Encyclopedia Astronautica
Mir EO-12



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Mir in space
Credit: RKK Energia
Crew: Avdeyev, Solovyov. Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit. Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:58 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m. Backup crew: Manakov, Polishchuk.

Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit. Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:58 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m.

Narrative (adapted from D S F Portree's Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995)

Soyuz TM-15 arrived on 29 July. Aboard were the EO-12 crew of Anatoli Solovyov and Sergei Avdeyev, together with Michel Tognini, the third Frenchman to visit a space station. He conducted ten experiments using 300 kg of equipment delivered by Progress-M flights. The EO-11 crew returned to earth together with Tognini aboard Soyuz TM-14 on 9 August, 1992. The EO-12 began work with their major assignment, installation of the VDU thruster unit on the station.

Progress M-14 arrived at the station on 14 August. The modified Progress-M spacecraft docked at the Kvant port. In place of a tanker compartment, it carried a 700-kg VDU thruster unit designed to be installed atop the Sofora girder mounted on Kvant. The unit was designed to improve Mir's attitude control capabilities. Commands from the TsUP automatically unloaded the VDU unit on September 2.

Avdeyev and Solovyov moved the VDU to the work site and prepared the Sofora girder on September 3. EVA duration was 3 hr, 56 min. On September 7 the cosmonauts bent Sofora back on a hinge at one-third of its length to make its top more accessible, and laid a control cable along the girder. They also removed the remnants of the Soviet flag placed on the mast during its assembly in 1991. It had been reduced to shreds by UV degradation and orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. EVA duration was 5 hr, 8 min. On September 11 the cosmonauts attached the VDU unit atop the Sofora girder and hoisted it into position by straightening the girder. The EVA lasted 5 hr, 44 min.

On a September 15 EVA Solovyov and Avdeyev retrieved solar cell and materials samples and moved the Kurs rendezvous antenna on Kristall so it could be used by Soyuz TM-16. The cosmonauts released the 16.5-kg MAK-2 satellite from the Mir base block's experiment airlock on November 20. Its purpose was to study Earth's ionosphere. The derelict 550-kg Cosmos 1508 satellite, launched by the Soviet Union in 1983, passed within 300 m of Mir on November 8.

On January 26, 1994 Soyuz TM-16 arrived and created a unique Mir configuration when it docked with the lateral APAS-89 docking unit on Kristall. This tested the unit for future operations. EO-13 mission commander Manakov was paying his second visit to Mir. Alexandr Poleshchuk was on his first mission. On January 28 the cosmonauts carried out Rezonans tests on the Mir complex, which at this time weighed more than 90 tons (its heaviest ever) and included seven separately launched spacecraft. The EO-12 crew of Avdeyev and Solovyov return to Earth on February 1. The Soyuz TM-15 descent module lowered to Earth beneath low clouds, touched down, and rolled partway down a hillock. It came to rest 150 m from a frozen marsh.

AKA: Rodnik (Spring - water spring); Soyuz TM-15 (Avdeyev, Solovyov).
First Launch: 1992.07.27.
Last Launch: 1993.02.01.
Duration: 188.90 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Solovyov Solovyov, Anatoliy Yakovlevich (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2, Mir EO-6, Mir EO-12, Mir EO-19, Mir EO-24. 651 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Manakov Manakov, Gennadi Mikhailovich (1950-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-7, Mir EO-13. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK cosmonaut detachment 1987. Call sign: Vulkan (Volcano). More...
  • Polishchuk Polishchuk, Aleksandr Fyodorovich (1953-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-13. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Avdeyev Avdeyev, Sergei Vasilyevich (1956-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-12, Mir EO-20, Mir EO-26/-27. 747 cumulative days in space. Ten spacewalks. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...

Mir EO-12 Chronology


1992 July 27 - . 06:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-15 - . Call Sign: Rodnik (Spring - water spring). Crew: Avdeyev; Solovyov; Tognini. Backup Crew: Haignere; Manakov; Polishchuk. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 65. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev; Solovyov; Tognini; Haignere; Manakov; Polishchuk. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-12; Mir Antares; Mir EO-11. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 188.90 days. Decay Date: 1993-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22054 . COSPAR: 1992-046A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit.

1992 August 10 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-14 - . Return Crew: Kaleri; Tognini; Viktorenko. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kaleri; Tognini; Viktorenko. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-11; Mir Antares; Mir EO-12. Summary: The Soyuz TM-14 crew, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Kaleri, returned to Earth together with French astronaut Michel Tognini. The Soyuz TM-14 undocked from Mir at 21:47 GMT on August 9, and landed in Kazakhstan at 01:07 GMT on August 10..

1992 August 15 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 U15000-064.
  • Progress M-14 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 209. Mass: 7,176 kg (15,820 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 67.04 days. Completed Operations Date: 1992-10-22 23:12:40 . Decay Date: 1992-10-22 23:12:40 . USAF Sat Cat: 22090 . COSPAR: 1992-055A. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Progress M-38 was specially modified to carry the first VDU (Vynosnaya Dvigatel'naya Ustanovka, External Engine Unit) propulsion unit. The VDU was mounted externally on a special structure between the cargo module and the service module, replacing the OKD fuel section present on normal Progress vehicles. The crew spacewalked to extract the VDU from Progress and place it on the end of the Sofora boom extending from the Kvant module. The VDU was used to provide attitude control capability for the Mir station. Docked with Mir on 18 Aug 1992 00:20:48 GMT. Undocked on 21 Oct 1992 16:46:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Oct 1992 23:12:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 64.68 days.

1992 September 3 - . 13:32 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-1 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.16 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Began installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower..

1992 September 4 - .
  • Mir News 145: 1st Solovyov/Avdeyev - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-12. This EVA started on 3.09.92 at 1330 UTC (opening hatch airlock Module-D) and ended at 1749 UTC. This EVA is the 1st one in a series to install the VDU (External Movements Control Motor) in the Sofora girder of Kvant-1. The cosmonauts achieved the goals of this EVA. They worked on the container in which the motor was delivered by the freighter Progress-M14. The cosmonauts will continue this work on 7.09.92. It had been expected that during this EVA the cosmonauts would haul down the Soviet flag still waving in the top of the Sofora girder. They only replaced the flag, but certainly will remove it during one of the next 3 or 4 EVA's.

    During the EVA's OM Peter monitored the traffic from the Altair satellite. This traffic will be analysed later.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1992 September 7 - . 11:47 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-2 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.21 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Continued installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower..

1992 September 11 - . 10:06 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-3 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.24 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Completed installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower..

1992 September 15 - . 07:49 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-12-4 - . Crew: Solovyov; Avdeyev. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Solovyov; Avdeyev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Installed Kurs docking system antenna on Kristall module..

1992 September 25 - .
  • Mir News 147: Mir-CREW - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-12. After the installation of the VDU (Movements Control Motor) in the Sofora girder the cosmonauts got time to work on other matters. They produced semi-conductor materials in the ovens of the Kristall-module and executed a lot of geophysical observations. They made photo's and spectographic images of the earth surface in a number of CIS-republics. These images will help scientists to get more information about the ecological situation of agricultural areas and water basins. With the Krater-5 oven in the Kristall module they on 23.09.92 continued experiments which had been started by the French cosmonaut Tognini. Among these experiments the Superconconduction. This experiments last 130 days. Under high critical temperatures crystallisation of the materials Barium and Copper.

    Movements control of the complex: About the functioning of the VDU (external movements control motor) the cosmonauts did not speak a lot. A spokesman of TsUP declared that this VDU was functioning normally. (This has been denied later on. It was impossible to use the VDU due to software problems.)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1992 October 1 - .
  • Mir News 149: Problems with Mir-TsUP relays work Yevpatoriya. - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-12. Disagreements between Russia and the Ukraine about the Black- sea fleet, the Crimea, monetary matters and the former Soviet army on Ukraine's territory for a long time threatened the functioning of the tracking station Yevpatoriya and other radio stations. Half a year ago Yevpatoriya almost had to cease operations due to lack of money. The French government subsidised the station on request of French astronomers who feared that they would lose the input of the satellite Granat, carrying French experiments under control of Yevpatoriya. During recent EVA-s now and then communications between Mir and TsUP were interrupted. As of 21.09.92 no traffic could be heard on 143.625 mc. This traffic came back on 29.09.92. Thus far there has been no telemetry on 166 and 165 mc, so possibly the Russians now use a temporary facility on Russian territory.

    YEVPATORIYA PRIVATISED:

    The Ukrainian government privatised the tracking station Yevpatoriya and forced the staff to be sworn in. Russian has to pay an enormous amount of money for the continuation of Yevpatoriya's services. Russia is not inclined to do so and is trying to find alternatives. As long as the Ukraine does not receive money for the station there is no money to pay the wages of the staff. On 1.10.92 the staff went on strike. Possibly TsUP is now supported by a temporary station on Russian territory for during the passes in orbits nr. 37878, 37879 and 37880 traffic was relayed during the window of Yevpatoriya. There still has been no Telemetry on the normal channels in the 166 and 165 mc bands. Some officials in Kalingrad near Moscow uttered the suggestion to put back in operation one or more tracking ships to fill up the gap caused by the 'radio silence' of Yevpatoriya.

    PROGRESS-M14: This freighter is still attached to the aft (Kvant-1) docking port of the complex. The undocking and decay of Progress-M14 has been planned for 22.10.92. The return capsule will have to make a soft landing while Progress-M14 will burn up.

    PROGRESS-M15: Thus far the launch of this freighter was expected to take place on 5.10.92, but this is impossible due to the delayed departure and decay of its predecessor.

    VDU (EXTERNAL MOVEMENTS CONTROL MOTOR in Sofora girder):

    A spokesman of NPO-Energiya declared that this VDU is perfect in technical respects, but that it has not been used so far. Scientist are computing calculations for the oncoming functioning of the VDU.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1992 October 27 - . 17:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 15000-061.
  • Progress M-15 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 215. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 102.56 days. Completed Operations Date: 1993-02-07 06:54:51 . Decay Date: 1993-02-07 06:54:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 22203 . COSPAR: 1992-071A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 29 Oct 1992 19:05:51 GMT. Undocked on 4 Feb 1993 00:44:53 GMT. After completion of the Znamya and autonomous operation experiments, destroyed in reentry on 7 Feb 1993 06:43:20 GMT. Total free-flight time 5.32 days. Total docked time 97.24 days.
  • Mak 2 - . Payload: Mak. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Mak. Decay Date: 1993-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22225 . COSPAR: 1986-017GX. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Summary: Deployed from MIR on 11/20/92. Launched from Mir airlock. Conduct of experiments to study physical processes in the Earth's ionosphere. Small satellite launched from the Mir station. .
  • Znamya-2 - . Payload: Znamya-2. Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Znamya. Decay Date: 1993-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 22449 . COSPAR: 1992-071C. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 389 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.38 min. Summary: Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station..

1993 January 24 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-16 - . Call Sign: Vulkan (Volcano ). Crew: Manakov; Polishchuk. Backup Crew: Serebrov; Tsibliyev. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 101. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Manakov; Polishchuk; Serebrov; Tsibliyev. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-13; Mir EO-12. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 179.03 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22319 . COSPAR: 1993-005A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 393 km (244 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-13. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station a crew of the thirteenth main expedition comprising the cosmonauts G M Manakov and A F Poleschuk.The Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system.

1993 February 1 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz TM-15 - . Return Crew: Avdeyev; Solovyov. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Avdeyev; Solovyov. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-12; Mir EO-13. Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeyev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:47 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m.

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