Encyclopedia Astronautica
Salyut 7 EO-1



qsl7ass2.jpg
Salyut 7 in Assembly
Salyut 7 in Assembly Hall
Credit: RKK Energia
Crew: Berezovoi, Lebedev. Record flight duration. Ejected a 28-kg amateur radio satellite from a Salyut 7 trash airlock; called this the first launch of a communications satellite from a manned space vehicle. Backup crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir.

Soyuz T-5 carried the EO-1 Main Expedition crew of Anatoli Berezovoi, Valentin Lebedev to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific research and experiments. The crew returned aboard Soyuz T-7 and landed 118 km East of Dzhezkazgan.

Narrative (adapted from D S F Portree's Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995)

The Salyut-7 EO-1 crew arrived aboard the new space station on 14 May, 1982. They ejected a 28-kg amateur radio satellite from a Salyut 7 trash airlock on May 17. The Soviets called this the first launch of a communications satellite from a manned space vehicle. They did this ahead of the launch of two large geostationary satellites from the U.S. Space Shuttle (STS-5, November 11-16, 1982).

Progress 13 was docked to the station from May 25-June 4, 1982. During the docking there was a violation of Progress docking procedure. The hatch from the work compartment to the intermediate compartment was to be closed when a Progress docked, but Lebedev and Berezevoi wished to watch the approach through an aft-facing porthole in the intermediate compartment. They therefore 'clamped the endpoints of the hatch, thus simulating its closure for the TsUP's benefit.' They forgot to remove the clamps after Progress 13 docked, giving the TsUP an indication that the hatch remained closed even though the EO-1 crew moved back and forth between Progress 13 and Salyut 7. The TsUP gently called them out for this violation of procedure.

On May 25, the EO-1 crew reoriented Salyut 7 so the aft end of the Progress pointed toward Earth. This placed the station in gravity-gradient stabilisation. Lebedev remarked in his diary that the attitude control jets were 'very noisy,' and that they sounded like 'hitting a barrel with a sledgehammer.' Of Salyut 7 during the unpacking of Progress 13, Lebedev said, 'It looks like we're getting ready to move or have just moved to a new apartment.' The following day the EO-1 crew closed the hatch from the work compartment into the intermediate compartment so the TsUP could pump fuel from Progress 13 to Salyut 7. The crew monitored the operation but played little active role in it. May 29 was spent organising the supplies delivered. At the same time, according to Lebedev, 'we filled the resupply ship with what we don't need and tied them down with ropes. When I enter the resupply ship, it jingles with a metallic sound, so when we separate it will sound like a brass band.' Progress 13 pumped 300 litres of water aboard on May 31. On June 2 Progress 13 lowered the station's orbit to 300 km to receive Soyuz T-6.

June 12 was bath day on Salyut 7, the day the EO-1 crew was permitted its first monthly shower. Showering was a complicated process -- so much so that the showers, which were expected to be completed by noon, lasted until after 6 p.m. On June 15 Lebedev reported that a brown residue had been deposited between the panes of Salyut 7's UV-transparent portholes. The residue was apparently produced when UV radiation struck the rubber gasket surrounding the panes.

Soyuz T-6 was docked to the station from June 25-July 2, 1982. During the stay of the Visiting Expedition, the EO-1 crew gave visiting Frenchman Jean-Loup Chretien 'the honour' of ejecting a satellite -- Salyut 7's weekly bag of waste -- from the small trash airlock. In his diary, Lebedev quoted Chretien as saying Salyut 7 'is simple, doesn't look impressive, but is reliable.'

In his July 15 diary entry, Lebedev described how he woke in the middle of the night to urinate, only to find that the toilet (ASU system) overfill light was on. 'If we were home, we could go outside,' he wrote. But that's not a viable option up here, so I had to hold it for a whole hour while I pumped the urine out of the ASU.' Lebedev had other problems with the water system later in the day: for a time he believed he had pumped waste water into the fresh water, spoiling the entire 500 litre supply.

In his diary for July 23, Lebedev described how dust, trash, food crumbs, and droplets of juice, coffee, and tea floated in Salyut 7's air. Most eventually ended up on the cheesecloth which covered the intake grills of the station's air circulation fans. He said that the crew periodically disposed of these and replaced them with new ones. He also described a 'wet cleaning' of Salyut 7. Once a week the crew used wet napkins soaked with katamine (a scouring detergent) to wipe the panels, handrails, hatches, control panel surfaces, and table. They also opened the wall panels and vacuumed the cable bundles, pipes, and fan grills.

On July 30, after more than a week of preparation, Lebedev and Berezevoi conducted a 2.5 hr EVA. Opening the hatch from the transfer compartment to the station hull produced a outgust of lost screws and bolts, dust, and a pencil. Lebedev first installed a movie camera and a floodlight. Then he replaced samples on the Etalon space exposure experiment, a checkerboard of different materials. He deployed and attached himself to the Yakor foot restraint platform. Once there, he spent considerable time looking at the Earth and inspecting the station. Lebedev was impressed by how still and silent the station's exterior seemed, given its complex and noisy interior mechanisms. He noted that the green insulation on Salyut 7 had already faded and become grayish, but was otherwise undamaged. He also noted two folded Yakor foot restraints and a cable winch near the base of one of the solar arrays.

Part of the purpose of his EVA was to perform assembly and disassembly tasks to allow him to judge the feasibility of the next crew using these to put in place solar array extensions. Then the EO-1 crew replaced the micrometeoroid, Medusa biopolymer, and Elast thermo-insulation samples panels. Lebedev worked with the Istok panel, which tested his ability to turn bolts using a special wrench. When the station moved into sunlight, Lebedev could feel through his gloves that the EVA handrails became hot. The cosmonauts installed additional experiments before returning to the transfer compartment. After the EVA they spent a day storing their space suits. Lebedev found a 20-mm dent in his helmet, with a small split in the metal, possibly produced by striking it on apparatus in the transfer compartment. 'Thank God the helmet is built with double layers of metal,' he wrote in his diary.

From August 20-27, 1982 the Soyuz T-7 Visiting Expedition was aboard the station. This included Svetlana Savitskaya, the first woman to visit space in 20 years. She was given the orbital module of Soyuz T-7 for privacy. The Soyuz T-7 crew delivered experiments and mail from home to the EO-1 crew. On August 21 the five cosmonauts traded seat liners between the Soyuz-Ts. The Dneipers undocked in Soyuz-T 5, leaving the newer Soyuz T-7 spacecraft as a lifeboat for the long-duration crew. On August 29 Soyuz T-7 was repositioned by rotating Salyut 7, freeing the aft port for Progress 15. On September 1 Lebedev concluded his diary entry: 'I look around the station and view it with a different attitude. Now I think of it as home. The whole place looks so familiar. Everything in it is so near and dear to me now. When I look at the interior of the station, I feel no alienation, no sense that my surroundings are temporary or strange. Everything is ours. We've touched every square millimetre and object in here. We know exactly where every piece of equipment is mounted, not from documentation but from memory. Many little details, such as photographs on the panels, children's drawings, flowers, and green plants in the garden (the Oazis, Fiton, and other plant growth units), turn this high-tech complex into our warm and comfortable, if a little bit unusual, home'.

On September 7 the cosmonauts practised procedures which would come into play in the event of a depressurisation of the station. The cosmonauts used a pressure measurement device called Diusa to calculate the time until the station's pressure dropped to 500 mm/Hg. This would tell them how long they had to deactivate the station, gather experiment results and records, put on spacesuits, and enter their Soyuz-T. According to Lebedev's diary, the most dangerous evacuation scenarios were those allowing 5 min or less for an escape. 'In such a situation the station could not be saved,' he wrote.

He also described a scenario in which their Soyuz-T suffered a leak (they would close the hatch leading into the damaged craft and await a rescue ship). According to Lebedev, 'we have permission for an emergency landing anywhere on Earth, although we would certainly do everything to land on Soviet territory, or at least on the ground.' Specific contingency landing areas are the U.S. Midwest (90-105 W, 42-49 N), southern France, and the Sea of Okhotsk. A bag containing experiment results was always kept near the Soyuz-T. According to Lebedev, a pressure drop requiring an hour to reach the critical level would give the crew time to locate and repair the leak. This would be done by sealing off the different compartments until the damaged one was identified. In the event of a fire, the crew would turn off all electrical equipment, put on protective suits and respirators, and use a fire extinguisher.

The Progress 15 resupply craft remained docked to the station from September 20-October 14, 1982. It was followed by Progress 16 from November 2-December 13, 1982. Progress 16 delivered the Iskra 3 satellite. It was deployed from the trash airlock on November 18. The crew completed their work program and returned to earth aboard Soyuz T-7 on 10 December 1982.

After their departure Cosmos 1443, the third unmanned test of the TKS manned ferry, docked with the station on March 10, 1983. After docking, the Cosmos 1443 propulsion system was used to lower the average orbit of the combination below 300 km in preparation for the launch of Soyuz T-8.

AKA: Elbrus (Elbrus - tallest mountain in Europe); Soyuz T-5.
First Launch: 1982.05.13.
Last Launch: 1982.12.10.
Duration: 211.38 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Strekalov Strekalov, Gennadi Mikhailovich (1940-2004) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Salyut 7 EP-3, Mir EO-7, Mir EO-18. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Berezovoi Berezovoi, Anatoli Nikolayevich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-1. More...
  • Lebedev Lebedev, Valentin Vitalyevich (1942-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 13, Salyut 7 EO-1. More...
  • Serebrov Serebrov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1944-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Soyuz T-8, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-14. Ten spacewalks. 372 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. More...
  • Popov Popov, Leonid Ivanovich (1945-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-4, Salyut 6 EP-10, Salyut 7 EP-2. More...
  • Titov, Vladimir Titov, Vladimir Georgiyevich (1947-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Mir EO-3, STS-63, STS-86. Survived first pad abort during a manned launch. 387 cumulative days in space. SU Air Force. Call sign: Okean (Ocean). More...
  • Savitskaya Savitskaya, Svetlana Yevgenyevna (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Salyut 7 EP-4. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space. More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...

Salyut 7 EO-1 Chronology


1982 May 13 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-5 - . Call Sign: Elbrus (Elbrus - tallest mountain in Europe). Crew: Berezovoi; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 11L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Berezovoi; Lebedev; Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 106.21 days. Decay Date: 1982-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 13173 . COSPAR: 1982-042A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Carried Anatoli Berezovoi, Valentin Lebedev to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific research and experiments; returned crew of Soyuz T-7 to Earth..

1982 May 23 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 13 - . Payload: Progress s/n 114. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 13.75 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-06-06 00:03:11 . Decay Date: 1982-06-06 00:03:11 . USAF Sat Cat: 13210 . COSPAR: 1982-047A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Transport of various cargoes to the Salyut-7 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 25 May 1982 07:56:36 GMT. Undocked on 4 Jun 1982 06:31:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 6 Jun 1982 00:05:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.81 days. Total docked time 9.94 days.

1982 June 24 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-6 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamirs ). Crew: Chretien; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov. Backup Crew: Baudry; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 9L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chretien; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Baudry; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-1; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 13292 . COSPAR: 1982-063A. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station the Soviet-French international crew, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR), A S Ivanchenkov (USSR) and Jean-Loup Chretien (France) to conduct scientific research and experiments.

1982 July 2 - .
1982 July 10 - . 09:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 14 - . Payload: Progress s/n 117. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 33.65 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-08-13 11:29:16 . Decay Date: 1982-08-13 11:29:16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13361 . COSPAR: 1982-070A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 301 km (187 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 12 Jul 1982 11:41:00 GMT. Undocked on 10 Aug 1982 22:11:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 13 Aug 1982 01:29:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.21 days. Total docked time 29.44 days..

1982 July 30 - . 02:39 GMT - .
1982 August 19 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-7 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov. Backup Crew: Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 12L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov; Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-2; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 113.08 days. Decay Date: 1982-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 13425 . COSPAR: 1982-080A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Carried Svetlana Savitskaya, Leonid Popov, Alexander Serebrov to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1982 August 27 - .
1982 September 18 - . 04:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 15 - . Payload: Progress s/n 112. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 28.51 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-10-16 17:08:06 . Decay Date: 1982-10-16 17:08:06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13558 . COSPAR: 1982-094A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 20 Sep 1982 06:12:00 GMT. Undocked on 14 Oct 1982 13:46:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 16 Oct 1982 17:08:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.19 days. Total docked time 24.32 days..
  • Astrozond - . Payload: Astrozond. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Astrozond. Decay Date: 1982-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 13596 . COSPAR: 1982-033AC. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 307 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.24 min.

1982 October 31 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 16 - . Payload: Progress s/n 115. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 44.25 days. Completed Operations Date: 1982-12-14 17:16:24 . Decay Date: 1982-12-14 17:16:24 . USAF Sat Cat: 13638 . COSPAR: 1982-107A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 7. Docked with Salyut 7 on 2 Nov 1982 13:22:00 GMT. Undocked on 13 Dec 1982 15:32:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 14 Dec 1982 17:17:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.16 days. Total docked time 41.09 days..

1982 November 18 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 306-02.
  • Iskra 3 - . Payload: RK-03. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Iskra. Decay Date: 1982-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13663 . COSPAR: 1982-033AD. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radiocommunications. .

1982 December 10 - .
Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use