Encyclopedia Astronautica
STS-35



ists35.jpg
STS-35
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Crew: Brand, Durrance, Gardner Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Launch scrubbed several times due to hydrogen leaks.

Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy TeIescope (Astro), Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS).

Orbits of Earth: 142. Distance traveled: 6,000,657 km. Orbiter Liftoff Mass: 121,286 kg. Orbiter Mass at Landing: 102,458 kg. Payload to Orbit: 11,943 kg. Payload Returned: 11,943 kg. Landed at: Concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base, Cali. Landing Speed: 374 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 609 m. Landing Rollout: 3,303 m.

NASA Official Mission Narrative

Mission Name: STS-35 (38)
COLUMBIA (10)
Pad 39-B (16)
38th Shuttle mission
10th Flight OV-102
4th and 6th Rollback
Pad Switch (1)
Shortened mission
6th Night Launch
4th Night landing

Crew:
Vance D. Brand (3), Commander
Guy S. Gardner (2), Pilot
Jeffrey A. Hoffman (2), Mission Specialist 1
John M. Lounge (3), Mission Specialist 2
Robert A. Parker (2), Mission Specialist 3
Samuel T. Durrance (1), Payload Specialist 1
Ronald A. Parise (1), Payload Specialist 2

Milestones:
Flow A:
OPF - Jan. 30,1990
VAB - April 16, 1990
PAD 39-A - April 22,1990
Flow B (rollback):
VAB - June 12, 1990
OPF - June 15,1990
VAB - Aug. 2,1990
PAD 39-A - Aug. 9,1990
Flow B (switchover):
PAD 39-B - Oct. 8, 1990 (transfer due to STS-38)
Flow C (rollback):
VAB - Oct. 9, 1990 (rollback due to tropical storm)
PAD 39-B - Oct. 14,1990

Payload:
ASTRO-1
Mission Objectives:

Launch:
December 2, 1990, 1:49:01 a.m. EST. Launch first scheduled for May 16, 1990. Following Flight Readiness Review (FRR), announcement of firm launch date delayed to change out a faulty freon coolant loop proportional valve in orbiter's coolant system. At subsequent Delta FRR, date set for May 30. Launch on May 30 scrubbed during tanking due to minor hydrogen leak in tail service mast on mobile launcher platform and major leak in external tank/ orbiter 17-inch quick disconnect assembly. Hydrogen also detected in orbiter's aft compartment believed associated with leak involving 17-inch umbilical assembly.
Leakage at 17-inch umbilical confirmed by mini-tanking test June 6. Could not repair at pad and orbiter returned to VAB June 12, demated and transferred to OPF. Changeout of orbiter- side 17-inch umbilical assembly made with one borrowed from orbiter Endeavour; external tank fitted with new umbilical hardware. ASTRO-1 payload reserviced regularly and remained in COLUMBIA's cargo bay during orbiter repairs and reprocessing.
COLUMBIA rolled out to Pad A for second time Aug. 9 to support a Sept. 1 launch date. Two days before launch, avionics box on BBXRT portion of ASTRO-1 payload malfunctioned and had to be changed out and retested. Launch rescheduled for Sept. 6. During tanking, high concentrations of hydrogen detected in orbiter's aft compartment, forcing another postponement. NASA managers concluded that COLUMBIA had experienced separate hydrogen leaks from beginning: one of umbilical assembly (now replaced) and one or more in aft compartment which had resurfaced. Suspicion focused on package of three hydrogen recirculation pumps in aft compartment. These were replaced and retested. Damaged teflon cover seal in main engine number three hydrogen prevalve replaced. Launch rescheduled for Sept. 18. Fuel leak in aft compartment resurfaced during tanking and mission scrubbed again. STS-35 mission put on hold until problem resolved by special tiger team assigned by Space Shuttle director.
COLUMBIA transferred to Pad B Oct. 8 to make room for Atlantis on Mission STS-36. Tropical storm Klaus forced rollback to VAB Oct. 9. Vehicle transferred to Pad B again Oct. 14. Mini-tanking test conducted Oct. 30, using special sensors and video cameras and employing a see-through plexiglass aft compartment door. No excessive hydrogen leakage detected. Liftoff Dec. 2 delayed 21 minutes to allow Air Force range time to observe low-level clouds that might impede tracking of Shuttle ascent. Launch Weight: 256,385 lbs.
Orbit:
Altitude: 190 nm
Inclination: 28.45 degrees
Orbits: 144
Duration: 8 days, 23 hours, 5 minutes, 8 seconds.
Distance: 3,728,636 miles

Hardware:
SRB: BI-038
SRM: 360W011
ET : 35/LWT-28
MLP : 3
SSME-1: SN-2024
SSME-2: SN-2012
SSME-3: SN-2028

Landing:
December 10, 1990, 9:54:08 p.m. PST, Runway 22, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. Rollout Distance: 10,447 feet. Rollout Time:58 seconds. Orbiter returned to KSC on Dec. 20. Landing Weight: 225,329 lbs.

Mission Highlights:
Primary objectives were round-the-clock observations of celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy with ASTRO-1 observatory consisting of four telescopes: Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). Ultraviolet telescopes mounted on Spacelab elements in cargo bay were to be operated in shifts by flight crew. Loss of both data display units (used for pointing telescopes and operating experiments) during mission impacted crew-aiming procedures and forced ground teams at Marshall Space Flight Center to aim ultraviolet telescopes with fine-tuning by flight crew. BBXRT, also mounted in cargo bay, was directed from outset by ground-based operators at Goddard Space Flight Center and not affected. Other experiments: Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2); ground-based experiment to calibrate electro-optical sensors at Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) in Hawaii; and crew conducted Space Classroom Program: Assignment: The Stars, to spark student interest in science, math and technology. Crew experienced trouble dumping waste water due to clogged drain, but managed using spare containers. Mission cut short one day due to impending bad weather at primary landing site, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. Science teams at Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers estimated 70 percent of planned science data achieved.

AKA: Columbia.
First Launch: 1990.12.02.
Last Launch: 1990.12.11.
Duration: 8.96 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Brand Brand, Vance DeVoe (1931-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo (ASTP), STS-5, STS-41-B, STS-35. More...
  • Parker Parker, Dr Robert Alan Ridley 'Bob' (1936-) American astronomer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-35. More...
  • Durrance Durrance, Dr Samuel Thornton 'Sam' (1943-) American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...
  • Hoffman Hoffman, Dr Jeffrey Alan 'Jeff' (1944-) Jewish-American astrophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-D, STS-35, STS-46, STS-61, STS-75. More...
  • Lounge Lounge, John Michael 'Mike' (1946-) American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-I, STS-26, STS-35. Grew up in Burlington, Colorado. Flew 99 combat missions in Vietnam. More...
  • Gardner, Guy Gardner, Guy Spencer (1948-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-27, STS-35. Grew up in Alexandria, Virginia. Flew 177 combat missions over Vietnam. More...
  • Parise Parise, Dr Ronald Anthony 'Ron' (1951-2008) American astronomer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Columbia American manned spaceplane. 28 launches, 1981.04.12 (STS-1) to 2003.01.16 (STS-107). Columbia, the first orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, was named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • NASA Houston American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Houston, Houston, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • STS The Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle) was conceived originally as a completely reusable system that would provide cheap, routine access to space and replace all American and civilian military launch vehicles. Crippled by technological overreach, political compromise, and budget limitations, it instead ended up costing more than the expendable rockets it was to have replaced. STS sucked the money out of all other NASA projects for half a century. The military abandoned its use after the Challenger shuttle explosion in the 1980's. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...

STS-35 Chronology


1990 December 2 - . 06:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-35R.
  • STS-35 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Brand; Durrance; Gardner, Guy; Hoffman; Lounge; Parise; Parker. Payload: Columbia F10 / BBXRT. Mass: 11,943 kg (26,329 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Durrance; Gardner, Guy; Hoffman; Lounge; Parise; Parker. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-35. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 8.96 days. Decay Date: 1990-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20980 . COSPAR: 1990-106A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 352 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Summary: Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy TeIescope (Astro), Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)..

1990 December 11 - .
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