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H2O2/Kerosene
H2O2/Kerosene propellant. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidizer with kerosene in the 1950's in British rockets. In combination with kerosene it represented a relatively high density propellant combination. Unlike other storable propellant combinations, it was non-toxic. However care was needed in storing and handling hydrogen peroxide, since it could react with trace elements. It was abandoned by the end of the 1960's with the cancellation of the British rocket programs. It was revived in the 1990's as a proposed propellant for the Black Horse spaceplane, and later other USAF proposed spaceplanes.

Specific impulse: 319 s. Specific impulse sea level: 273 s. Location: 1665.

Propellant Formulation: H2O2-98%/RP-1. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 7.07. Temperature of Combustion: 2,975 deg K. Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.2. Density: 1.31 g/cc. Characteristic velocity c: 1,665 m/s (5,462 ft/sec). Isp Shifting: 276 sec. Isp Frozen: 270 sec. Mol: 22.00 M (72.00 ft).

Propellant Formulation: H2O2-95%/RP-1. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 7.35. Temperature of Combustion: 2,915 deg K. Density: 1.30 g/cc.

Oxidizer Density: 1.440 g/cc. Oxidizer Freezing Point: -1 deg C. Oxidizer Boiling Point: 150 deg C. Fuel Density: 0.806 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -73 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 147 deg C.



Subtopics

AR1 Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. Engine for FJ-4F naval interceptor.

AR2-3 Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. Future-X Demonstrator Engine. Gas generator, pump-fed. Heritage technology in evaluation for current applications. X-37 Reusable Upper Stage Vehicle.

BA-3200 Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 70% of initial value before shutdown.

BA-44 Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed restartable engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value before shutdown.

BA-810 Beal H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1990's. Pressure-fed engine with composite ablative chamber and nozzle. Helium pressurant. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value before shutdown.

Beal BA-2 Stage 1 H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Thrust declines to 70% of initial value at shut down.

Beal BA-2 Stage 2 H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value at shut down.

Beal BA-2 Stage 3 H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value at shut down.

Black Arrow-1 H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. .

Black Arrow-2 H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. .

Black Horse AV H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. Takes off from runway at 48,452 lbs gross weight; rendezvous with tanker to load 146,870 lbs oxidizer; then flies to orbit.

Black Knight 201-1 H2O2/Kerosene rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb).

Black Knight 301/C2-1 H2O2/Kerosene rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb).

FJ-4F American manned rocketplane. The FJ-4F was a US Navy Fury fighter fitted with a Rocketdyne AR1 engine for quick intercept of Soviet bombers. Two prototypes were tested which reached Mach 1.41 at 22 km altitude.

Gamma 2 Bristol Siddeley H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Black Arrow launch vehicle. First flight 1969.

Gamma 201 Saunders-Roe H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine.

Gamma 301 Saunders-Roe H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine.

Gamma 8 Bristol Siddeley H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Black Arrow launch vehicle. First flight 1969.

JP-5/H2O2 Notional H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Study 1993. Engine for Black Horse winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling.

LR40 Reaction Motors H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. F8U-1 supercruise engine, 1957. Engine exploded during an early ground test, killing two company mechanics. This accident caused Reaction Motors to pull out of the project.

LR54 Rocketdyne H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. After the failure of the Reaction Motors XLR-40 for use in the F8U-1 fighter, Vought elected to continue the project using the XLR-54 . Project never reached flight status

New Shepard American manned spacecraft. Flight tests begun 2006. Vertical takeoff/vertical landing suborbital tourist spacecraft being developed by Blue Origin and scheduled to begin commercial operation in 2010.

RD-161P Glushko H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Soyuz M stage 3 (block LM). Developed 1993-. Two thrust levels. Minimum 1500 kgf. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version for H2O2 fuel, concentration 96-98%.

RS-82 Rocketdyne H2O2/kerosene rocket engine. Next Generation Non-Toxic Upper Stage. Gas generator, pump-fed.

Zarya VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. The Zarya landing module was enlarged from the Soyuz 2.4 m diameter to 4.1 m diameter, while keeping the same shape and L/D coefficient of 0.26 at Mach 6. Reusable re-entry capsule.

Engines: AR1, RD-161P, AR2-3, BA-3200, BA-44, BA-810, Gamma 2, Gamma 201, Gamma 301, Gamma 8, JP-5/H2O2, LR40, LR54, RS-82. Spacecraft: FJ-4F, Zarya VA, New Shepard. Stages: Black Arrow-2, Black Arrow-1, Beal BA-2 Stage 3, Beal BA-2 Stage 2, Beal BA-2 Stage 1, Black Knight 201-1, Black Knight 301/C2-1, Black Horse AV.

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