Encyclopedia Astronautica
Mir EO-9



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Food fight on Mir
Credit: RKK Energia
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Mir EO-9
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
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Mir Strela
Cosmonaut uses Mir Strela Boom
Credit: RKK Energia
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Mir EVA - Sfora arm
Cosmonaut on Strela boom silhouetted against solar panel.
Credit: RKK Energia
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Soyuz TM-12
Sharman after landing.
Credit: RKK Energia
Crew: Artsebarsky. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Backup crew: Volkov Aleksandr.

Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Carried Anatoli Artsebarski, Sergei Krikalev, Helen Sharman to Mir; returned Artsebarski, crew of Soyuz TM 8 to Earth. Second commercial flight with paying British passenger. Sponsoring British consortium was not quite able to come up with money, however. Flight continued at Soviet expense with very limited UK experiments.

Narrative (adapted from D S F Portree's Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995)

On May 20, 1991, the EO-8 crew welcomed aboard Mir the EO-9 crew of Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalyov (on his second visit to the station), accompanied by British cosmonaut-researcher Helen Sharman. Sharman was aboard as part of Project Juno, a cooperative venture partly sponsored by British private enterprise.

Sharman's experimental program, which was designed by the Soviets, leaned heavily toward life sciences. A bag of 250,000 pansy seeds was placed in the Kvant 2 EVA airlock, a compartment not as protected from cosmic radiation as other Mir compartments. Sharman also contacted nine British schools by radio and conducted high-temperature superconductor experiments with the Elektropograph-7K device. Sharman commented that she had difficulty finding equipment on Mir as there was a great deal more equipment than in the trainer in the cosmonaut city of Zvezdny Gorodok.

Krikalev commented that, while Mir had more modules than it had had the first time he lived on board, it did not seem less crowded, as it contained more equipment. Krikalev also noted that some of the materials making up the station's exterior had faded and lost color, but that this had had no impact on the station's operation.

During a communication session with a British girls' school on May 21, Sharman commented that Mir was experiencing solar array problems because of the station's changing orientation. Late that day the level of background noise on the station suddenly fell from the customary 75 decibels as fans, circulating pumps, and other equipment shut down. The lights began to fade. A computer in the orientation system had failed, preventing the solar arrays from tracking on the Sun, and causing Mir to drain its batteries. Sharman stated that Afanaseyev and Manarov told her such power problems had occurred before. When it reentered sunlight, the station was turned to recharge its batteries.

The EO-8 crew returned uneventfully to earth on May 26 with Sharman. The EO-9 crew first needed to move their spacecraft to Mir's aft port to make way for Progress M-8, which could not dock with the rear port because of the damage to the Kurs approach system antenna there. The move was made on May 28, 1991, and required 42 min. The cosmonauts released the small MAK-1 satellite from the Mir base block's experiment airlock on June 17. It was designed to study Earth's ionosphere. However, a probable power failure prevented its antennas from deploying, and the satellite remained inert.

On June 24 the EO-9 crew exited the hatch on Kvant 2 and clambered over Mir's hull to the aft end of Kvant, where they removed the damaged Kurs approach system unit and replaced it. They also assembled a prototype thermomechanical joint to be used in the assembly of space structures. The EVA lasted 4 hr, 53 min.

On June 28 the cosmonauts attached to Mir's hull the TREK instrument, a device for studying cosmic ray superheavy nuclei. The experiment was devised by the University of California and delivered by Progress M-8. The EO-9 crew used the Strela telescoping boom to move about the station. EVA duration was 3 hr, 24 min.

On July 15 the EO-9 crew used the Strela boom to transfer equipment from the Kvant 2 EVA hatch to the work site on Kvant. They attached two ladders to Kvant to give them handholds, then assembled a platform for Sofora on Kvant. Sofora was to be a 14.5-m girder extending from Kvant. The EVA lasted 5 hr, 56 min.

Sofora construction commences. On July 19 Krikalyov and Artsebarski installed an automated assembly unit similar to the one Kizim and Solovyov had experimented with on Salyut 7 in 1986. Sofora was also an experimental construction, but the Soviets had plans to attach an attitude control thruster unit to it if it functioned as expected. The thruster unit would augment Mir's attitude control systems. They assembled 3 of 20 segments planned for Sofora before returning to Mir. The EVA lasted 5 hr, 28 min.

On July 23 the EO-9 crew added 11 segments to the Sofora girder. The EVA lasted 5 hr, 34 min. On July 27 the cosmonauts added the last six segments to the Sofora girder. They also attached a Soviet flag in a metal frame to the top of the girder. This was not planned in advance; the cosmonauts decided independently to attach the flag. Artsebarski's visor fogged up from exertion, but Krikalyov was able to help him back to the Kvant 2 hatch. EVA duration was 6 hr, 49 min.128

The coup against Mikhail Gorbachev had little immediate impact on Mir operations. Progress M-9 was launched as the coup attempt fell apart, on August 21. Boris Belitsky, a Radio Moscow space and science reporter, stated that the TsUP relayed broadcasts of Soviet Central TV (pro-coup) and Russian Radio (anti-coup) to the EO-9 crew. He stated that there were never any plans to abandon the station during the coup, but revealed that such provisions existed in the event of the outbreak of a major war on Earth.

Soyuz TM-13 arrived at Mir on 4 October, 1991. It carried Austrian cosmonaut-researcher Franz Viehboeck and Kazakh cosmonaut-researcher Toktar Aubakirov. The flight was unusual for carrying no flight engineer. Veteran Russian cosmonaut Alexandr Volkov commanded. The Austrians paid $7 million to fly Viehboeck to Mir, and the Kazakh cosmonaut flew partly in an effort to encourage newly-independent Kazakhstan to continue to permit launchings from Baikonur Cosmodrome. The cosmonaut-researchers photographed their respective countries from orbit and conducted the usual range of materials processing and medical experiments. Artsebarski traded places with Volkov and returned to Earth in Soyuz TM-12. Krikalyov remained aboard Mir on his unplanned long-duration mission together with Volkov to make up the EO-10 crew.

AKA: Ozon (Ozone ); Soyuz TM-12 (Artsebarsky).
First Launch: 1991.05.18.
Last Launch: 1991.10.10.
Duration: 144.64 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Aubakirov Aubakirov, Toktar Ongarbaevich (1946-) Kazakh pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Austromir. First Kazakh astronaut. More...
  • Volkov, Aleksandr Volkov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1948-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-4-2, Mir EO-4, Mir EO-10. Father of cosmonaut Sergei Volkov. 391 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Artsebarsky Artsebarsky, Anatoli Pavlovich (1956-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-9. More...
  • Viehboeck Viehboeck, Franz Artur (1960-) Austrian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Austromir. First Austrian astronaut. More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...

Mir EO-9 Chronology


1991 May 18 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-12 - . Call Sign: Ozon (Ozone ). Crew: Artsebarsky; Krikalyov; Sharman. Backup Crew: Kaleri; Mace; Volkov, Aleksandr. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 62. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Artsebarsky; Krikalyov; Sharman; Kaleri; Mace; Volkov, Aleksandr. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3; Mir Juno; Mir EO-8. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 144.64 days. Decay Date: 1991-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 21311 . COSPAR: 1991-034A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 389 km (241 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Carried Anatoli Artsebarski, Sergei Krikalev, Helen Sharman to Mir; returned Artsebarski, crew of Soyuz TM 8 to Earth. Second commercial flight with paying British passenger. Sponsoring British consortium was not quite able to come up with money, however. Flight continued at Soviet expense with very limited UK experiments.

1991 May 26 - .
1991 May 30 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 R15000-050.
  • Progress M-8 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 207. Mass: 7,296 kg (16,084 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 77.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . Decay Date: 1991-08-16 07:02:29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21395 . COSPAR: 1991-038A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Summary: Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 1 Jun 1991 09:44:37 GMT. Undocked on 15 Aug 1991 22:16:59 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Aug 1991 06:56:32 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.43 days. Total docked time 75.52 days..
  • Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon - . Payload: Balloon subsatellite. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Decay Date: 1991-08-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 21661 . COSPAR: 1986-017FJ. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.34 min.

1991 June 17 - . 21:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 337-01.
  • Mak 1 - . Payload: Mak. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Mak. Decay Date: 1991-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 21425 . COSPAR: 1986-017DV. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. Summary: Deployed from MIR 6/17/91. Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. Launched with the Mir orbital station. .

1991 June 25 - . 21:11 GMT - .
1991 June 28 - . 19:02 GMT - .
1991 July 15 - . 11:45 GMT - .
1991 July 19 - . 11:10 GMT - .
1991 July 23 - . 09:15 GMT - .
1991 July 27 - . 08:44 GMT - .
1991 August 20 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 G15000-047.
  • Progress M-9 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 210. Mass: 7,311 kg (16,117 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 40.39 days. Completed Operations Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . Decay Date: 1991-10-01 08:24:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 21662 . COSPAR: 1991-057A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried reentry capsule for return of 150 kg of experiment results. Docked with Mir on 23 Aug 1991 00:54:17 GMT. Undocked on 30 Sep 1991 01:53:00 GMT. 350 kg return capsule detached from the Propess' orbital module at an altitude of 110 to 130 km. The capsule underwent a ballistic descent to 15 km, followed by a parachute descent from there to surface. The capsule's beacon began transmitting at 4.5 km. Landed in Kazakhstan on 30 Sep 1991 08:16:24 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.35 days. Total docked time 38.04 days.

1991 October 2 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-13 - . Call Sign: Donbass (Donbass - River Don basin). Crew: Aubakirov; Viehboeck; Volkov, Aleksandr. Backup Crew: Lothaller; Musabayev; Viktorenko. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 63. Mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aubakirov; Viehboeck; Volkov, Aleksandr; Lothaller; Musabayev; Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-10; Mir Austromir; Mir EO-9; Mir LD-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 175.12 days. Decay Date: 1992-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 21735 . COSPAR: 1991-069A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-10. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station an international crew comprising the cosmonauts A Volkov (USSR), T Aubakirov (USSR) and F. Viehbock (Austria), to conduct joint scientific and technical research with the cosmonauts A. Artsebarsky and S Krikalev. Austria paid $ 7 million for mission. Kazakh cosmonaut added at last minute.

1991 October 10 - .
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