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Mid-range integral rocket-ramjet Russian surface-to-air missile, widely deployed with Soviet forces and exported to 22 countries. The missile provided one of the great technological surprises in warfare in the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War.

AKA: 2K12;3M9;3M9M / 9M9;Gainful;SA-6. Status: Active. Payload: 59 kg (130 lb). Gross mass: 580 kg (1,270 lb). Height: 5.80 m (19.00 ft). Diameter: 0.34 m (1.10 ft). Span: 1.24 m (4.06 ft). Apogee: 14 km (8 mi).

As much as 30% of Israeli fighter formations were shot down by this missile on their first encounter - 30 aircraft in the first day of the war alone. The Israelis and their American backers were not aware of and had no electronic countermeasure for the Kub's continuous-wave illuminating radars. The only effective solution was to fly the aircraft directly at the approaching missile, and then descend under it at the last moment.

The Kub 2K12 surface-to-air missile system (export name Kvadrat) had been accepted by the Soviet land forces for production in 1966. This had been developed by V V Tikhomirov at OKB-11 GKAT (later NIIP Priborostroeniya named for V V Tikhomirov). Development had begun under Tikhomirov in accordance with a decree of July 1958. He directed the work until 1962. From then his deputy Ya N Figorovskiy was responsible, with the project development being led by his first deputy, V K Grishin. The Ulyanovsk Mechanical Works began series production in 1967. By 1971 the missile had been exported to 22 countries.

The system consisted of two associated vehicles: the 1S91 SURN (self-propelled vehicle, developed by A A Rastov at OKB-15 GKAT) with the search and tracking radars) and the 2P25 self-propelled launcher, developed by A I Yaskin, at SKB-203 GKAT, later known as KB Compressor Machinery) which carried three beam-riding missiles. A battery consisted of one 1S91 and four 2P25 - a total of twelve missiles which could be brought to bear on a range of targets.

The 3M9 surface-to-air missile was developed by KB-82 Factory 134 GKAT (later GosMKB Vympel) under the direction of A l Lyapin. The all-moving wing aerodynamic scheme controlled flight by movement of the four deployable wings, with stability provided by four fixed fins aft. The semi-active, self-guiding homing head was developed by I G Akopyan at OKB-15.

Maximum target speed 2160 kph. Reaction time from track to launch 28 seconds. System can be active 5 minutes after arrival at site and deactivated in the same time in 'shoot and scoot' mode. One target can be tracked at a time. Three missiles per launcher.

Radars: P-12/1RL14 Spoon Rest early warning radar, A band, range 275 km. P-40 Long Track early warning radar, E band, range 175 km. P-15/1RL13 Flat Face target acquisition radar, C band, range 250 km. Score Board A target acquisition radar. 1S91 Straight Flush target tracking radar, G band, range 75 km. 1S91 Straight Flush high frequency radar, H band, range 25 km. Thin Skin B height finding radar.

Maximum range: 24 km (14 mi). Boost Propulsion: Integral rocket/ramjet. Maximum speed: 2,160 kph (1,340 mph). Minimum range: 3.70 km (2.20 mi). Initial Operational Capability: 1967. Floor: 50 m (164 ft). Surveillance Radar: Long Track/E. Tracking Radar: Straight Flush C/G/H/I.


Kub-M1 Russian surface-to-air missile. Development of a modernised Kub system began in 1967. It was accepted by the military in January 1973 as the Kub-M1 with the 2K12M1 missile.

Kub-M3 Russian surface-to-air missile. A further modernisation of the Kub began development in 1974 and was accepted for production at the end of 1976 by the PVO. This Kub-M3 used the 2K12M3 missile.

Kub-M4 Russian surface-to-air missile. A final variant of was the Kub-M4, which used the Kub-M3 firing units but the Buk surface-to-air missile in place of the 2K12.

Kub 9M20 Russian surface-to-air drone. Drone version.

Family: surface-to-air, vehicle-launched. Country: Russia. Stages: Dushkin 3M9. Agency: Tikhomirov, Vympel. Bibliography: 563, 571.

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