Encyclopedia Astronautica

Russian anti-ballistic missile. Improved version of the A-35 with radiation-hardened missiles and command centres, improved radars, and capability against tactical missiles fired from Europe against Moscow. Went into operation in 1978.

The modernised A-35M system began development in accordance with a resolution of May 1968, which designated Vympel as the Central Thematic Centre (NTTP) for future anti-ballistic missile development in the Soviet Union. In 1970 the enterprise was reorganised as TsNPO Vympel, and in 1992 as MAK Vympel, a public corporation, headed by V I Markov.

1000 engineers and technicians were assigned tot he project, headed by A G Basistov, who had previously completed the anti-ballistic missile work at KB-1 successfully. In total ten research institutes and ten factories participated in development and construction of the A-35M anti-ballistic missile system. The state trials began in May 1977, and the system was accepted for production in 1978. The A-35M's main command-computing centre would receive data from several separate Duna-3M radar positions, arranged several dozens of kilometres outside of Moscow. The firing complexes, located in a ring 100 km outside of Moscow, used Tobol and Yenisey equipment with the A-350R missile, which was equipped with a nuclear warhead. In response to US plans to base IRBMs in Western Europe, the modernised Duna-3U radar featured a dedicated sector search to watch for incoming missiles launched from the territory of West Germany. Phase 3 tests of the A-350 missile were conducted in connection with the new system elements in 1976-1977. They included 2 launches of the A-350R and 3 launches of the A-350Zh against R-12 IRBM targets, and 2 launches of the A-350Zh against faster R-16 IRBM targets.

Radars: Don-2N Pill Box early warning radar, range 6000 km. Hen House early warning radar, VHF band, range 6000 km. Dog House target acquisition radar, VHF band, range 2800 km. Cat House target acquisition radar, VHF band, range 2800 km.

AKA: ABM-2; A-35; A-350R.

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Associated Countries
See also
  • A-35 First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972. More...
  • Russian SAMs and ABMs Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defence against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defence available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Grushin Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau named for P D Grushin, Khimki, Russia. More...

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