO-16-2.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Eyharts. Eyharts replaced Tani as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: De Winne.

ISS EO-16-3.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Reisman. Reisman replaced Eyharts as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: Kopra.

ISS EO-17.

  • Crew: Volkov Sergey, Kononenko O D. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Backup crew: Surayev, Skripochka.

ISS EO-17-1.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Chamitoff. Chamitoff replaced Reisman as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: Creamer.

ISS EO-18.

  • Crew: Lonchakov, Fincke. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Backup crew: Padalka, Barratt.

ISS EO-18-1.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Magnus. Magnus replaced Chamitoff as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: Stott.

ISS EO-18-2.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Wakata. Wakata replaced Magnus as third long-duration crew member aboard the station. Backup crew: Noguchi.

ISS EO-19.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Padalka, Barratt. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Backup crew: Surayev, Williams Jeffrey.

ISS EO-2.

  • Crew: Helms, Usachyov, Voss. Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions Progress M-44, Progress M1-6, Soyuz TM-31, Soyuz TM-32 vehicles and Space Shuttles flights 5A.1, 6A, 7A, 7A.1. Backup crew: Bursch, Onufrienko, Walz.

ISS EO-20.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Romanenko Roman, De Winne,Thirsk. Six-month, long-term, resident crew of the International Space Station. Backup crew: Kondratiyev, Kuipers,Hadfield.

ISS EO-20-1.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. NASA long-term third ISS astronaut, arriving aboard STS-127, and replacing NASDA astronaut Wakata aboard the station. Returned aboard STS-128. Backup crew: Creamer.

ISS EO-20-2.

  • NASA long-term third ISS astronaut residence mission. Crew: Stott. Final NASA long-term third ISS astronaut, arriving aboard STS-128, replacing astronaut Kopra aboard the station. Returned on STS-129. Backup crew: Coleman.

ISS EO-21.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Surayev, Williams Jeffrey. Backup crew: Skvortsov, Walker.

ISS EO-22.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Kotov, Creamer, Noguchi. Backup crew: Wheelock, Shkaplerov, Furukawa.

ISS EO-23.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Skvortsov, Aleksandr; Korniyenko; Caldwell. Backup crew: Borisenko, Andrei; Samokutyaev; Kelly.

ISS EO-24.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Yurchikhin; Wheelock; Walker, Shannon. Backup crew: Kondratiyev, Dmitry; Nespoli; Coleman.

ISS EO-25.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Kelly, Kaleri, Skripochka. Backup crew: Kononenko, O D; Kaleri; Garan.

ISS EO-26.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Kondratiyev, Dmitry; Nespoli; Coleman. Backup crew: Ivanishin; Furukawa; Fossum.

ISS EO-27.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Samokutyayev; Borisenko; Garan. Backup crew: Shkaplerov; Ivanishin; Burbank. Return delayed eight days after failure of Progress M-12M to reach orbit. Communications dropout after retrofire created concern for the crew, but they landed safely.

ISS EO-28.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Crew: Volkov, Sergey; Fossum; Furukawa. Backup crew: Kononenko; Pettit; Kuipers. This crew manned the station alone for six weeks due to the failure of the Soyuz launch vehicle carrying Progress M-12M and the subsequent delay in the launch of the Soyuz EO-29 crew to replace the departed Soyuz EO-27 crew.

ISS EO-29.

  • ISS long-term residence mission. Launch delayed six weeks due to Progress M-12M launch vehicle failure. Crew: Shkaplerov; Ivanishin; Burbank. Backup crew: Padalka; Revin; Acaba.

ISS EO-3.

  • Crew: Culbertson, Dezhurov, Tyurin. Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions Progress M-45, Progress M-DC1, Progress M1-7, Soyuz TM-33, Soyuz TM-32 vehicles and Space Shuttles during flights 7A.1, UF1. Backup crew: Korzun, Treshchev, Whitson.

ISS EO-4.

  • Crew: Bursch, Onufrienko, Walz. Three-person crew to operate the station and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions Progress M1-7, Progress M1-8 and Space Shuttle missions 8A, UF2 Backup crew: Padalka, Robinson, Fincke.

ISS EO-5.

  • Crew: Korzun, Treshchev, Whitson. Three-person crew to operate the ISS and provide support during station replenishment and assembly missions Progress M1-8, Progress M-46, Progress M1-9, Soyuz TMA-1, Soyuz TM-34 and Space Shuttle in Flights 9A and 11A. Backup crew: Kaleri, Kondratiyev Dmitry, Kelly Scott.

ISS EO-6.

  • Crew: Bowersox, Budarin, Pettit. First ISS crew to have to return in a lifeboat spacecraft. ISS assembly missions cancelled after Columbia disaster. Crew relieved by two-man crew to keep ISS functioning while shuttle grounded. On return Soyuz guidance failed; 8G ballistic reentry. Backup crew: Sharipov, Fincke.

ISS EO-7.

  • Crew: Lu, Malenchenko. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle is grounded. Replaced three-man crew aboard ISS since before STS-107 disaster. Backup crew: Kaleri, Foale.

ISS EO-8.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Foale. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle is grounded. Replaced EO-7 crew. Backup crew: McArthur, Tokarev.

ISS EO-9.

  • Crew: Fincke, Padalka. Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of ISS space station while the shuttle was grounded. Replaced EO-8 crew. Backup crew: Chiao, Sharipov.

ISS EP-1.

  • Crew: Baturin, Musabayev, Tito. First space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to ISS. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Kozeyev.

ISS EP-10.

  • First Brazilian astronaut. Crew: Pontes. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Volkov Sergey.

ISS EP-11.

  • Crew: Ansari. First female space tourist. First Iranian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Enomoto.

ISS EP-12.

  • Space tourist mission of Hungarian-American billionare. Crew: Simonyi. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station.

ISS EP-13.

  • Crew: Muszaphar. Malaysian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Khaleed.

ISS EP-14.

  • Crew: Yi So-yeon. First Korean astronaut mission. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Ko San.

ISS EP-15.

  • Crew: Garriott Richard. Space tourist. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Halik.

ISS EP-16.

  • Crew: Simonyi. First space tourist to fly to space twice; and the last tourist to the ISS until the Orion spacecraft becomes operational. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Dyson.

ISS EP-2.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Andre-Deshays, Kozeyev. French cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Zalyotin, Kyzhelnaya.

ISS EP-3.

  • Crew: Gidzenko, Shuttleworth, Vittori. First South African astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Padalka, Kononenko O D.

ISS EP-4.

  • Crew: De Winne, Lonchakov, Zalyotin. First flight of the Soyuz TMA spacecraft. Belgian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Lazutkin.

ISS EP-5.

ISS EP-6.

  • Alternate designation for ISS Delta manned spaceflight.

ISS EP-7.

  • Crew: Shargin. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Russian cosmonaut sent for a ten day mission aboard the ISS while the EO-9/EO-10 long duration crews handed duties over to each other.

ISS EP-8.

  • Crew: Vittori. Italian ESA astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Thirsk.

ISS EP-9.

  • American space tourist. Crew: Olsen. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Kostenko.

ISS UF-1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-108 manned spaceflight.

ISS UF-2.

  • Alternate designation for STS-111 manned spaceflight.

ISS-10A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-120 manned spaceflight.

ISS-10S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-11 manned spaceflight.

ISS-11A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-113 manned spaceflight.

ISS-12A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-115 manned spaceflight.

ISS-12A.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-116 manned spaceflight.

ISS-13A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-117 manned spaceflight.

ISS-13A.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-118 manned spaceflight.

ISS-14A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-131A manned spaceflight.

ISS-14S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-15 manned spaceflight.

ISS-15A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-119 manned spaceflight.

ISS-15S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-16 manned spaceflight.

ISS-16A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-134A manned spaceflight.

ISS-16S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-17 manned spaceflight.

ISS-17A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-128 manned spaceflight.

ISS-17S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-18 manned spaceflight.

ISS-18A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-136A manned spaceflight.

ISS-18S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-19 manned spaceflight.

ISS-19A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-130 manned spaceflight.

ISS-19S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-20 manned spaceflight.

ISS-1E.

  • Alternate designation for STS-122 manned spaceflight.

ISS-1J.

  • Alternate designation for STS-124 manned spaceflight.

ISS-1J/A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-123 manned spaceflight.

ISS-20A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-132 manned spaceflight.

ISS-20S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-21 manned spaceflight.

ISS-21S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-22 manned spaceflight.

ISS-22S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-23 manned spaceflight.

ISS-23S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-24 manned spaceflight.

ISS-24S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-25 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-88 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2A.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-96 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2A.2a.

  • Alternate designation for STS-101 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2A.2b.

  • Alternate designation for STS-106 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2J/A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-127 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2R.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-1 manned spaceflight.

ISS-2S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-1 manned spaceflight.

ISS-3A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-92 manned spaceflight.

ISS-3S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-2 manned spaceflight.

ISS-4A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-97 manned spaceflight.

ISS-4S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-3 manned spaceflight.

ISS-5.

  • Alternate designation for STS-111 manned spaceflight.

ISS-5A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-98 manned spaceflight.

ISS-5A.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-102 manned spaceflight.

ISS-5S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-4 manned spaceflight.

ISS-6A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-100 manned spaceflight.

ISS-6S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-7 manned spaceflight.

ISS-6SA.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-2A manned spaceflight.

ISS-7A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-104 manned spaceflight.

ISS-7S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-8 manned spaceflight.

ISS-7SA.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-3A manned spaceflight.

ISS-8A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-110 manned spaceflight.

ISS-8S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-9 manned spaceflight.

ISS-8SA.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz TMA-4A manned spaceflight.

ISS-9A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-112 manned spaceflight.

ISS-9A.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-121A manned spaceflight.

ISS-9S.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-10 manned spaceflight.

ISS-UF3.

  • Alternate designation for STS-126A manned spaceflight.

ISS-UF4.

  • Alternate designation for STS-123A manned spaceflight.

ISS-UF5.

  • Alternate designation for STS-130A manned spaceflight.

ISS-UF6.

  • Alternate designation for STS-132A manned spaceflight.

ISS-UF7.

  • Alternate designation for STS-138A manned spaceflight.

ISS-ULF1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-114 manned spaceflight.

ISS-ULF1.1.

  • Alternate designation for STS-121 manned spaceflight.

ISS-ULF2.

  • Alternate designation for STS-126 manned spaceflight.

ISS-ULF3.

  • Alternate designation for STS-129 manned spaceflight.

ISS-ULF4.

  • Alternate designation for STS-131 manned spaceflight.

ISS-ULF5.

  • Alternate designation for STS-133 manned spaceflight.

Little Joe 5A.

  • In April 1959, plans were made for three or four Mercury-Little Joe flights with animal passengers. NASA secretly considered a manned mission but quickly dropped the idea when the dynamic pressures involved were reviewed.

Man-In-Space-Soonest.

  • On 25 June 1958 preliminary astronaut selection for the Man-In-Space Soonest project was made. The project was cancelled when NASA was formed in and took responsibility for all manned space flight on 1 August 1958.

Mercury Balloon Flight Tests.

  • In January 1959, balloon flights were planned for the Mercury spacecraft. These would occur from July 1959 to January 1961. Final flights would be manned tests of up to 24 hours duration, with recovery of the capsule at sea. Cancelled May 1959.

Mercury MA-10.

  • Crew: Shepard. Planned second one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled as too risky after Mercury MA-9 achieved objective, but only after failure of many spacecraft systems. Backup crew: Cooper.

Mercury MA-11.

  • Crew: Grissom. Planned third one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled as too risky after Mercury MA-9 achieved objective, but only after failure of many spacecraft systems. Backup crew: Schirra.

Mercury MA-12.

  • Crew: Schirra. Planned fourth one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled mid-1962 in order to move on to Gemini.

Mercury MA-6.

  • Crew: Glenn. First US manned orbital mission, three orbits. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place. It turned out the indicator light was false, but a spectacular reentry ensued. Backup crew: Carpenter.

Mercury MA-7.

  • Crew: Carpenter. Second US manned orbital mission. Excessive fuel use and pilot error led to late re-entry, and landing 300 km past the intended point. Capsule ran out of orientation fuel during re-entry. Backup crew: Schirra.

Mercury MA-7 Delta 7.

  • Crew: Slayton. Planned second US manned orbital flight. Cancelled 18 March 1962 when astronaut's minor heart condition became public. Backup crew: Schirra.

Mercury MA-8.

  • Crew: Schirra. Most successful American manned space flight to that date, six orbits, returning to earth precisely, with astronaut aboard recovery ship 40 minutes after landing. Speed record (7,850 m/s). Backup crew: Cooper.

Mercury MA-9.

  • Crew: Cooper. Final Mercury mission, After 22 orbits, virtually all capsule systems failed. Nevertheless the astronaut was able to manually guide the spacecraft to a pinpoint landing. Backup crew: Shepard.

Mercury MA-9A.

  • Crew: Cooper. Planned Mercury six-orbit mission. Canceled and NASA moved directly to an 18-orbit mission due to astronaut shortage and change in concept (flights no longer used just to train astronauts). Backup crew: Shepard.

Mercury MR-3.

  • Crew: Shepard. First American in space, less than a month after Gagarin, but only on a 15 minute suborbital flight. First manual orientation of a manned spacecraft. Backup crew: Grissom.

Mercury MR-3A.

  • Crew: Shepard. After booster problems on Mercury MR-2, von Braun insisted on a further unmanned booster test. This proved to be unnecessary. If NASA had overruled Von Braun, Shepard would have been the first man in space, beating Gagarin's flight by three weeks. Backup crew: Grissom.

Mercury MR-4.

  • Crew: Grissom. Suborbital flight; second American in space. Hatch blew after splashdown; capsule sank; astronaut barely saved before drowning. Backup crew: Glenn.

Mercury MR-5.

  • Crew: Glenn. Planned Mercury suborbital flight. After Soviet full-day orbital flight in August 1961, NASA's suborbital hops looked pathetic. Further suborbital Mercury flights were cancelled. Backup crew: Slayton.

Mercury MR-6.

  • Crew: Slayton. Planned Mercury suborbital flight. Cancelled July 1961; delays in Redstone flights meant Atlas orbital flights were imminent.

Mercury-Jupiter 2 (MJ-2).

  • Human astronaut was considered briefly for Mercury-Jupiter flights before use of the Jupiter booster on Mercury was cancelled in July 1959 on cost grounds.

Mir 92.

  • Crew: Flade. German 'Mir 92' flight to the Russian space station. Swapped Soyuz lifeboats at station. Backup crew: Ewald.

Mir 97.

  • Crew: Ewald. ESA German astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Schlegel.

Mir Altair.

  • Crew: Haignere. French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station. Backup crew: Andre-Deshays.

Mir Antares.

  • Crew: Tognini. French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station. Backup crew: Haignere.

Mir Aragatz.

  • Crew: Chretien. French mission to Mir; record duration for a non-Soviet aboard one of their space stations; first French spacewalk. TM-6 computer first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully. Backup crew: Tognini.

Mir Austromir.

  • Crew: Aubakirov, Viehboeck. First Austrian astronaut. First Kazakh astronaut. Swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Lothaller, Musabayev.

Mir Cassiopee.

  • Crew: Andre-Deshays. French astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Eyharts.

Mir EO-1.

  • Crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir. First spacecraft to fly between two space stations. Epic repair mission. Crew first docked with new Mir station. After six weeks commissioning, flew to dead Salyut 7, returned it to life, recovered experiments.Returned to Mir before returning to earth. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Viktorenko.

Mir EO-10.

  • Crew: Volkov Aleksandr. Only Russian EO crewmember left after a paying British passenger was found and political necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. EO-9 crew Krikalyov stayed aboard as other E-10 crewmember. Backup crew: Viktorenko.

Mir EO-11.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Viktorenko. Mir Expedition EO-11. Joint flight with Germany. Docked at the Kvant rear port at 12:33 GMT on March 19. The Soyuz TM-14 crew, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Kaleri, returned to Earth together with French astronaut Michel Tognini. The Soyuz TM-14 undocked from Mir at 21:47 GMT on Aug 9, and landed in Kazakhstan at 01:07 GMT on August 10. Backup crew: Avdeyev, Solovyov.

Mir EO-12.

  • Crew: Avdeyev, Solovyov. Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit. Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:58 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m. Backup crew: Manakov, Polishchuk.

Mir EO-13.

  • Crew: Manakov, Polishchuk. Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system. Backup crew: Usachyov, Tsibliyev.

Mir EO-14.

  • Crew: Serebrov, Tsibliyev. Mir Expedition EO-14. Carried Vasili Tsibliyev, Alexander Serebrov, Jean-Pierre Haignere to Mir; returned Serebrov, Tsibliyev to Earth. Progress M-18 undocked from Mir's front port at around 17:25 GMT on July 3, and Soyuz TM-17 docked at the same port only 20 minutes later at 17:45 GMT. The EO-14 crew landed at 08:18 GMT on Jan 14 in the Soyuz TM-17 spaceship. The EO-14 expedition lasted 196 days 18hr 45 m, the 7th longest spaceflight. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Usachyov.

Mir EO-15.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Usachyov. Mir Expedition EO-15. Docked at the Kvant module on January 10 at 11:15 GMT. Transported to the Mir orbital station of a crew comprising the cosmonauts V M Afanasev, Y V Usachev, and V V Polyakov for the fifteenth main expedition. The Soyuz TM-18 descent module landed 110 km north of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan at 10:32:35 GMT on July 9. Backup crew: Malenchenko, Musabayev.

Mir EO-16.

  • Crew: Malenchenko, Musabayev. Mir Expedition EO-16. Soyuz TM-19 docked at the rear port of the Kvant module (vacated by Progress M-23 on July 2) at 13:55:01 GMT on July 3. Soyuz TM-19 undocked from Mir at 07:29 GMT on November 4. The Soyuz instrument module (PAO, priborno-agregatniy otsek) fired its deorbit engine, and was jettisoned together with the orbital module (BO, bitovoy otsek) at 10:51 GMT, with entry interface for the descent module (SA, spuskaemiy apparat) at 10:54. It landed 170 km north-east of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan on 1994 November 4 at 11:18 GMT. Backup crew: Viktorenko, Kondakova.

Mir EO-17.

  • Crew: Kondakova, Viktorenko. Mir Expedition EO-17. Docked at the Mir forward port at 00:28 on 1994 October 6. The Mir crew of Viktorenko, Kondakova and Polyakov boarded Soyuz TM-20 on January 11, and undocked from Mir's front port at 09:00 GMT. The spacecraft withdrew to about two hundred metres from Mir and then redocked in a test of the automatic Kurs system, which had failed in Progress M-24's attempted docking. Redocking came at 09:25 GMT. Soyuz TM-20 landed 22 km northeast of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan at 04:04 GMT on March 22, 1995. Backup crew: Gidzenko, Avdeyev.

Mir EO-18.

  • Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov, Thagard. First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft. Backup crew: Solovyov, Budarin, Dunbar.

Mir EO-19.

  • Crew: Budarin, Solovyov. First Russian crew delivered to Mir space station aboard the space shuttle. Backup crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Mir EO-2.

  • Crew: Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health. Backup crew: Serebrov.

Mir EO-20.

  • Crew: Avdeyev, Gidzenko, Reiter. First ESA astronaut on long-duration Mir crew. Backup crew: Manakov, Vinogradov, Fuglesang.

Mir EO-21.

  • Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov. Mir Expedition EO-21. Soyuz TM-23 docked with Mir at 14:20:35 on February 23. The spacecraft undocked on September 2 at 04:20 GMT, and made a small seperation burn at 04:24:40 GMT. Deorbit was at 06:47:20 GMT . The three modules separated at 07:14:36 and the parachute deployed at 07:26 GMT. The landing was at 07:41:40 GMT, 100 km SW of Akmola in Kazakstan with Yuri Onufrienko, Yuriy Usachyov and Claudie Andre-Deshays. This concluded the French 'Cassiopee' mission. Backup crew: Lazutkin, Tsibliyev.

Mir EO-22.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Korzun. Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights.

Mir EO-23.

  • Crew: Lazutkin, Tsibliyev. Mission was an endless series of collisions, breakdowns, fires, and other emergencies. Backup crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

Mir EO-24.

  • Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov. Soyuz docked manually. Over the next six months the crew undertook seven internal and external spacewalks to repair the crippled space station. Backup crew: Padalka, Avdeyev.

Mir EO-25.

  • Crew: Budarin, Musabayev. Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental programme. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Treshchev.

Mir EO-26.

  • Crew: Padalka. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Padalka returned to earth without Avdeyev, who had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions. Backup crew: Zalyotin.

Mir EO-26/-27.

  • Crew: Avdeyev. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Avdeyev had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions. Backup crew: Kaleri.

Mir EO-27.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Haignere. Afansyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard, since two crew seats had been sold to Slovakia and France. Avdeyev, already aboard Mir, would stay as Afanasyev's crewmate. Backup crew: Sharipov, Andre-Deshays.

Mir EO-28.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Zalyotin. The crew reactivated Mir and, using Progress M1-1 and M1-2, resupplied the station and raised the orbit to 360 x 378 km. Backup crew: Sharipov, Vinogradov.

Mir EO-3.

  • Crew: Manarov, Titov Vladimir. Record flight duration. Revised software installed as a result of the Soyuz TM-5 abort overloaded the TM-6 computer; first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully. Backup crew: Kaleri, Volkov Aleksandr.

Mir EO-4.

  • Crew: Krikalyov, Volkov Aleksandr. Mission curtailed when delays in launching the Kvant-2 and Kristall modules to Mir led to the decision to leave the station uninhabited until the add-on modules were ready. Backup crew: Serebrov, Viktorenko.

Mir EO-5.

  • Crew: Serebrov, Viktorenko. Attached the new Kvant-2 module to the station; conducted five spacewalks; tested the Soviet UMK manned maneuvering unit. Backup crew: Balandin, Solovyov.

Mir EO-6.

  • Crew: Balandin, Solovyov. Attached the Kristall module to the station and conducted repairs to their Soyuz TM-9 return spacecraft and Kvant-2 airlock. Backup crew: Manakov, Strekalov.

Mir EO-7.

  • Crew: Manakov, Strekalov. Carried out a relatively modest programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Manarov.

Mir EO-8.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov. The Mir Expedition EO-8 crew of V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov was transported to the Mir orbital station by Soyuz TM-11, together with T Akiyama (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. The launch was funded jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama returned to earth on Soyuz TM-10 with the Mir EO-7 crew after a week in space. Backup crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Mir EO-9.

  • Crew: Artsebarsky. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Backup crew: Volkov Aleksandr.

Mir EP-1.

  • Crew: Faris, Viktorenko. First Syrian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Munir, Solovyov.

Mir EP-2.

  • Crew: Aleksandrov Aleksandr, Savinykh, Solovyov. First successful space station flight of Bulgarian cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Lyakhov, Serebrov, Stoyanov.

Mir EP-3.

  • Crew: Lyakhov, Mohmand. First Afghani astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Berezovoi, Masum.

Mir EP-4.

  • Crew: Baturin. Member of Russian President's office. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Kotov.

Mir Euromir 94.

  • Crew: Merbold. German astronaut. Primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Duque.

Mir Euromir 95.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-20 manned spaceflight.

Mir Juno.

  • Crew: Sharman. First British astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Mace.

Mir Kosmoreporter.

  • Crew: Akiyama. First Japanese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Kikuchi.

Mir LD-1.

  • Crew: Romanenko. Record flight duration. Romanenko began his record mission aboard Mir as part of EO-2 crew with Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health, leaving Romanenko aboard with EO-3. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir.

Mir LD-2.

  • Crew: Polyakov. Physician; remained aboard Mir to monitor the EO-3 crew to the end of their record year-long mission and the EO-4 crew for the first months of their mission. Backup crew: Arzamazov.

Mir LD-3.

  • Crew: Krikalyov. Krikalyov arrived aboard Mir on Soyuz TM-12 as part of the EO-9 crew. However when economic and political priorities resulted in the engineer being bumped from Soyuz TM-13, he stayed aboard for an extended stay as part of the EO-10 crew. Backup crew: Kaleri.

Mir LD-4.

  • Crew: Polyakov. Polyakov set a manned spaceflight record by spending over a year aboard Mir, during which he was part of three Mir crews (EO-15, EO-16, and EO-17). Backup crew: Arzamazov.

Mir LII-1.

  • Crew: Levchenko. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Levchenko was a prospective Buran pilot sent on the short mission to familiarise himself with spaceflight. Backup crew: Shchukin.

Mir NASA-1.

  • Crew: Lucid. First American aboard Mir for extended stay. Backup crew: Blaha.

Mir NASA-2.

  • Crew: Blaha. Blaha relieved Lucid as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Linenger.

Mir NASA-3.

  • Crew: Linenger. Linenger relieved Blaha as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Foale.

Mir NASA-4.

  • Crew: Foale. Foale relieved Linenger as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Voss.

Mir NASA-5.

  • Crew: Wolf. Wolf relieved Foale as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Thomas Andrew.

Mir NASA-6.

  • Crew: Thomas Andrew. Thomas relieved Wolf as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Voss.

Mir Pegase.

  • Crew: Eyharts. French astronaut; primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Record 13 persons in space at same time. Backup crew: Haignere.

Mir Perseus.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-27 manned spaceflight.

Mir Stefanik.

  • Crew: Bella. First Slovak astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Fuller.

MOL 3.

  • Crew: Taylor, Crews. At the time of the cancellation of the MOL program in June 1969, the first manned mission was planned for early 1972. A crew of two would have spent thirty days in orbit operating sophisticated military reconnaisance equipment and other experiments.

MOL 4.

  • Planned date of second manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation.

MOL 5.

  • Planned date of third manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation.

MOL 6.

  • Crew: Truly, Crippen. Planned date of fourth manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation. From the beginning of the project, the Navy had demanded that this be an all-Navy crew, which would limit the crew to Truly, with either Overmeyer or Crippen as co-pilot.

MOL 7.

  • Planned date of fifth manned MOL mission. This mission was already deleted from the FY 1970 budget request in April 1969, two months before the entire project was cancelled.

Salyut 6 EO-1.

  • Crew: Grechko, Romanenko. Record flight duration. First mission to receive visiting crews launched aboard another spacecraft, and to be resupplied by a logistics spacecraft. First Soviet EVA since Voskhod 2. First Main Expedition aboard Salyut 6. Backup crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok.

Salyut 6 EO-2.

  • Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Record flight duration. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. First transfer of a Soyuz from the aft port to the front port of a space station. Backup crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin.

Salyut 6 EO-3.

  • Crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin. Record flight duration. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Repaired the propulsion system, which had sprung leaks. Backup crew: Lebedev, Popov.

Salyut 6 EO-4.

  • Crew: Popov, Ryumin. Record flight duration. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Backup crew: Andreyev, Zudov.

Salyut 6 EO-5.

  • Crew: Kizim, Makarov, Strekalov. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved Soyuz T; carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments. Backup crew: Kovalyonok, Polyakov, Savinykh.

Salyut 6 EO-6.

  • Crew: Kovalyonok, Savinykh. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments. Backup crew: Andreyev, Zudov.

Salyut 6 EP-1.

  • Crew: Dzhanibekov, Makarov. First docking to a space station of two manned spacecraft at one time. First station 'lifeboat' swap. First crew to visit another already aboard a space station. Backup crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok.

Salyut 6 EP-10.

  • Crew: Popov, Prunariu. First Rumanian astronaut. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Dediu, Romanenko.

Salyut 6 EP-2.

  • Crew: Gubarev, Remek. First Czech astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Pelczak, Rukavishnikov.

Salyut 6 EP-3.

  • Crew: Hermaszewski, Klimuk. First Polish astronaut. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Jankowski, Kubasov.

Salyut 6 EP-4.

  • Crew: Bykovsky, Jaehn. First German astronaut. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Koellner.

Salyut 6 EP-5.

  • Crew: Farkas, Kubasov. First Hungarian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Dzhanibekov, Magyari.

Salyut 6 EP-5-1.

  • Crew: Ivanov Georgi, Rukavishnikov. First Bulgarian astronaut. Manned two crew. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Aleksandrov Aleksandr, Romanenko.

Salyut 6 EP-6.

  • Crew: Aksyonov, Malyshev. Test flight of new Soyuz T spacecraft; docked with Salyut 6. Backup crew: Kizim, Makarov.

Salyut 6 EP-7.

  • Crew: Gorbatko, Tuan. First Vietnamese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Bykovsky, Liem.

Salyut 6 EP-8.

  • Crew: Romanenko, Tamayo-Mendez. First Cuban astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Khrunov, Lopez-Falcon.

Salyut 6 EP-9.

  • Crew: Dzhanibekov, Gurragcha. First Mongolian astronaut. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Ganzorig, Lyakhov.

Salyut 7 EO-1.

  • Crew: Berezovoi, Lebedev. Record flight duration. Ejected a 28-kg amateur radio satellite from a Salyut 7 trash airlock; called this the first launch of a communications satellite from a manned space vehicle. Backup crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir.

Salyut 7 EO-2.

  • Crew: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Unloaded cargo from Cosmos 1443; loaded 350 kg of payload into it for return to earth. Backup crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir.

Salyut 7 EO-3.

  • Crew: Atkov, Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir. Record flight duration. Crew entered the failed darkened station carrying flashlights. Reactivated station, attempted propellant system repairs. After their departure the unoccupied space station abruptly ceased communicating. Backup crew: Polyakov, Savinykh, Vasyutin.

Salyut 7 EO-4-1a.

  • Crew: Savinykh. First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Popov.

Salyut 7 EO-4-1b.

  • Crew: Dzhanibekov. First docking with and repair of dead-in-space station. Crew carried out emergency repairs. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Popov.

Salyut 7 EO-4-2.

  • Crew: Vasyutin, Volkov Aleksandr. First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin. Backup crew: Saley, Strekalov, Viktorenko.

Salyut 7 EP-1.

  • Crew: Chretien, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov. First French astronaut. Manned three crew. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Baudry, Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir.

Salyut 7 EP-2.

  • Crew: Popov, Savitskaya, Serebrov. Second woman in space, launched for propaganda purposes ahead of first flight of NASA female astronauts aboard the shutle. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Pronina, Romanenko, Savinykh.

Salyut 7 EP-3.

  • Crew: Malyshev, Sharma, Strekalov. First Indian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Berezovoi, Grechko, Malhotra.

Salyut 7 EP-4.

  • Crew: Dzhanibekov, Savitskaya, Volk. First woman to walk in space, accomplished for propaganda purposes ahead of plans for NASA female astronaut EVA. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Ivanova, Savinykh, Vasyutin.

Salyut 7 EP-5.

  • Crew: Grechko. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station and conduct an inspection of the repairs conducted the the Soyuz T-13 crew. Backup crew: Saley, Strekalov, Viktorenko.

Salyut 7/TKS-2.

  • Crew: Glazkov, Makrushin, Stepanov Eduard. Planned TKS manned mission to Salyut 7 station. Cancelled December 1981; TKS-2 flew unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1443. Backup crew: Artyukhin, Yuyukov, Berezovoi.

Salyut 7/TKS-3.

  • Crew: Sarafanov, Romanov, Preobrazhensky. Planned second manned flight of TKS ferry to the Salyut 7 space station. The crews were assigned in September/October 1979. Cancelled December 1981. Flew unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1686. Backup crew: Artyukhin, Yuyukov, Berezovoi.

Shenzhou 5.

  • Crew: Yang Liwei. First Chinese man in space. Highly conservative mission. Single astronaut stayed in the re-entry capsule for the entire 21-hour mission, and did not enter the orbital module. Backup crew: Zhai Zhigang.Support crew: Nie Haisheng.

Shenzhou 6.

  • China's second manned mission took two astronauts into space for nearly five days, and featured use by a crew of the Shenzhou orbital module for the first time. Crew: Fei Junlong, Nie Haisheng. Backup crew: Liu Buoming, Jing Haipen.Support crew: Zhai Zhigang, Wu Jie.

Shenzhou 7.

  • Crew: Zhai Zhigang, Liu Buoming, Jing Haipen. First Chinese EVA. First Chinese three-crew spaceflight. Third Chinese manned space mission. The Shenzhou was flown with the full complement of three crew and astronaut Zhai conducted China's first spacewalk. Backup crew: Chen Quan, Fei Junlong, Nie Haisheng.

Skylab 2.

  • Crew: Conrad, Kerwin, Weitz. Record flight duration. Crew had to conduct major repairs to get damaged station in operation. Astronaut flung into space during release of solar wing. High temperatures in station brought down by deployment of sunshade. Backup crew: McCandless, Musgrave, Schweickart.

Skylab 3.

  • Crew: Bean, Garriott, Lousma. Installed twinpole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Leaks in Apollo CSM thrusters led to preparation of a rescue mission. Decided to make landing with faulty thrusters instead. Backup crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind.

Skylab 4.

  • Crew: Carr, Gibson Edward, Pogue. Record flight duration. Final Skylab mission; included observation and photography of Comet Kohoutek among numerous experiments. Rebellion by crew against NASA Ground Control overtasking led to none of the crew ever flying again. Backup crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind.

Skylab 5.

  • Crew: Brand, Lind, Lenoir. After completion of the three programmed Skylab flights, NASA considered using the remaining backup Saturn IB and Apollo CSM to fly a fourth manned mission to Skylab. It would have been a short 20 day mission - the CSM systems would not have powered down.

Skylab B.

  • After the completion of Apollo, Skylab, and ASTP programs there was still significant Apollo surplus hardware. Plans to use it were cancelled; an opportunity to launch an International Space Station, at a tenth the cost and twenty years earlier, was lost.

Skylab Rescue.

  • Crew: Brand, Lind. Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the only time in its history. Prepared for launch during Skylab 3. Scrubbed, Skylab 3 made landing with faulty thrusters instead.

Soviet Lunar Landing.

  • The Russians were never able to have enough success with the N1 booster to have a serious schedule for the first Soviet lunar landing. In January 1969, before the first N1 launch, it was not expected that a Soviet landing would take place until 1972.

Soyuz (Almaz) 12.

  • Crew: Artyukhin, Popovich. Planned first crew to the first Almaz space station. Cancelled after the loss of control of Almaz OPS 1 (Salyut 2) in orbit. Backup crew: Volynov, Zholobov.

Soyuz (Almaz) 13.

  • Crew: Demin, Sarafanov. Planned second crew to the first Almaz space station. Cancelled after the loss of control of Almaz OPS 1 (Salyut 2) in orbit. Backup crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov.

Soyuz 1.

  • Crew: Komarov. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 was to dock with Soyuz 2 and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; astronaut killed on impact with earth. Backup crew: Gagarin.

Soyuz 10.

  • Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov.Support crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov.

Soyuz 11.

  • Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. First space station mission. Record flight duration. Main telescope inoperative. Fire in space station put out. Fail-safe valve opening during re-entry, resulted in decompression and death of entire crew. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov.

Soyuz 12.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov.

Soyuz 12 / DOS 1.

  • Crew: Kolodin, Leonov, Rukavishnikov. If the Soyuz 11 crew had not perished during return to the earth, the Leonov crew would have been sent for a second visit to the Salyut 1 space station. A 30-day mission duration was planned. Backup crew: Gubarev, Sevastyanov, Voronov.

Soyuz 12 / DOS 2.

  • Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Grechko, Gubarev.

Soyuz 12 / DOS 3.

  • Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Grechko, Gubarev.

Soyuz 13.

  • Crew: Klimuk, Lebedev. First Byelorussian astronaut. First space mission devoted to a single scientific instrument. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. Backup crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky.

Soyuz 13 / DOS 2.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov.

Soyuz 13 / DOS 3.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov.

Soyuz 14.

  • Crew: Artyukhin, Popovich. First military space station mission. Manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. Backup crew: Demin, Sarafanov.Support crew: Rozhdestvensky, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov.

Soyuz 15.

  • Crew: Demin, Sarafanov. Second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, aborted when the Igla rendezvous system electronics failed and no docking was made. Backup crew: Volynov, Zholobov.Support crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov.

Soyuz 16.

  • Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space. Backup crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov.Support crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko.

Soyuz 16A.

  • Crew: Volynov, Zholobov. Planned but cancelled third mission to the Salyut 3 space station. Backup crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov.

Soyuz 17.

  • Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. First successful Russian civilian space station mission. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov.

Soyuz 18.

  • Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Kovalyonok, Ponomaryov.

Soyuz 18-1.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. First manned spaceflight abort. During launch third stage separation failed to occur. Crew aborted to 20 G landing in mountains near Chinese border, sliding down a slope towards a cliff until their parachute snagged on a tree. Backup crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov.

Soyuz 19 (ASTP).

  • Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov.Support crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko.

Soyuz 21.

  • Crew: Volynov, Zholobov. Military space station mission. Hand-docked with the Salyut 5 station after failure of automated Igla system. Crew member became psychotic and mission was returned to earth from space station early. Toxic gases in station were suspected. Backup crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov.Support crew: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Lisun.

Soyuz 22.

  • Crew: Aksyonov, Bykovsky. Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Backup crew: Malyshev, Strekalov.Support crew: Andreyev, Popov.

Soyuz 23.

  • Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Docking with Salyut 5 military station aborted due to electronics failure. Crew nearly froze to death after an emergency landing in a lake in a blizzard at -20 deg C. It took hours before the capsule could be dragged to shore. Backup crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko.Support crew: Berezovoi, Lisun.

Soyuz 24.

  • Crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko. First complete change of cabin atmosphere for a space station. Special apparatus brought up to Salyut 5 to vent the entire station through the EVA airlock. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. Backup crew: Berezovoi, Lisun.Support crew: Kozelsky, Preobrazhensky.

Soyuz 25.

  • Crew: Kovalyonok, Ryumin. Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6 due to damage to spacecraft's docking mechanism. Backup crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko.

Soyuz 25A.

  • Crew: Berezovoi, Lisun. Mission to the Salyut 5 space station, cancelled when fuel reserves aboard the station were 70 kg below those required for the planned 14 day mission. Backup crew: Kozelsky, Preobrazhensky.

Soyuz 26.

Soyuz 26A.

  • Crew: Dzhanibekov, Kolodin. Planned mission to Salyut 6 that would make first docking with rear docking port and be the first crew to swap spacecraft and return in the spacecraft that ferried the Soyuz 25 crew. But Soyuz 25 failed to dock with Salyut 6. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.

Soyuz 27.

Soyuz 28.

Soyuz 29.

Soyuz 2A.

  • Crew: Bykovsky, Khrunov, Yeliseyev. Soyuz 2 was to dock with Soyuz 1 and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; death of cosmonaut. Soyuz 2 cancelled. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Kubasov, Nikolayev.

Soyuz 3.

  • Crew: Beregovoi. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock, blamed on manual control by cosmonaut who repeatedly overrode automatic systems, and used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock. Backup crew: Shatalov, Volynov.

Soyuz 30.

Soyuz 31.

Soyuz 32.

Soyuz 32.

Soyuz 33.

Soyuz 34.

Soyuz 35.

Soyuz 36.

Soyuz 37.

Soyuz 38.

Soyuz 39.

Soyuz 4.

  • Crew: Shatalov. First Russian docking. Mission successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Backup crew: Shonin.

Soyuz 4.

  • Flight back of Soyuz 4-5 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz 4/5.

  • Crew: Khrunov, Yeliseyev. First crew transfer in space. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Suit hung up on attempt to exit and flow of oxygen shut off; diverted crew, resulting in no film of the world's first space crew transfer. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kubasov.

Soyuz 40.

Soyuz 5.

  • Crew: Volynov. Two crew transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4. Remaining astronaut barely survived nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kubasov.

Soyuz 5.

Soyuz 5 (Khrunov, Yeliseyev).

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz 4-5 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz 5 (Volynov).

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz 5 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz 6.

  • Crew: Kubasov, Shonin. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. First vacuum welding in space. Rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft, scrubbing three-way spacecraft rendezvous mission. Backup crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev.

Soyuz 7.

  • Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Volkov. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Backup crew: Kolodin, Shatalov, Yeliseyev.

Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1.

  • Crew: Leonov, Makarov. Planned first manned circumnavigation of the moon. It was decided after the American Apollo 8 lunar orbital flight in December 1968 to cancel any 'second place' Soviet manned circumlunar flights. Backup crew: Kuklin.

Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2.

  • Crew: Bykovsky, Rukavishnikov. Planned second Soviet circumlunar flight. Cancelled after the success of the American Apollo 8. Backup crew: Klimuk.

Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3.

  • Crew: Popovich, Sevastyanov. Planned third and final Russian circumlunar flight. Cancelled after the success of the American Apollo 8 in December 1968. Backup crew: Voloshin.

Soyuz 8.

  • Crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Backup crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov.

Soyuz 9.

  • Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Record flight duration. Head-over-heels rotation of Soyuz to conserve fuel and lack of exercise resulted in terrible condition of astronauts on return. The Soviets almost reconsidered their space station plans as a result. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Grechko.Support crew: Lazarev, Yazdovsky.

Soyuz A-1.

  • Crew: Nikolayev, Demin. Planned Soyuz circumlunar mission. Soyuz would dock with a refuelled rocket stage and be accelerated on a loop around the moon. Cancelled in mid-1964 due to delays in Soyuz and decision to race Americans to moon landing. Backup crew: Shonin, Kugno.

Soyuz A-2.

  • Crew: Bykovsky, Artyukhin. The planned second manned Soyuz circumlunar mission in 1965 would have been commanded by Bykovsky. The cosmonauts trained docking with the 9K and 11K rocket stages for months before the mission concept was dumped in August 1964. Backup crew: Zaikin, Gulyayev.

Soyuz A-3.

  • Crew: Popovich, Ponomaryova. Popovich was to have been accompanied by female cosmonaut Ponomaryova in what would have been the first mixed crew crew flight to the moon in 1965. The program was cancelled in August 1964. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Kolodin.

Soyuz A-4.

  • Crew: Beregovoi, Solovyova. Planned fourth Soyuz circumlunar mission. Cancelled August 1964. Backup crew: Shatalov, Zholobov.

Soyuz Almaz 4.

  • Crew: Malyshev, Laveykin. Planned Soyuz flight to a dock with the Almaz OPS 4 space station. The mission was cancelled together with the Almaz program in 1981.

Soyuz Buran Support.

  • Crew: Bachurin, Ivanchenkov. Planned Soyuz flight to Mir. Main purpose was to provide spaceflight experience to Bachurin and Borodai, who had been selected as back-up crew of the first manned Buran flight. Cancelled in cut-backs after fall of the Soviet Union. Backup crew: Borodai, Balandin.

Soyuz Kontakt A.

  • Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko. Final crews selected for a dual Soyuz mission in Earth orbit to test the Kontakt docking system to be used on the lunar landing LOK and LK spacecraft. The Kontakt-A Soyuz would have been the active spacecraft, simulating the LOK lunar orbiter. Backup crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky.

Soyuz Kontakt P.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Final crews selected for a dual Soyuz mission in Earth orbit to test the Kontakt docking system to be used on the lunar landing LOK and LK spacecraft. The Kontakt-P Soyuz would have been the passive spacecraft, simulating the LK lunar lander. Backup crew: Fartushny, Klimuk.

Soyuz n 17.

  • Crew: Grechko, Kuklin. Cancelled 16 day mission with Soyuz n 18 to conduct rendezvous and docking operations and demonstrate life support system for the LK manned lunar lander.

Soyuz n 18.

  • Crew: Khrunov, Yeliseyev. Cancelled 16 day mission with Soyuz n 18 to conduct rendezvous and docking operations and demonstrate life support system for the LOK manned lunar orbiter.

Soyuz n 19.

  • Crew: Fartushny, Shatalov. The active spacecraft in the second planned test of the Kontakt lunar rendezvous/docking system. 15 to 16 day missions to demonstrate the new SZhO life support system for the LOK manned lunar orbiter.

Soyuz n 20.

  • Crew: Patsayev, Shonin, Yazdovsky. Passive spacecraft in the second planned test of the Kontakt lunar rendezvous/docking system. One or two of the crew would have spacewalked to the Soyuz 11 Kontakt and returned in the other spacecraft.

Soyuz s/n 14.

  • Crew: Kubasov, Shonin. As of February 1969 Soyuz s/n 14 was set for a solo seven day mission in April-May 1969. The spacecraft and crew were reassigned to the three-spacecraft Soyuz 6/7/8 mission and flew as Soyuz 6.

Soyuz s/n 15+16.

  • Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Volkov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. As of February 1969 Soyuz s/n 15 and 16 were set for a mission with a total of 5 cosmonauts aboard in August-September 1969. They would have remained docked together for three days.

Soyuz s/n 18.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 18 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz s/n 19.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 19 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz s/n 20.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 20 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz s/n 21.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 21 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz s/n 22.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 22 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz s/n 23.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz sn 23 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz s/n 3/4.

  • Prior to the Soyuz 1 disaster, planned second dual Soyuz manned docking mission. Crew Komarov, Bykovsky, Khrunov, and Yeliseyev.

Soyuz s/n 5/6.

  • Prior to the Soyuz 1 disaster, planned third dual Soyuz manned docking mission. Crew Gagarin, Nikolayev, Gorbatko, and Kubasov

Soyuz s/n 7.

  • Prior to Soyuz 1 disaster, planned solo Soyuz mission to test Vulkan space welding device. Commander was to be either Komarov, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Nikolayev, Beregovoi, or Shatalov. The other two crewmembers were to be either Lankin and Fartushniy from the Paton Institute, VVS cosmonaut Kolodin, or an engineer from OKB-1.

Soyuz sn 18.

  • Crew: Filipchenko, Grechko. Soyuz s/n 18 would have been the active spacecraft of the first dual-spacecraft test of the Kontakt docking system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.

Soyuz sn 19.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Soyuz s/n 19 was to have been equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. It would have been the docking target for Soyuz s/n 18. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky.

Soyuz sn 20.

  • Crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky. Soyuz s/n 20 would have been the active spacecraft of the second dual launch to test the Kontakt lunar orbit rendezvous system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Yakovlev, Porvatkin.

Soyuz sn 21.

  • Crew: Yakovlev, Porvatkin. Soyuz s/n 21 equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. Would have served as a docking target for Soyuz s/n 20 . A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Kovalyonok, Isakov.

Soyuz sn 22.

  • Crew: Kovalyonok, Isakov. Soyuz s/n 22 would have been the active spacecraft of the second dual launch to test the Kontakt lunar orbit rendezvous system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Shcheglov.

Soyuz sn 23.

  • Crew: Shcheglov. Soyuz s/n 23 would have been equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. The spacecraft would have served as a docking target for Soyuz s/n 22.

Soyuz T-10.

Soyuz T-10-1.

  • Crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. First manned pad abort. Launch vehicle blew up on pad, crew rescued by launch escape tower, which pulled their capsule away at 20 G's. Backup crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir.

Soyuz T-11.

Soyuz T-12.

Soyuz T-13.

Soyuz T-13 (Dzhanibekov).

Soyuz T-13 (Savinykh).

Soyuz T-13A.

  • Crew: Savinykh, Vasyutin, Volkov Aleksandr. Planned mission to operate military experiments aboard Salyut 7. Cancelled due to technical and personnel problems aboard station. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Saley, Viktorenko.

Soyuz T-14.

Soyuz T-14 (Grechko).

Soyuz T-14 (Vasyutin, Volkov Aleksandr).

Soyuz T-15.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-1 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz T-15A.

  • Crew: Volynov, Manarov, Levchenko. Final 'civilian' expedition to Salyut 7 station with Buran pilot aboard for spaceflight familiarisation was cancelled when control of the station was lost. Backup crew: Solovyov, Berezovoi, Shchukin.

Soyuz T-15B.

  • Crew: Aleksandrov, Saley, Viktorenko. Cancelled second crew to operate TKS-3 military experiments aboard Salyut 7. These had been left uncompleted with the early return of the EO-4-2 crew due to Vasyutin's illness. Backup crew: Moskalenko, Serebrov, Solovyov.

Soyuz T-15C.

  • Crew: Dobrokvashina, Ivanova, Savitskaya. Cancelled all-female flight to be launched on International Woman's Day. Breakdown of Salyut 7, exhaustion of stock of Soyuz T spacecraft, and official resistance led to cancellation of the mission. Backup crew: Viktorenko, Aleksandrov, Solovyov.

Soyuz T-2.

Soyuz T-3.

Soyuz T-3A.

  • Crew: Lazarev, Polyakov, Strekalov. Planned but cancelled manned flight. Crew dissolved when Lazarev failed physical in early 1981. Backup crew: Isaulov, Potapov, Rukavishnikov.

Soyuz T-4.

Soyuz T-5.

Soyuz T-6.

Soyuz T-7.

Soyuz T-8.

  • Crew: Serebrov, Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. Manned three crew. Unsuccessful mission. Igla approach system antenna was damaged during ascent; failed to rendezvous with Salyut 7. Further attempts toman Salyut 7 could not take place for two months because of launch and abort lighting constraints. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov, Savinykh.

Soyuz T-9.

Soyuz TM-10.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-7 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-11.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-8 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-11 (Afanasyev, Manarov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-8 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-11 (Akiyama).

Soyuz TM-12.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-9 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-12 (Artsebarsky).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-9 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-12 (Krikalyov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir LD-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-12 (Sharman).

  • Alternate designation for Mir Juno manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-13.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-10 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-13 (Aubakirov, Viehboeck).

Soyuz TM-13 (Volkov Aleksandr).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-10 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-13A.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Viehboeck, Volkov Aleksandr. Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial considerations and necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. This was the original crew assignment. Kaleri and Avdeyev were replaced by Kazakh researchers in the final crew. Backup crew: Avdeyev, Lothaller, Viktorenko.

Soyuz TM-14.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-11 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-14 (Flade).

  • Alternate designation for Mir 92 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-14 (Kaleri, Viktorenko).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-11 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-14A.

  • Crew: Aubakirov, Avdeyev, Viktorenko. Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial seat bookings by Austria and Germany and the necessity of flying a Kazakh-born cosmonaut as part of the Baikonur rental agreement. Backup crew: Musabayev, Polishchuk, Solovyov.

Soyuz TM-14B.

  • Crew: Korzun, Aleksandrov, Aubakirov. Soyuz TM-13 and TM-14 crews were reshuffled extensively due to commercial seat bookings by Austria and Germany and the necessity of flying a Kazakh-born cosmonaut as part of the Baikonur rental agreement. Backup crew: Tsibliyev, Laveykin, Musabayev.

Soyuz TM-15.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-12 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-15 (Avdeyev, Solovyov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-12 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-15 (Tognini).

  • Alternate designation for Mir Antares manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-16.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-13 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-17.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-14 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-17 (Haignere).

  • Alternate designation for Mir Altair manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-17 (Serebrov, Tsibliyev).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-14 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-18.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-15 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-18 (Afanasyev, Usachyov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-15 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-18 (Polyakov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir LD-4 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-19.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-16 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-2.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-2 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-2 (Laveykin).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-2 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-2 (Romanenko).

  • Alternate designation for Mir LD-1 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-20.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-17 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-20 (Kondakova, Viktorenko).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-17 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-20 (Merbold).

Soyuz TM-21.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-18 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-22.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-20 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-23.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-21 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-24.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-22 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-24 (Andre-Deshays).

Soyuz TM-24 (Kaleri, Korzun).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-22 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-25.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-23 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-25 (Ewald).

  • Alternate designation for Mir 97 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-25 (Lazutkin, Tsibliyev).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-23 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-26.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-24 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-27.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-25 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-27 (Budarin, Musabayev).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-25 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-27 (Eyharts).

  • Alternate designation for Mir Pegase manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-28.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-26 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-28 (Avdeyev).

Soyuz TM-28 (Baturin).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EP-4 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-28 (Padalka).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-26 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-29.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-27 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-29 (Afanasyev, Haignere).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-27 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-29 (Bella).

  • Alternate designation for Mir Stefanik manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-3.

  • Crew: Aleksandrov. Aleksandrov replaced the ailing EO-2 crew member Laveykin and remained aboard Mir with Romanenko. Backup crew: Savinykh.

Soyuz TM-3.

Soyuz TM-3 (Aleksandrov).

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz TM-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-3 (Faris, Viktorenko).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EP-1 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-30.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-28 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-31.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-1 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-32.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-1 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-33.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-2 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-34.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-4.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-4 (Levchenko).

  • Alternate designation for Mir LII-1 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-4 (Manarov, Titov Vladimir).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-5.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EP-2 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-5.

  • Flight up of Mir EP-2 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-5.

  • Flight back of Mir EP-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-6.

Soyuz TM-6 (Lyakhov, Mohmand).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EP-3 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-6 (Polyakov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir LD-2 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-7.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-4 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-7 (Chretien).

  • Alternate designation for Mir Aragatz manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-7 (Krikalyov, Volkov Aleksandr).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-4 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-8.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-5 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TM-8A.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Sevastyanov, Stankiavicius. Planned flight to ensure continuous occupation cancelled due to budget cutbacks and delay in launching Kvant 2 and Kristall modules.

Soyuz TM-9.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-6 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-1.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EP-4 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-10.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-15 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-11.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-16 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-12.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-17 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-13.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-18 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-14.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-19 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-15.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-20 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-16.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-21 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-17.

Soyuz TMA-18.

Soyuz TMA-19.

Soyuz TMA-2.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-7 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-20.

Soyuz TMA-2A.

  • Crew: Padalka, Duque, Kotov. Soyuz TMA-2 was originally to switch lifeboats on the ISS. After the loss of Columbia, and grounding of the remaining shuttles, it was instead flown by a two-man skeleton crew to keep the station alive until shuttle flights could resume.

Soyuz TMA-3.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-8 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-3 (Duque).

Soyuz TMA-3A.

  • Crew: Dezhurov, Kuipers, Skripochka. Soyuz TMA-3 was originally to switch lifeboats on the ISS. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. Soyuz TMA-3 instead flew with a skeleton crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded.

Soyuz TMA-4.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-9 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-4A.

  • Crew: Musabayev, Schlegel. Soyuz TMA-4 was originally to switch lifeboats on the ISS. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. Soyuz TMA-4 instead flew with a skeleton crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle was grounded.

Soyuz TMA-5.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-10 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-6.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-11 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-7.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-12 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-8.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-13 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz TMA-9.

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-14 manned spaceflight.

Soyuz VI Flight 1.

  • Crew: Kolesnikov, Popovich. The planned first flight of the Soyuz VI combat spacecraft was planned for early 1969, beating America's equivalent Manned Orbiting Lab. The project was cancelled in 1968 in favour of Mishin's OIS (in turn cancelled in 1970) and Chelomei's Almaz stations. Backup crew: Belousov, Gubarev.

Soyuz-Almaz-T-1.

  • Planned launch to tend Almaz-T-1 station. Cancelled after the station's booster exploded on the way to orbit on 29 November 1986.

SpaceShipOne Flight 15P.

  • Crew: Melvill. First private manned spaceflight. Fourth powered flight of SpaceShipOne and first flight above 100 km altitude. Spacecraft rolled 90 degrees right and left at motor ignition; attitude control lost at engine shut down; engine fairing collapsed.

SpaceShipOne Flight 16P.

  • Crew: Melvill. Fifth powered flight of Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne and first of two flights over 100 km that needed to be accomplished in a week to win the $10 million X-Prize. Spacecraft did a series of 60 rolls during last stage of engine burn.

SpaceShipOne Flight 17P.

  • Crew: Binnie. Suborbital altitude record for a manned spaceplane Sixth powered flight of Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne and winner of the $10 million X-Prize by becoming the second flight over 100 km within a week.

STS-1.

  • Crew: Crippen, Young. First rocketplane flight to orbit. First flight of space shuttle. The only time a new spacecraft was launched manned on its first flight. Many thought it would be a disaster.

STS-10.

  • Crew: Mattingly, Shriver, Onizuka, Buchli, Payton. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Backup crew: Wright.

STS-100.

  • Crew: Ashby, Guidoni, Hadfield, Lonchakov, Parazynski, Phillips, Rominger. ISS Assembly flight. Continued the outfitting of the Station. Installed the 18 meter, 1,700 kg Canadarm-2 robotic arm and 4,500 kg of supplies aboard the Italian cargo container Raffaello.

STS-101.

  • Crew: Halsell, Helms, Horowitz, Usachyov, Voss, Weber, Williams Jeffrey. First flight with new 'glass cockpit'. ISS Logistics flight. Repair, resupply and construction tasks aboard the international space station.

STS-102.

  • Crew: Kelly, Richards Paul, Thomas Andrew, Wetherbee. STS 102 was an American shuttle spacecraft that carried a crew of seven astronauts (six American and one Russian). The primary mission was to deliver a multi-rack Italian container (Leonardo MultiPurpose Logistics Module, LMPLM) to the Destiny Module of t

STS-102 (Helms, Usachyov, Voss).

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-2 manned spaceflight.

STS-103.

  • Crew: Brown, Clervoy, Foale, Grunsfeld, Kelly Scott, Nicollier, Smith Steven. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A,

STS-104.

  • Crew: Gernhardt, Hobaugh, Kavandi, Lindsey, Reilly. ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Quest Airlock.

STS-105.

  • Crew: Barry, Forrester, Horowitz, Sturckow. ISS Assembly flight. Delivered five tonnes of supplies, hardware, and a bedroom suite to accommodate a third astronaut in the Destiny module. Installed two science experiment racks delivered in the Leonardo module.

STS-105 (Culbertson, Dezhurov, Tyurin).

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-3 manned spaceflight.

STS-106.

  • Crew: Altman, Burbank, Lu, Malenchenko, Mastracchio, Morukov, Wilcutt. Docked with ISS. Outfitted the new Zvezda module for the arrival of the first permanent EO-1 crew.

STS-107.

  • Crew: Anderson, Brown David, Chawla, Clark, Husband, McCool, Ramon. First Israeli astronaut. Conducted experiments in Double Spacehab module. Crew perished when shuttle broke up during re-entry. Cause was damage to a leading-edge RCC from foam breaking off of external tank bipod strut.

STS-108.

  • Crew: Godwin, Gorie, Kelly Mark, Tani. ISS Logistics flight. Brought supplies to the Station aboard the Raffaello module,

STS-108 (Bursch, Onufrienko, Walz).

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-4 manned spaceflight.

STS-109.

  • Crew: Altman, Carey, Currie, Grunsfeld, Linnehan, Massimino, Newman. Hubble Servicing Mission 3B.

STS-110.

  • Crew: Bloomfield, Frick, Morin, Ochoa, Ross, Smith Steven, Walheim. ISS Assembly flight. Carried the S0 truss segment to the ISS, the first segment of the main backbone of the station to which the solar arrays would be attached.

STS-111.

  • Crew: Chang-Diaz, Cockrell, Lockhart, Perrin. ISS Logistics flight. Delivered the MBS Mobile Base System and some interior experiment racks.

STS-111 (Korzun, Treshchev, Whitson).

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-5 manned spaceflight.

STS-112.

  • Crew: Ashby, Melroy, Wolf, Sellers, Magnus, Yurchikhin. ISS Assembly flight. Extended the truss of the exterior rail line with a 14-m, 13-ton girder. At liftoff primary hold-down bolt initiators failed; backups functioned. At T+33s, a piece of the bipod ramp separated, hitting booster-tank attachment.

STS-113.

  • Crew: Herrington, Lockhart, Lopez-Alegria, Wetherbee. ISS assembly mission. Delivered 13.7-m, 12.5 ton truss to ISS. Four attempts to land on consecutive days, called because of bad weather.

STS-113 (Bowersox, Budarin, Pettit).

  • Alternate designation for ISS EO-6 manned spaceflight.

STS-114.

  • Crew: Collins Eileen, Kelly, Noguchi, Robinson, Thomas Andrew, Lawrence, Camarda. Shuttle return to flight. Primary objective was to verify fixes made to external tank to prevent foam and ice shedding that killed STS-107 crew. Also resupplied ISS, which had to rely on smaller Progress logistics flights while the shuttle was grounded.

STS-115.

  • Crew: Jett, Ferguson, Stefanyshyn-Piper, Tanner, Burbank, MacLean. ISS logistics flight. Delivered equpment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module.

STS-116.

  • Crew: Polansky, Oefelein, Curbeam, Patrick, Fuglesang, Higginbotham. First Swedish astronaut. Most demanding ISS assembly mission to date. Completed installation of the P5 truss, retracted the recalcitrant port P6 solar array wing, and activated the truss electrical and cooling system.

STS-117.

  • Crew: Sturckow, Archambault, Forrester, Swanson, Olivas, Reilly. Final major step in assembly of the ISS truss and power-generating solar array segments. The S3/S4 Truss and its solar arrays were delivered and installed.

STS-118.

  • Crew: Kelly Scott, Hobaugh, Caldwell, Mastracchio, Williams Dave, Morgan, Drew. ISS logistic mission. Delivered consumables, and completed necessary supplementary assembly, repair, and external equipment moves necessary for the next major stage of ISS assembly.

STS-119.

  • Crew: Archambault, Antonelli, Phillips, Swanson, Acaba, Arnold. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the fourth starboard truss segment (ITS S6) and fourth set of solar arrays and batteries.

STS-119A.

  • Crew: Lindsey, Kelly Mark, Gernhardt, Noriega, Padalka, Fincke, Kononenko O D. Flight delayed after the Columbia disaster. STS-119 was to have flown ISS Assembly mission ISS-15A. It would have delivered the fourth and final set of U.S. solar arrays along with the S6 fourth starboard truss segment.

STS-12.

  • Crew: Hartsfield, Coats, Mullane, Hawley, Resnik. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled after IUS failures.

STS-120.

  • Crew: Melroy, Zamka, Parazynski, Wheelock, Wilson, Nespoli. ISS assembly mission. Delivered the Harmony module to the station, and external work moved the P6 truss to its final location and put the ISS into its full-power configuration for the first time.

STS-120A.

  • Crew: Halsell, Poindexter, Lawrence, Sellers, Wilson, Foreman. Flight delayed, then completely reorganized with a different crew and different orbiter after the Columbia disaster. STS-120 would have delivered to the station the second of three station connecting modules, Node 2.

STS-121.

  • Crew: Lindsey, Kelly Mark, Fossum, Nowak, Wilson, Sellers. ISS logistics flight. Delivered equpment and supplies aboard the Leonardo cargo module.

STS-121A.

  • Crew: Chiao, Phillips, Sharipov. Cancelled after Columbia disaster; would have flown ISS Assembly mission ISS-9A.1, delivering the SPP with 4 Solar Arrays to the station.

STS-122.

  • Crew: Frick, Poindexter, Walheim, Love, Melvin, Schlegel. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Columbus European Laboratory Module and the Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure - Non-Deployable (MPESS-ND).

STS-122A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-125 manned spaceflight.

STS-123.

  • Crew: Gorie, Johnson Gregory H, Linnehan, Behnken, Foreman, Doi. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) and the Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 1 (SLP-D1) with the Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (Dextre).

STS-123A.

  • Cancelled after Columbia disaster; would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF4. It would have delivered the contents of an Express Pallet, plus the SPDM and AMS to the station

STS-124.

  • Crew: Kelly Mark, Ham, Nyberg, Garan, Fossum, Hoshide. ISS assembly mission. Delivered to the ISS and installed the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM) and the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM RMS).

STS-124A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-123 manned spaceflight.

STS-125.

  • Crew: Altman, Johnson Gregory C, Grunsfeld, Massimino, Feustel, Good, McArthur. Fourth and final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Only shuttle mission authorized prior to shuttle retirement not to go to the ISS - therefore with no means of space rescue should the heat shield be damaged during ascent to orbit.

STS-126.

  • Crew: Ferguson, Boe, Pettit, Bowen, Stefanyshyn-Piper, Kimbrough. ISS logistics flight. Station resupply with Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM).

STS-126A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF3; carried an MPLM module and Express Pallet for delivery of equipment and supplies

STS-127.

  • Crew: Polansky, Hurley, Cassidy, Marshburn, Wolf, Payette. Deliver to the ISS and install the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF); Kibo Japanese Experiment Logistics Module - Exposed Section (ELM-ES); and Spacelab Pallet - Deployable 2 (SLP-D2).

STS-127A.

  • Alternate designation for STS-122 manned spaceflight.

STS-128.

  • Crew: Sturckow, Ford, Forrester, Hernandez, Fuglesang, Olivas. Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM); Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC); Three-crew quarters, galley, and second treadmill (TVIS2); and the Crew Health Care System 2 (CHeCS 2).

STS-128A.

  • Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Flight 5. Flight delayed, then cancelled after the Columbia disaster. No crew had been named at the time of the loss of Columbia. Resurrected later after Congressional pressure.

STS-129.

  • Crew: Hobaugh, Wilmore, Foreman, Bresnik, Melvin, Satcher. Resupply mission to deliver to the ISS the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 2 (ELC2).

STS-130.

  • Crew: Zamka; Virts; Hire; Robinson; Behnken; Patrick. Deliver to the ISS and install the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC)

STS-130A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF5. Equipment and supplies would have been delivered to the station aboard an MPLM and Express Pallet.

STS-131.

  • Crew: Poindexter; Dutton; Metcalf-Lendenburger; Wilson; Mastracchiio; Yamazaki; Anderson,Clayton. Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC3) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4).

STS-131A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-14A. 4 SPP Arrays and the MMOD would have been delivered to the station.

STS-132.

  • Crew: Ham; Antonelli; Good; Sellers; Bowen; Reisman. Deliver to the ISS and install Node 3 with Cupola. With this mission ISS assembly is to have been completed.

STS-132A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF6. Supplies and equipment would have been delivered via an MPLM and EXPRESS Pallet in the cargo ba

STS-133.

  • Crew: Lindsey; Boe; Drew; Barratt; Bowen; Stott. Contingency flight to assure ISS completion; nominal payload EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 5 (ELC5) and EXPRESS Logistics Carrier 1 (ELC1). Astronaut Skopra was replaced by Bowen one month before launch when he was injured in a bicycle accident.

STS-133A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-20A. Node 3 would have been delivered to the station.

STS-134.

  • Last ISS assembly mission and last flight of shuttle Endeavour. Crew: Kelly, Mark; Johnson, Gregory; Fincke; Chamitoff; Feustel; Vittori.

STS-134A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-16A. The Habitation module would have been delivered to the station.

STS-135.

  • Last flight of shuttle Atlantis and last space shuttle flight. Delivered supplies to keep ISS running at six-crew level until commercial resupply was to come on line in 2012. Crew: Ferguson; Hurley; Walheim; Magnus. Extra contingency mission at end of shuttle program. The crew trained as STS-335, a rescue mission to return the STS-134 crew to earth if they became marooned in space. After the safe return of STS-134, the mission proceeded as STS-135, with a reduced crew that could be returned over an 18 month period aboard Soyuz capsules in case the crew could not return in Atlantis.

STS-135A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-17A. An MPLM would have delivered Destiny lab racks and a CBA to the station.

STS-136A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-18A. The first US Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) would have been delivered to the station.

STS-137A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS assembly mission ISS-19A. An MPLM and other station hardware would be delivered.

STS-138A.

  • Flight cancelled after the Columbia disaster. Would have flown ISS resupply mission ISS-UF7. The Centrifuge Accomodations Module (CAM) would have been delivered to the station.

STS-2.

  • Crew: Engle, Truly. First reuse of a manned space vehicle. First use of a remote manipulator in space. Second shuttle test flight. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right SRM aft field joint, the worst until the loss of the space shuttle Challenger.

STS-26.

  • Crew: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3.

STS-27.

  • Crew: Gardner Guy, Gibson, Mullane, Ross, Shepherd. Manned military mission, five crew. Robot arm used to deploy a classified satellite. At T+85 seconds a large piece of SRB nose cone struck the shuttle. The orbiter took 707 hits; one tile was knocked off. The crew was unsure if they would survive reentry.

STS-28.

  • Crew: Adamson, Brown Mark, Leestma, Richards, Shaw. Manned five crew. Deployed two classified satellites.

STS-29.

  • Crew: Bagian, Blaha, Buchli, Coats, Springer. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 4.

STS-2A.

  • Crew: Haise, Lousma. Planned shuttle mission to reboost Skylab space station to higher orbit for use by shuttle. Before the first shuttle flew, Skylab burned up in the atmosphere and crashed into the Australian outback on July 11, 1979.

STS-3.

  • Crew: Fullerton, Lousma. First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there.

STS-30.

  • Crew: Cleave, Grabe, Lee, Thagard, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. Deployed Magellan Venus probe. One of five General Purpose Computers failed and had to be replaced with a sixth onboard hardware spare. First time a GPC was switched on orbit.

STS-31.

  • Crew: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope).

STS-32.

  • Crew: Brandenstein, Dunbar, Ivins, Low, Wetherbee. Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Second bipod ramp foam loss.

STS-32R.

  • Alternate designation for STS-32 manned spaceflight.

STS-33.

  • Crew: Blaha, Carter, Gregory, Musgrave, Thornton. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload.

STS-34.

  • Crew: Baker, Chang-Diaz, Lucid, McCulley, Williams Donald. Manned five crew. Deployed Galileo Jupiter probe.

STS-35.

  • Crew: Brand, Durrance, Gardner Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Launch scrubbed several times due to hydrogen leaks.

STS-36.

  • Crew: Casper, Creighton, Hilmers, Mullane, Thuot. Classified mission in 62 degree orbit, the highest inclination orbit ever flown by an American mission. Launch delayed due to illness of crew members.

STS-37.

  • Crew: Apt, Cameron, Godwin, Nagel, Ross. Manned five crew. Unscheduled EVA to manually deploy the Gamma-Ray Observatory's high-gain antenna, which failed to deploy upon ground command.

STS-38.

  • Crew: Covey, Culbertson, Gemar, Meade, Springer. Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Launch delayed from July 1990 for series of technical problems. First post-Challenger landing at KSC after mission extended one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at original planned landing site, Edwards.

STS-39.

  • Crew: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Manned seven crew. Deployed USA-70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved Infrared Background Signature Survey .

STS-4.

  • Crew: Hartsfield, Mattingly. First Getaway Specials flown. Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight.

STS-40.

  • Crew: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O Connor, Seddon. Carried Spacelab life sciences module.

STS-41.

  • Crew: Akers, Cabana, Melnick, Richards, Shepherd. Manned five crew. Deployed Ulysses spacecraft.

STS-41-B.

  • Crew: Brand, Gibson, McCandless, McNair, Stewart. First untethered space walk. First shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center. Manned five crew. Deployed Westar 6, Palapa B2; tested Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). O-ring erosion in both the right hand nozzle joint and the left SRB forward field joint.

STS-41-C.

  • Crew: Crippen, Hart, Nelson, Scobee, van Hoften. Manned five crew. First repair on orbit of a satellite, Solar Maximum Mission, snared by astronaut using MMU. Deployed LDEF. Experienced erosion of the primary O-ring in the right-hand nozzle joint.

STS-41-D.

  • Crew: Coats, Hartsfield, Hawley, Mullane, Resnik, Walker. First flight of shuttle Discovery. Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. First launch aborted at T-3 seconds after SSMEs ignited, Toilet failed. First occurrence of blow-by in SRB field joints.

STS-41-E.

  • Crew: Mattingly, Shriver, Onizuka, Buchli, Detroye. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Backup crew: Sundberg.Support crew: Watterson.

STS-41-F.

  • Crew: Bobko, Williams Donald, Seddon, Griggs, Hoffman. Canceled after the STS-10 launch abort required reshuffling of the shuttle schedule. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. The STS-41F payload was added to STS-41D.Officially "cancelled due to payload delays".

STS-41-G.

  • Crew: Crippen, Garneau, Leestma, McBride, Ride, Scully-Power, Sullivan. First spaceflight to include two women. First American woman to walk in space. First Canadian astronaut. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. Manned seven crew. Deployed Earth Radiation Budget Satellite; performed high resolution Earth imagery.

STS-41-H.

  • Crew: Hauck, Walker Dave, Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Casserino, Payton. Planned Department of Defense or TDRS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure. Backup crew: Joseph.

STS-42.

  • Crew: Bondar, Grabe, Hilmers, Merbold, Oswald, Readdy, Thagard. Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1.

STS-43.

  • Crew: Adamson, Baker Mike, Blaha, Low, Lucid. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 5 satellite.

STS-44.

  • Crew: Gregory, Hennen, Henricks, Musgrave, Runco, Voss. Manned six crew. Deployed Defense Support Program satellite.

STS-45.

  • Crew: Bolden, Duffy, Foale, Frimout, Leestma, Lichtenberg, Sullivan. First Belgian astronaut. Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package.

STS-46.

  • Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Hoffman, Ivins, Malerba, Nicollier, Shriver. First Italian astronaut. First Swiss astronaut. Manned seven crew. Deployed Eureca-1; failed to deploy Italian tether probe TSS-1.

STS-47.

  • Crew: Apt, Brown, Davis, Gibson, Jemison, Lee, Mohri. First on-time Shuttle launch since November 1985. First Japanese astronaut aboard shuttle. First African-American woman to fly in space. First married couple to fly on the same space mission Carried Spacelab-J with microgravity and biology experiments.

STS-48.

  • Crew: Brown Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research.

STS-49.

  • Crew: Akers, Brandenstein, Chilton, Hieb, Melnick, Thornton, Thuot. First flight of shuttle Endeavour. First three-person spacewalk. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-6). Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet.

STS-5.

  • Crew: Allen, Brand, Lenoir, Overmyer. First operational STS mission, first commercial communications satellites deployed, firstfour-person spacecraft crew. EVA cancelled because one astronaut was vomiting so severely due to space sickness.

STS-50.

  • Crew: Baker, Bowersox, DeLucas, Dunbar, Meade, Richards, Trinh. First extended-duration shuttle mission. Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory.

STS-51.

  • Crew: Bursch, Culbertson, Newman, Readdy, Walz. First shuttle night landing in Florida. Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance.

STS-51-A.

  • Crew: Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Hauck, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (Palapa B-2 and Westar Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2.

STS-51-AA.

  • Crew: Creighton, Nagel, Fabian, Lucid, Jarvis, Walker. Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays. Backup crew: Konrad.

STS-51-B.

  • Crew: Gregory, Lind, Overmyer, Thagard, Thornton Bill, van den Berg, Wang. Manned seven crew. Deployed Nusat; carried Spacelab 3, conducted materials processing, environmental, life science, astrophysics,and technology experiments. Suffered the worst O-ring erosion experienced prior to the loss of Challenger

STS-51-C.

  • Crew: Buchli, Mattingly, Onizuka, Payton, Shriver. First shuttle military mission. Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Experienced blow-by in both nozzle joints and erosion and blow-by in two case joints.

STS-51-D.

  • Crew: Bobko, Garn, Griggs, Hoffman, Seddon, Walker, Williams Donald. First politician in space. Deployed Telesat-I (successful) and Syncom IV-3 (motor failed). Inboard right-side brake locked on landing, resulting in severe damage. Senator aboard resented, and had one of the worst cases of space sickness ever recorded.

STS-51-DA.

  • Crew: Shaw, O Connor, Cleave, Spring. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure.

STS-51-E.

  • Crew: Bobko, Williams Donald, Seddon, Griggs, Hoffman, Baudry, Garn. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled due to IUS failure.

STS-51-F.

  • Crew: Acton, Bartoe, Bridges, England, Fullerton, Henize, Musgrave. Manned seven crew. Number one engine shut down prematurely during ascent; abort to orbit declared. Mission continued. Launched PDP; carried Spacelab 2. Primary O-ring was affected by heat.

STS-51-G.

  • Crew: Al-Saud, Baudry, Brandenstein, Creighton, Fabian, Lucid, Nagel. First Saudi astronaut. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D. Experienced blow-by and erosion in both nozzle joints.

STS-51-H.

  • Planned EOM-1/2 shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays.

STS-51-I.

  • Crew: Covey, Engle, Fisher William, Lounge, van Hoften. First retrieval, repair, and relaunch of a satellite in orbit (Leasat 3). Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4. Suffered primary O-ring erosion in two locations on the left-hand SRM nozzle joint.

STS-51-J.

  • Crew: Bobko, Grabe, Hilmers, Pailes, Stewart. First flight of shuttle Atlantis. Military mission, manned five crew. Deployed USA-11, USA-12.

STS-51-K.

  • Planned Spacelab-D1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew selected; renamed STS-61A

STS-51-L.

  • Crew: Jarvis, McAuliffe, McNair, Onizuka, Resnik, Scobee, Smith. First shuttle launch from pad LC-39B. An O-ring failure in a solid rocket booster led to leaking of hot gases against the external tank; exploded 73 seconds after launch, all seven crew, with no means of escape, were killed when crew cabin hit the ocean.

STS-52.

  • Crew: Baker Mike, Jernigan, MacLean, Shepherd, Veach, Wetherbee. Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. External tank lost a 10 x 20 cm corner of the left bipod ramp; orbiter took a higher-than-average 290 hits on upper and lower tiles.

STS-53.

  • Crew: Bluford, Cabana, Clifford, Voss, Walker Dave. Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA-89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction.

STS-54.

  • Crew: Casper, Harbaugh, Helms, McMonagle, Runco. Manned five crew. Deployed TDRSS 6.

STS-55.

  • Crew: Harris, Henricks, Nagel, Precourt, Ross, Schlegel, Walter. Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2.

STS-56.

  • Crew: Cameron, Cockrell, Foale, Ochoa, Oswald. First radio contact between Shuttle and Mir space station. Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201.

STS-57.

  • Crew: Currie, Duffy, Grabe, Low, Voss Janice, Wisoff. First flight of Spacehab module. Manned six crew. Retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft.

STS-58.

  • Crew: Blaha, Fettman, Lucid, McArthur, Searfoss, Seddon, Wolf. Biological, microgravity experiments aboard Spacelab 2.

STS-59.

  • Crew: Apt, Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Gutierrez, Jones. Carried SRL-1 / SIR-C SAR radar. The Space Radar Laboratory obtained radar high-resolution images of approximately 25 percent of the planet's land surfaces.

STS-6.

  • Crew: Bobko, Musgrave, Peterson, Weitz. First flight of space shuttle Challenger. First space walk of Shuttle program Manned four crew. Deployed Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

STS-60.

  • Crew: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega. First flight of a Russian cosmonaut aboard an American spacecraft. Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir.

STS-61.

  • Crew: Akers, Bowersox, Covey, Hoffman, Musgrave, Nicollier, Thornton. Manned seven crew. Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs on a Space Shuttle Flight to that date.

STS-61-A.

  • Crew: Bluford, Buchli, Dunbar, Furrer, Hartsfield, Messerschmid, Nagel, Ockels. Record crew size aboard a single spacecraft. First Dutch astronaut. Manned eight crew. Launched GLOMR; carried Spacelab D1. Six of the eight crew members were divided into a blue and red team working 12-hour shifts. Experienced O-ring erosion.

STS-61-B.

  • Crew: Cleave, Neri Vela, O Connor, Ross, Shaw, Spring, Walker. Manned seven crew. Deployed Morelos 2, Aussat 2, Satcom K2, OEX. Experienced primary O-ring erosion in both nozzle joints

STS-61-C.

  • Crew: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson Bill. Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Second politician in space; he bumped Jarvis to later launch on which he was killed. Launch scrub saved crew from death due to undetected jammed SSME valve. Experienced nozzle joint O-ring erosion.

STS-61-E.

  • Crew: McBride, Richards, Leestma, Hoffman, Parker, Durrance, Parise. Planned Astro-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Nordsieck.

STS-61-F.

  • Crew: Hauck, Bridges, Lounge, Hilmers. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Ulysses spacecraft. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-61-G.

  • Crew: Walker Dave, Grabe, Thagard, van Hoften. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Galileo spacecraft. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-61-H.

  • Crew: Coats, Blaha, Springer, Buchli, Fisher, Sudarmono Pratiwi, Wood Nigel. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Akbar, Farrimond.

STS-61-I.

  • Crew: Williams Donald, Smith, Dunbar, Carter, Bagian, Bhat. Planned shuttle LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) recovery mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Nair.

STS-61-J.

  • Crew: Young, Bolden, McCandless, Hawley, Sullivan. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of Hubble space telescope. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-61-K.

  • Crew: Brand, Griggs, Stewart, Nicollier, Garriott, Lichtenberg, Lampton, Stevenson. Planned EOM-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew named, later combined with STS-61K Backup crew: Frimout, Chappell.

STS-61-L.

  • Crew: Konrad. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Would have launched the first American journalist in space from Launch Complex 39B. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Cunningham Stephen.

STS-61-M.

  • Crew: Shriver, O Connor, Lee, Ride, Fisher William, Wood Robert. Planned TDRS/IUS deployment shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Walker.

STS-61-N.

  • Crew: Shaw, McCulley, Leestma, Adamson, Brown Mark, Casserino. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Joseph.

STS-62.

  • Crew: Allen Andy, Casper, Gemar, Ivins, Thuot. Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG experiments. The external tank lost a 2.4 x 7 cm piece of foamin the rear face of the left bipod ramp.

STS-62-A.

  • Crew: Crippen, Gardner Guy, Mullane, Ross, Gardner, Aldridge, Watterson. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Would have been first launch from the ill-fated SLC-6 launch site at Vandenberg, California. Backup crew: Odle.

STS-62-B.

  • Crew: Roberts. Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-63.

  • Crew: Collins Eileen, Foale, Harris, Titov Vladimir, Voss Janice, Wetherbee. First African-American to walk in space. First female shuttle pilot. First rendezvous of a shuttle with the Mir space station. Deployed ODERACS 2A-2E; deployed and retrieved Spartan 204. Backup crew: Krikalyov.

STS-64.

  • Crew: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Flew Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II experiments.

STS-65.

  • Crew: Cabana, Chiao, Halsell, Hieb, Mukai, Thomas, Walz. First Japanese woman to fly in space. Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Backup crew: Favier.

STS-66.

  • Crew: Brown, Clervoy, McMonagle, Ochoa, Parazynski, Tanner. Carried Atlas-3 laboratory; deployed and retrieved CRISTA-SPAS.

STS-67.

  • Crew: Durrance, Gregory William, Grunsfeld, Jernigan, Lawrence, Oswald, Parise. First shuttle mission connected to the Internet. Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes.

STS-68.

  • Crew: Baker Mike, Bursch, Jones, Smith Steven, Wilcutt, Wisoff. Carried SIR-C SAR. Continued high-resolution radar mapping of the earth begun on STS-59.

STS-69.

  • Crew: Cockrell, Gernhardt, Newman, Voss, Walker Dave. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, Wake Shield Facility 2.

STS-7.

  • Crew: Crippen, Fabian, Hauck, Ride, Thagard. First US woman in space. Record 5 crew aboard a single spacecraft to date. Thagard flew as physician to study space sickness, which had severely impacted STS-5 operations. Deployed Anik C2, Palapa B1; deployed and retrieved SPAS platform.

STS-70.

  • Crew: Currie, Henricks, Kregel, Thomas, Weber. Deployed TDRS 7.

STS-71.

  • Crew: Baker, Dunbar, Gibson, Harbaugh, Precourt. First docking of a US spacecraft with the Mir space station.

STS-71 (Budarin, Solovyov).

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-19 manned spaceflight.

STS-71-A.

  • Crew: Nordsieck. Planned Astro-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-71-B.

  • Crew: Jones Charles. Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-71-C.

  • Crew: Longhurst. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Holmes.

STS-71-D.

  • Crew: Wood Robert. Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Walker.

STS-71-E.

  • Crew: Gaffney, Phillips. Planned SLS-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Hughes-Fulford.

STS-71-F.

  • Crew: MacLean. Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Tryggvason.

STS-71-M.

  • Crew: Nordsieck. Planned Astro-3 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-72.

  • Crew: Barry, Chiao, Duffy, Jett, Scott Winston, Wakata. Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks.

STS-73.

  • Crew: Bowersox, Coleman, Leslie, Lopez-Alegria, Rominger, Sacco, Thornton. Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments (attached to Columbia).

STS-74.

  • Crew: Cameron, Hadfield, Halsell, McArthur, Ross. Docked with Mir space station. Delivered the Russian-built 316GK Shuttle-Mir docking module to Mir.

STS-75.

  • Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Cheli, Guidoni, Hoffman, Horowitz, Nicollier. Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer.

STS-76.

  • Crew: Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Searfoss, Sega. Shuttle-Mir Mission 3. First American EVA on Mir space station.

STS-76 (Lucid).

  • Alternate designation for Mir NASA-1 manned spaceflight.

STS-77.

  • Crew: Brown, Bursch, Casper, Garneau, Runco, Thomas Andrew. Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module.

STS-78.

  • Crew: Brady, Favier, Helms, Henricks, Kregel, Linnehan, Thirsk. Carried Life and Microgravity Spacelab; human biological and microgravity experiments.

STS-79.

  • Crew: Akers, Apt, Readdy, Walz, Wilcutt. Carried Spacehab Double Module, containing supplies for the Mir.

STS-79 (Blaha).

  • Alternate designation for Mir NASA-2 manned spaceflight.

STS-8.

  • Crew: Bluford, Brandenstein, Gardner, Thornton Bill, Truly. First African-American in space. First shuttle night launch and night landing. First night launch and night landing. Deployed Insat 1B.

STS-80.

  • Crew: Cockrell, Jernigan, Jones, Musgrave, Rominger. Carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, Wake Shield Facility. The shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled the planned spacewalks of the mission.

STS-81.

  • Crew: Baker Mike, Grunsfeld, Ivins, Jett, Wisoff. Transferred 2,715 kg of equipment to and from Mir.

STS-81 (Linenger).

  • Alternate designation for Mir NASA-3 manned spaceflight.

STS-81-G.

  • Crew: Mohri, Mukai. Planned Spacelab-J shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Backup crew: Doi.

STS-81-M.

  • Crew: Hughes-Fulford. Planned SLS-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.

STS-82.

  • Crew: Bowersox, Harbaugh, Hawley, Horowitz, Lee, Smith Steven, Tanner. Hubble repair mission; five spacewalks.

STS-83.

  • Crew: Crouch, Gernhardt, Halsell, Kilrain, Linteris, Thomas, Voss Janice. First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. Orbiter recalled to earth after three days of flight when one of three fuel cells failed. Mission reflown as STS-94. Backup crew: Coleman.

STS-84.

  • Crew: Clervoy, Collins Eileen, Kondakova, Lu, Noriega, Precourt. Delivered to Mir and returned to earth 2500 kg of payload.

STS-84 (Foale).

  • Alternate designation for Mir NASA-4 manned spaceflight.

STS-85.

  • Crew: Brown, Curbeam, Davis, Robinson, Rominger, Tryggvason. Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere.

STS-86.

  • Crew: Bloomfield, Chretien, Lawrence, Parazynski, Titov Vladimir, Wetherbee. Flyaround focused on the damaged Spektr Module to determine the location of the puncture in its hull.

STS-86 (Wolf).

  • Alternate designation for Mir NASA-5 manned spaceflight.

STS-87.

  • Crew: Chawla, Doi, Kadenyuk, Kregel, Lindsey, Scott Winston. Microgravity science mission. Spartan 201 was released, but had to be recaptured by hand during EVA. Loss of external tank intertank foam results in over 100 hits on orbiter heat shield.

STS-88.

  • Crew: Cabana, Currie, Krikalyov, Newman, Ross, Sturckow. First ISS assembly mission. Delivered Unity space station node to orbit.

STS-89.

  • Crew: Anderson, Dunbar, Edwards, Reilly, Sharipov, Wilcutt. First Uzbek astronaut. First flight of Block IIA SSME engines. Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir.

STS-89 (Thomas Andrew).

  • Alternate designation for Mir NASA-6 manned spaceflight.

STS-9.

  • Crew: Garriott, Lichtenberg, Merbold, Parker, Shaw, Young. First West German to fly in space. First Spacelab mission. Record six crew size in a single spacecraft. Suspect exhaust nozzle on right solid rocket booster. Landing delayed when two computers failed. Landed on fire when hydraulic pump leaked.

STS-90.

  • Crew: Altman, Buckey, Hire, Linnehan, Pawelczyk, Searfoss, Williams Dave. Spacelab Long Module / Neurolab mission. Backup crew: Mukai, Dunlap.

STS-91.

  • Crew: Chang-Diaz, Gorie, Kavandi, Lawrence, Precourt, Ryumin. First shuttle flight with super light-weight external tank. Final shuttle-Mir mission. Recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from Mir and took Russian space chief Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour.

STS-92.

  • Crew: Chiao, Duffy, Lopez-Alegria, McArthur, Melroy, Wakata, Wisoff. 100th shuttle mission + 100th US spacewalk. ISS Logistics flight. 100th shuttle flight. Brought the Z-1 Truss , Control Moment Gyros, and Pressurised Mating Adapter-3 to the ISS.

STS-93.

  • Crew: Ashby, Coleman, Collins Eileen, Hawley, Tognini. Delivered Chandra spacecraft. Hydrogen fuel leaked out during ascent, resulting in shuttle running out of propellant and ending up in an orbit 11 km lower than planned.

STS-94.

  • Crew: Crouch, Gernhardt, Halsell, Kilrain, Linteris, Thomas, Voss Janice. First shuttle mission reflight (same vehicle, crew, and payload as curtailed STS-83 mission). MSL-1 Microgravity Science Laboratory.

STS-95.

  • Crew: Brown, Duque, Glenn, Lindsey, Mukai, Parazynski, Robinson. First Spanish astronaut. Oldest man in space, longest gap between two flights for an astronaut. The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years. Spartan 201 satellite released and retrieved.

STS-96.

  • Crew: Barry, Husband, Jernigan, Ochoa, Payette, Rominger, Tokarev. First docking with the ISS. Transferred equipment from the Spacehab Logistics Double Module to the interior of the station.

STS-97.

  • Crew: Jett, Bloomfield, Tanner, Garneau, Noriega. Installed a 72 m x 11.4 m, 65 kW double-wing solar panel on the Unity module of the ISS.

STS-98.

  • Crew: Cockrell, Curbeam, Ivins, Jones, Polansky. ISS Assembly flight. Delivered Destiny module and PMA-2 modules. After this mission the ISS was heavier than Mir.

STS-99.

  • Crew: Gorie, Kavandi, Kregel, Mohri, Thiele, Voss Janice. Deployed the 61 metre long STRM mast, a side-looking radar that digitally mapped the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S.

TKS VA s/n 008.

  • Planned manned single-orbit flight aboard the TKS space capsule during a series of two-TKS-launched-by-one-Proton flight tests. Flown unmanned due to inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches.

TKS-1.

  • Crew: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Makrushin. Planned first test manned flight of the TKS large ferry craft. Would have docked with the Almaz OPS 4 military space station. Flight cancelled with the rest of the Almaz program in 1981. Flown later unmanned to Salyut 6 as Cosmos 1267. Backup crew: Kozelsky, Artyukhin, Romanov.

TKS-2.

  • Crew: Kozelsky, Artyukhin, Romanov. Second TKS flight that would have docked with the cancelled Almaz OPS 4 military space station. The spacecraft was instead flown unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1443. Backup crew: Sarafanov, Preobrazhensky, Yuyukov.

TKS-3.

  • Crew: Sarafanov, Preobrazhensky, Yuyukov. Third TKS flight that would have docked with the cancelled Almaz OPS 4 military space station. The spacecraft was instead flown unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1686. Backup crew: Vasyutin, Rozhdestvensky, Grechanik.

Voskhod 1.

  • Crew: Feoktistov, Komarov, Yegorov. First three-crew spaceflight. Altitude record (336 km). First crew to fly without spacesuits. First non-pilot crew (engineer that designed the spacecraft and a physician). Backup crew: Katys, Lazarev, Volynov.

Voskhod 2.

  • Crew: Belyayev, Leonov. First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Zaikin.

Voskhod 3.

  • Crew: Shonin, Volynov. World-record 18-day space endurance mission, tasked primarily with testing ballistic missile detection equipment. Deferred just 15 days before launch in May 1966. Never formally cancelled, it just faded away in Brezhnev-era stagnation... Backup crew: Beregovoi, Shatalov.

Voskhod 4.

  • Crew: Beregovoi, Katys. Planned second long-duration 20 day Voskhod flight. Cancelled in spring 1966 after near-disaster with Voskhod 2 and death of Korolev. Backup crew: Demin, Shatalov.

Voskhod 5.

  • Crew: Ponomaryova, Solovyova. Planned all-female ten day long-duration flight. Solovyova would have conducted the first female space walk. Cancelled in spring 1966, after death of Korolev, in order to concentrate on Soyuz and Lunar landing programs. Backup crew: Kuznetsova, Yerkina.

Voskhod 6.

  • Crew: Khrunov, Voronov. Planned Voskhod flight that would include EVA with test of the UPMK 'jet belt'. Cancelled in spring 1966. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Kolodin.Support crew: Matinchenko, Zaikin.

Vostok 1.

  • Crew: Gagarin. First manned spaceflight, one orbit of the earth. Strap attaching service module failed to separate from capsule, leading to wild ride before it burned through during re-entry. Backup crew: Titov, Nelyubov.

Vostok 10.

  • Crew: Leonov. Planned ten-day flight, science plus engineering tests of ion flow sensors to be used for orientation of later Soyuz spacecraft. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964. Backup crew: Komarov.

Vostok 11.

  • Crew: Komarov. Proposed Vostok flight to conduct extra-vehicular activity tests. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964 and EVA moved to Voskhod 2. Backup crew: Beregovoi.

Vostok 12.

  • Crew: Beregovoi. Proposed Vostok flight to conduct extra-vehicular activity tests. The Vostok would be modified by having the ejection seat removed and an airlock built into the spacecraft. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in Spring 1964. Backup crew: Komarov.

Vostok 13.

  • Crew: Gorbatko. Proposed high altitude manned Vostok flight for extended scientific studies. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964.

Vostok 2.

  • Crew: Titov. Second manned orbital flight. After 17.5 orbits, the spacecraft reentered and the cosmonaut landed safely. First astronaut to experience space sickness. Day-long flight was a huge blow to America, which had not even orbited a man in space yet. Backup crew: Nikolayev, Nelyubov.

Vostok 3.

  • Crew: Nikolayev. Joint flight with Vostok 4; two Vostok capsules were launched one day apart, coming within a few kilometers of each other. Record flight duration. First simultaneous flight of two manned spacecraft. Backup crew: Bykovsky, Volynov.

Vostok 4.

  • Crew: Popovich. Joint flight with Vostok 3. Problems with life support system, resulted in cabin temperature dropping to 10 deg C. Returned to earth a day early due to communications secret code mix-up. First Ukrainian astronaut. Backup crew: Komarov, Volynov.

Vostok 5.

  • Crew: Bykovsky. Joint flight with Vostok 6. Record flight duration. Spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit and quickly decayed - temperatures in the service module reached very high levels and the flight returned early. Backup crew: Volynov, Leonov.

Vostok 6.

  • Crew: Tereshkova. Joint flight with Vostok 5. First woman in space. Tereshkova did not reply during several communications sessions. To this day it is not known if she was paralysed with fear, or if there was an equipment failure. Backup crew: Solovyova, Ponomaryova.

Vostok 6A.

  • Crew: Ponomaryova. Originally Vostok 5/6 were to be dual female flights. Two capsules would be launched a day apart; each would remain aloft for three days. Changed by leadership to single female flight in March 1963. Backup crew: Yerkina.

Vostok 7.

  • Crew: Volynov. Eight day manned flight planned for the last quarter of 1963, then June 1964. All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Backup crew: Khrunov.

Vostok 8.

  • Crew: Khrunov. Planned ten day manned flight; second high altitude flight into the lower Van Allen radiation belt for radiological-biological studies. All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Backup crew: Belyayev.

Vostok 9.

  • Crew: Belyayev. Proposed high altitude Vostok flight for extended scientific studies to be flown in 1963-1964; All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Backup crew: Leonov.

X-15 Flight 138.

  • Crew: Engle. Maximum Speed - 5522 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85527 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 143.

  • Crew: Engle. Maximum Speed - 5712 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82601 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 150.

  • Crew: McKay. Maximum Speed - 6005 kph. Maximum Altitude - 90099 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 153.

  • Crew: Engle. Maximum Speed - 5718 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81230 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 174.

  • Crew: Dana. Maximum Speed - 6034 kph. Maximum Altitude - 93540 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 190.

  • Crew: Knight. Maximum Speed - 6204 kph. Maximum Altitude - 85500 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 191.

  • Crew: Adams. Fatal accident, aircraft destroyed. After reaching peak altitude, entered spin at Mach 5. Entered dive at 30,000 m, began high frequency pitch oscillations, disintegrated when these reached 15 Gs.Maximum Speed - 5744 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81080 m.

X-15 Flight 197.

  • Crew: Dana. Maximum Speed - 5540 kph. Maximum Altitude - 81530 m. Astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 62.

  • Crew: White Robert. First rocketplane to reach space (USAF defintion). FAI world altitude record. Maximum Speed - 6166 kph. Maximum Altitude - 95940 m. First astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 77.

  • Crew: Walker Joseph. First civilian flight above 80 km. Maximum Speed - 5917 kph. Maximum Altitude - 82810 m. Second astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 87.

  • Crew: Rushworth. Maximum Speed - 5511 kph. Maximum Altitude - 86870 m. Third astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 90.

  • Crew: Walker Joseph. First rocketplane to reach space (FAI defintion). Maximum Speed - 5969 kph. Maximum Altitude - 106010 m. Astronaut wings flight. 80 cm diameter balloon dragged on 30 m line to measure air density. Fourth astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

X-15 Flight 91.

  • Crew: Walker Joseph. Unofficial world altitude record. Maximum Speed - 6105 kph. Maximum Altitude - 107960 m. Second X-15 astronaut flight (FAI definition); fifth astronaut wings flight (USAF definition).

More... - Chronology...

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