Encyclopedia Astronautica
Salyut 7 EO-4-1a



soydm.jpg
Soyuz Descent Module
Credit: © Mark Wade
Crew: Savinykh. First manned operations in a second space station module. The three-man EO-4 TKS-3 crew conducted military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module. Mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vasyutin. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Popov.

Flight commander V A Dzhanibekov arrived at the inert Salyut 7 station aboard Soyuz T-13 with flight engineer V P Savinykh to carry out emergency repairs. The repairs completed, Dzhanibekov returned with cosmonaut Grechko on Soyuz T-13, leaving Savinykh and the other two members of the TKS-3 crew to conduct military experiments with the Cosmos-1686 module.

Narrative (adapted from D S F Portree's Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995)

It was originally planned that TKS-3 would conduct military experiments of vital interest to Soviet state security while docked to Salyut-7. The decision to abandon the TKS as a manned spacecraft meant that the crew of Savinykh, Vasyutin, and Volkov would have to be launched separately aboard a Soyuz-T instead. The further complication of the breakdown of Salyut-7 in February 1985 meant that the TKS-3 crew would have to give up seats to engineer cosmonauts from NPO Energia who could repair the station. Therefore the TKS-3 mission cosmonauts were launched over two separate Soyuz-T missions.

First up was Soyuz T-13, which remained docked to Salyut 7 from June 8-23, 1985. By the end of March the Soviets had decided to attempt a Salyut 7 rescue. The effort turned out to be one of the most impressive feats of in-space repairs in history. As the Soyuz T-13 crew approached the inert station, they saw that its solar arrays were pointing randomly as it rolled slowly about its long axis. They used a hand-held laser range finder to judge their distance, and conducted a fly-around inspection to be certain the exterior was intact. Dzhanibekov noted that the thermal blankets on the transfer compartment had turned a dull grey from prolonged exposure to sunlight. Upon achieving hard dock -- the first time a Soyuz docked with an inactive station -- the crew confirmed through the electrical connectors in the docking collars that the Salyut 7 electrical system was dead. They carefully sampled the air in the station before opening the hatch.

The station air was very cold, but breathable. Frost covered the walls and apparatus. The cosmonauts wore winter garb, including fur-lined hats, as they entered the station. The first order of business was to restore electric power. Of the eight batteries, all were dead, and two were destroyed. Dzhanibekov determined that a sensor had failed in the solar array pointing system, preventing the batteries from recharging. A telemetry radio problem prevented the TsUP from detecting the problem. Salyut 7 had quickly run down its batteries, shutting down all its systems and accounting for the break in radio contact.

The cosmonauts set about recharging the batteries. They used Soyuz T-13 to turn the station to put its solar arrays in sunlight. On June 10 they turned on the air heaters. The cosmonauts relied on the Soyuz T-13 air regeneration system until they could get the Salyut 7 system back in order. On June 13 the attitude control system was successfully reactivated. This was cause for jubilation, as it meant a Progress bearing replacement parts could dock with Salyut 7. Wall heaters were turned on only after all the frost had evaporated, in order to prevent water from entering equipment. Normal atmospheric humidity was achieved only at the end of July. The station's water tanks thawed by the end of June. Freezing destroyed the water heater, so the cosmonauts used a powerful television light to heat fluids.

Progress 24 was docked to the station from June 23-July 15, 1985. The freighter delivered propellant, solar array extensions, a new water heater, three new batteries, and about 40 kg of other replacement parts. It was followed by Cosmos 1669 from July 21-August 29, 1985. This was a Progress spacecraft incorporating upgrades for use with Mir.

On August 2 the Soyuz T-13 crew stepped outside to add the third and final pair of solar array add-ons to Salyut 7. They wore new semirigid suits delivered by Progress 24. The EVA duration was about 5 hr.

Salyut 7 now having been brought to life and generating sufficient power for the military experiments, Soyuz T-14 now arrived at the station on September 17, 1985. It brought up the rest of the TKS-3 crew (Vasyutin and Volkov) together with senior cosmonaut Grechko. After Grechko had inspected the repairs and condition of the station, he and Dzhanibekov, from Soyuz T-13, returned to earth aboard Soyuz T-13 on 26 September.

This left the TKS-3 crew aboard to conduct the military experiments. Cosmos 1686 docked to the station on October 2, 1985. This was a modified TKS spacecraft with the military 'star wars' tracking experiments mounted in a stripped-down VA capsule. The crew was to conduct these experiments, and conduct spacewalks with application to future space stations. Cosmos 1686 contained 4500 kg of freight, including large items like a girder to be assembled outside Salyut 7, and the Kristallizator materials processing apparatus. However, the TKS-3 crew were unable to complete the long-delayed military mission. By late October Vasyutin was no longer helping with experiments because he was ill. On November 13 the cosmonauts began scrambling their communications with the TsUP. Return to Earth occurred on November 21.

AKA: Pamir (Pamir mountains); Soyuz T-13 (Savinykh).
First Launch: 1985.06.06.
Last Launch: 1985.11.21.
Duration: 168.16 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Grechko Grechko, Georgi Mikhailovich (1931-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 17, Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 7 EP-5. More...
  • Savinykh Savinykh, Viktor Petrovich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-6, Salyut 7 EO-4-1a, Mir EP-2. More...
  • Dzhanibekov Dzhanibekov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EP-9, Salyut 7 EP-1, Salyut 7 EP-4, Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. More...
  • Aleksandrov Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Pavlovich (1943-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-2, Soyuz TM-3. More...
  • Popov Popov, Leonid Ivanovich (1945-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-4, Salyut 6 EP-10, Salyut 7 EP-2. More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Almaz The only manned military space station to have ever flown, it served only to prove that manned stations provided no cost-effective substitute to unmanned military satellites. Derivatives of the design continue in service into the 21st Century as modules of the Salyut, Mir, and International Space Stations. More...
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...

Salyut 7 EO-4-1a Chronology


1985 June 6 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 002.
  • Soyuz T-13 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Savinykh. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov; Popov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 19L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Savinykh; Aleksandrov; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 112.13 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 15804 . COSPAR: 1985-043A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docked with Salyut 7. Delivered to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of flight commander V A Dzhanibekov and flight engineer V P Savinykh to carry out emergency repairs to inert Salyut 7 station and to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments.

1985 June 21 - . 00:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 417.
  • Progress 24 - . Payload: Progress s/n 125. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.91 days. Completed Operations Date: 1985-07-15 22:33:50 . Decay Date: 1985-07-15 22:33:50 . USAF Sat Cat: 15838 . COSPAR: 1985-051A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Delivery to the Salyut-7 orbital station of a mixed cargo with a total mass of 2,000 kg. Docked with Salyut 7 on 23 Jun 1985 02:54:00 GMT. Undocked on 15 Jul 1985 12:28:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 15 Jul 1985 22:33:31 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.51 days. Total docked time 22.40 days.

1985 July 19 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 446.
  • Cosmos 1669 - . Payload: Progress s/n 126. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 41.51 days. Completed Operations Date: 1985-08-30 01:19:52 . Decay Date: 1985-08-30 01:19:52 . USAF Sat Cat: 15918 . COSPAR: 1985-062A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Progress vehicle, given Cosmos designation instead of Progress because control lost early in mission but regained later. Resupplied Salyut 7. On departure briefly undocked and redocked to verify reliability of docking system. Transported of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 21 Jul 1985 15:05:00 GMT. Undocked on 28 Aug 1985 21:50:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 30 Aug 1985 01:20:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.23 days. Total docked time 38.28 days.

1985 August 2 - . 07:15 GMT - .
1985 September 17 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 007.
1985 September 26 - .
1985 September 27 - . 08:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 331-01.
  • Cosmos 1686 - . Payload: TKS-M s/n 16501. Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-2. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 1,958.80 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16095 . COSPAR: 1985-086A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Modification of cancelled TKS manned ferry; docked with Salyut 7. All landing systems were removed from the VA re-entry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). Burned up in the atmosphere and together with the Salyut 7 station over Argentina on February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Re-entered with unused 3 m diameter recoverable capsule of 2-3,000 kg mass, solid rocket motors, and cesium sensors.

    Maneuver Summary:
    172 km X 302 km orbit to 284 km X 319 km orbit. Delta V: 36 m/s
    281 km X 315 km orbit to 290 km X 336 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    290 km X 336 km orbit to 335 km X 352 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s
    Maneuvers after docking with Salyut 7:
    336 km X 353 km orbit to 338 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    338 km X 358 km orbit to 358 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    331 km X 333 km orbit to 333 km X 385 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s
    333 km X 385 km orbit to 332 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    332 km X 468 km orbit to 466 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 37 m/s
    466 km X 468 km orbit to 470 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    470 km X 475 km orbit to 475 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 143 m/s
    Officially: Testing the equipment, assemblies and design components of a satellite in various modes of flight, including joint flight with the Salyut-7 station.

1985 November 21 - .
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