Encyclopedia Astronautica
Mir LD-1


Crew: Romanenko. Record flight duration. Romanenko began his record mission aboard Mir as part of EO-2 crew with Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health, leaving Romanenko aboard with EO-3. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir.

Romanenko began his record mission aboard Mir as part of Main Expedition EO-2 with Aleksander Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health, leaving Romanenko aboard with Aleksandrov as part of Mir Expedition EO-3.

Narrative (adapted from D S F Portree's Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995)

The Mir space station, which had been launched prematurely on the orders of the Soviet leadership, remained vacant after the departure of the Soyuz T-15 crew on July 16, 1986. In September 1986 the Altair/SR relay satellite Cosmos 1700 ceased operating and drifted off its geosynchronous orbit position. This reduced the station to communications via earth ground stations. The Progress 27 freighter docked with the station on January 18 and boosted Mir's mean altitude by 16 km to 345 km on January 26 in preparation for the launch of the EO-2 second main expedition. At this point only one of Mir's computers was functional.

Soyuz TM-2 docked with Mir on February 7, 1987. Following reactivation of the station and unloading of Progress 27, the freighter departed the station on February 23. It was followed by Progress 28 from March 5-26, 1987, which then departed to clear the aft port for the large Kvant space station module.

Kvant consisted of the space station module (11 tons) and a unique FGB-based vehicle called the Functional Service Module (FSM) (9.6 tons) which acted as a space tug. The FSM carried out major manoeuvres on April 2 and April 5. On April 5 its Igla approach system began homing on Mir's aft port. The EO-2 crew retreated to Soyuz TM-2 so that they could escape in the event the module got out of control. About 200 m out, the Igla system lost its lock on Mir's aft port Igla antenna. The cosmonauts watched from within Soyuz TM-2 as the Kvant/ FSM combination passed within 10 m of the station.

Kvant and its FSM drifted 400 km from Mir before being guided back for a second docking attempt. Soft-dock occurred early on April 9. Kvant's probe unit would not retract fully, preventing hard docking between Mir and Kvant. The Soviets left Kvant soft-docked while they considered a solution. Manoeuvres were impossible during this period, because the probe of the Kvant/FSM combination would wobble loosely in Mir's aft port drogue unit, banging the docking collars together.

On April 11 Romanenko and Laveykin exited Mir to examine and, if possible, repair the problem with Kvant. They discovered a foreign object lodged in the docking unit, probably a trash bag they had left between Progress 28 and Mir's drogue. On command from the TsUP, Kvant extended its probe unit, permitting the cosmonauts to pull the object free and discard it into space. Kvant then successfully completed docking at a command from the ground. The EVA lasted 3 hr, 40 min. The Kvant FSM undocked from Kvant on April 12, freeing the module's aft port to fill in for the Mir aft port

The EO-2 crew entered Kvant on April 13 and began unloading equipment into the base block. Kvant added 40 m3 of pressurised volume to Mir, bringing the total to about 130 m3. On April 16 the pointing motors on Mir's two solar arrays were linked to sensors on Kvant. Kvant carried stowed solar arrays intended to be attached to a fixture on top of the small-diameter section of the base block.

Progress 29 arrived and remained docked to the aft docking port of Kvant from April 23-May 11, 1987. Beginning April 30, the EO-2 crew tested orienting the Mir complex using Kvant's gyrodynes. In part this was in preparation for pointing the new module's roughly 1000 kg of astrophysical instruments. During this period, propellant was pumped through Kvant to Mir's ODU for the first time. The Elektron system aboard Kvant, which produced oxygen by electrolysis of water, was readied on May 8.

The Soviets acknowledged that Mir was short on electricity. The situation became particularly difficult when melts lasting days were conducted using Korund 1-M. The EO-2 crew spent most of May conducting medical experiments and Earth resources photography, activities which required little electricity.

Progress 30 arrived and remained docked to Kvant's aft port from May 21-July 19, 1987. On June 12 the EO-2 crew exited Mir's multiport node for the first of two EVAs to install the solar array delivered by Kvant. There was insufficient room available in the multiport node for two spacesuited cosmonauts plus the main boom and first two sections of the new array, so Laveykin and Romanenko sealed the hatch between the Soyuz TM-2 docking module and orbital module and left the hatch between the orbital module and the multiport node open, creating an extended airlock. One cosmonaut worked outside while the other handed out needed parts. The main boom of the array was an extendible girder like the one assembled outside Salyut 7 by the Mir Principal Expedition 1/Salyut 7 Principal Expedition 6 crew (Kizim and Solovyov, 1986). The first EVA lasted less than 2 hr. The second EVA, on June 16, installed the remainder of the solar array, attached its electrical connections to the Mir power system, and extended it to its full 10.6-m length. The new, 22-24 m3 array brought Mir's total capacity to 11.4 kW. The EVA lasted 3 hr, 15 min.

The Roentgen Observatory on Kvant was uniquely placed to study Supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The cosmonauts examined the exploding star during 115 sessions between June and September.

Soyuz TM-3 arrived at the station and docked to the aft Kvant port. It would remained docked to the station from July 22-December 29, 1987. The Visiting Expedition observed Syria and conducted materials processing experiments. Syrian guest cosmonaut Mohammed Faris and Soviet cosmonaut Alexandr Viktorenko returned to Earth in Soyuz TM-2 with Alexandr Laveykin, who was diagnosed by ground-based doctors as having minor heart problems. He was replaced by Alexandr Alexandrov, who had arrived aboard Soyuz TM-3.

The crew entered Soyuz TM-3 on 30 July and flew it around to the forward port of the station, clearing the aft port for the next logistics flight. The Progress 31 remained docked to the aft port of the station from August 5-September 21, 1987. On August 10 the astrophysical instruments on Kvant became the first to detect X-rays from Supernova 1987a. On August 31 the cosmonauts conducted a preplanned emergency evacuation drill, retreating to Soyuz TM-3.

Progress 32 arrived at the station and remained docked to Kvant's aft port from September 26-November 17, 1987. At 0409 UT on November 6, Progress 32 backed away from Mir to 2.5 km. It redocked at 0547 UT, in a test designed to study ways of reducing the amount of fuel used during approach and docking operations. It was replaced by Progress 33 from November 23-December 19, 1987

By late in the year, investigators in Britain and Holland noted sporadic problems with their TTM wide-angle X-ray camera and with ESA's Sirene 2 gas-scintillation proportional counter. They queried the TsUP in Moscow as to whether crew activity could be causing interference with the instruments. Cosmos 1897, was a communications relay satellite of the Altair/SR series, designed to increase the amount of time Mir could be in touch with the TsUP on each orbit. It was launched on November 26 and stationed in geosynchronous orbit at 95 E. At the same time, fatigue had reduced the cosmonauts' workday to 4.5 hr.

Soyuz TM-4 docked with Mir at 12:51 GMT 23 December. It brought the EO-3 crew together with Buran test pilot Levchenko on a space indoctrination flight. Romanenko and Aleksandrov returned aboard Soyuz TM-3 together with Levchenko on December 29, 1987 09:16 GMT. They landed near Arkalyk. Romanenko had set a new space duration record.

AKA: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula); Soyuz TM-2 (Romanenko).
First Launch: 1987.02.05.
Last Launch: 1987.12.29.
Duration: 326.48 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Romanenko Romanenko, Yuri Viktorovich (1944-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 6 EP-8, Mir LD-1. Father of cosmonaut Roman Romanenko. 430 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Titov, Vladimir Titov, Vladimir Georgiyevich (1947-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Mir EO-3, STS-63, STS-86. Survived first pad abort during a manned launch. 387 cumulative days in space. SU Air Force. Call sign: Okean (Ocean). More...
  • Viktorenko Viktorenko, Aleksandr Stepanovich (1947-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-1, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-11, Mir EO-17. 489 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Vityaz (Knight). More...
  • Laveykin Laveykin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1951-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-2. More...
  • Faris Faris, Mohammed Ahmed (1951-) Arab-Syrian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-1. First Syrian to fly in space. Graduated from Military Pilot School, Aleppo, 1973. Colonel and pilot in the Syrian Air Force. Specialist in navigation. Returned to duty after his mission. More...

See also
Associated Flights
  • Soyuz TM-3 Crew: Aleksandrov. Aleksandrov replaced the ailing EO-2 crew member Laveykin and remained aboard Mir with Romanenko. Backup crew: Savinykh. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...

Mir LD-1 Chronology


1987 January 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 27 - . Payload: Progress s/n 135. Mass: 7,230 kg (15,930 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 40.42 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . Decay Date: 1987-02-26 07:04:37 . USAF Sat Cat: 17299 . COSPAR: 1987-005A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir; raised Mir's orbit. Transported sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 18 Jan 1987 07:26:50 GMT. Undocked on 23 Feb 1987 11:29:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 25 Feb 1987 16:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.25 days. Total docked time 36.17 days.

1987 February 5 - . 21:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-2 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Laveykin; Romanenko. Backup Crew: Serebrov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 52. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Laveykin; Romanenko; Serebrov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 174.14 days. Decay Date: 1987-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 17482 . COSPAR: 1987-013A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Mir Expedition EO-02. Docked with Mir 7 February 1987. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Aleksander Laveykin to Mir; returned Laveykin, crew of Soyuz TM-3 to Earth..

1987 March 3 - . 11:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 28 - . Payload: Progress s/n 137. Mass: 7,246 kg (15,974 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-03-28 03:48:55 . Decay Date: 1987-03-28 03:48:55 . USAF Sat Cat: 17564 . COSPAR: 1987-023A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Orbit of station at time of rendezvous was 344 X 369 km, 51. 62 deg. Docked with Mir on 5 Mar 1987 12:42:36 GMT. Undocked on 26 Mar 1987 05:06:48 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 28 Mar 1987 03:49:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.01 days. Total docked time 20.68 days.

1987 March 31 - . 00:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 336-02.
  • Kvant 1 - . Payload: 37KE s/n 010 / 77KE s/n 16601. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Kvant. Duration: 2,586.99 days. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 17845 . COSPAR: 1987-030A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 385 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. MIR module; high energy observatory. Docked with Mir. Rendezvous with Mir 5 April; soft dock 9 April; EVA on 11 April to remove fabric strip from docking apparatus and hard dock; jettisoned service module on 12 April at 22:18

    Maneuver Summary:
    168 km X 278 km orbit to 172 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    169 km X 296 km orbit to 172 km X 314 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    170 km X 313 km orbit to 297 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 46 m/s
    298 km X 344 km orbit to 345 km X 364 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    Service Module only, after undocking with Mir:
    345 km X 364 km orbit to 341 km X 363 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    340 km X 361 km orbit to 383 km X 406 km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    Total Delta V: 101 m/s
    Officially: Extra-atmospheric astronomic research and resolution of a number of problems with scientific and economic applications.
  • FSB - . Payload: FSB No. 16601. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Kvant. Decay Date: 1988-08-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 17851 . COSPAR: 1987-030C. Apogee: 404 km (251 mi). Perigee: 380 km (230 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min.

1987 April 11 - . 19:41 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-2-1 - . Crew: Romanenko; Laveykin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.15 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Romanenko; Laveykin. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Removed bag from docking unit that interfered with Kvant docking..

1987 April 21 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 29 - . Payload: Progress s/n 127. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 19.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-05-11 08:27:43 . Decay Date: 1987-05-11 08:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 17878 . COSPAR: 1987-034A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Deorbited May 11, 1987. Docked with Mir at 343 X 363 1705 23 April at rear port of Kvant. Undocked May 11 03:10. Deorbited28 May 02:59 .
    Officially: Transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Apr 1987 17:04:51 GMT. Undocked on 11 May 1987 03:10:01 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 May 1987 08:28:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 17.42 days.

1987 May 19 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 30 - . Payload: Progress s/n 128. Mass: 7,249 kg (15,981 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 61.07 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-07-19 05:41:50 . Decay Date: 1987-07-19 05:41:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 17999 . COSPAR: 1987-044A. Apogee: 365 km (226 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir/Kvant in its orbit of 343 X 366 km, 51. 6 deg. Docked with the station on 21 May 1987 05:50:38 GMT. Undocked on 19 Jul 1987 00:19:51 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1987 05:42:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 58.77 days.

1987 June 12 - . 16:55 GMT - .
1987 June 16 - . 15:30 GMT - .
1987 July 22 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz TM-3 - . Call Sign: Vityaz (Knight ). Crew: Aleksandrov; Faris; Viktorenko. Backup Crew: Munir; Savinykh; Solovyov. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 53. Mass: 7,100 kg (15,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aleksandrov; Faris; Viktorenko; Munir; Savinykh; Solovyov. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir EP-1; Mir EO-2; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 160.30 days. Decay Date: 1987-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18222 . COSPAR: 1987-063A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Manned three crew. Transported to the Mir orbital space station a Soviet-Syrian crew comprising cosmonauts A S Viktorenko, A P Aleksandrov and M A Faris to conduct joint research and experiments with cosmonauts Y Romanenko and A Laveykin. Maneuvered from initial 231 X 217 km orbit to Mir's 311 X 359 km orbit. Docked with rear Mir port at 3:30 GMT 24 July. Undocked with rear port 30 July and docked to forward port.

1987 July 30 - .
1987 August 3 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 31 - . Payload: Progress s/n 138. Mass: 7,212 kg (15,899 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 50.18 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-09-24 01:01:49 . Decay Date: 1987-09-24 01:01:49 . USAF Sat Cat: 18283 . COSPAR: 1987-066A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Rendezvous transfer orbits 187 X 250 km, 51. 64 deg; 266 X 314 km; 309 X 360 km. Docked with Mir on 5 Aug 1987 22:27:35 GMT. Refueled Mir propellants tanks on 15/16 Sept. Undocked on 21 Sep 1987 23:57:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Sep 1987 01:02:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 47.06 days.

1987 September 23 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 32 - . Payload: Progress s/n 139. Mass: 7,035 kg (15,509 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 55.98 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-11-19 23:19:51 . Decay Date: 1987-11-19 23:19:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 18376 . COSPAR: 1987-082A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Delivered 850 kg propellants, 315 kg food, 2,000 kg total. Docked with Mir on 26 Sep 1987 01:08:15 GMT. Undocked on 10 Nov 1987 04:09:10 GMT. Redocked from 2,500 m on 10 Nov 1987 05:47 GMT. Undocked again 17 Nov 1998 19:25 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Nov 1987 00:58:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.17 days. Total docked time 52.82 days.

1987 November 20 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 33 - . Payload: Progress s/n 140. Mass: 6,895 kg (15,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TM-3; Mir LD-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 28.58 days. Completed Operations Date: 1987-12-20 13:36:48 . Decay Date: 1987-12-20 13:36:48 . USAF Sat Cat: 18568 . COSPAR: 1987-094A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 326 km (202 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Space station orbit at rendezvous was 326 km x 343 km. Docked on 23 Nov 1987 01:39:13 GMT. Undocked on 19 Dec 1987 08:15:46 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Dec 1987 13:37:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 26.28 days.

1987 December 21 - . 11:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
1987 December 29 - .
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