Encyclopedia Astronautica
Angara



angara.gif
Angara
Credit: © Mark Wade
angarakh.jpg
Angara Khrunichev
Angara Khrunichev model
Credit: Khrunichev
brizm.jpg
Briz M
Credit: Khrunichev
The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change.

The booster would use engines developed for the Zenit. The first Angara design by Khrunichev featured a unique parallel fuel tank configuration in both first and second stages. This concept beat two competing NPO Energia designs: the Energia-M and a 'clean sheet' in-line concept. However the second stage was initially subcontracted to Energia by Khrunichev.

By 1999 the design had evolved to a very different scheme similar to the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles being developed for the US Air Force. The new design took into account commercial considerations and concentrated on development of a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads and used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages.

This core was designated the Universal Rocket Module (URM). Production drawings were released in February 1999 and the cold flow test article was flown to the Paris Air Show and exhibited in the summer of 1999. By that time a total of 19 possible variants of the launch vehicle had been studied. The plan at that time was for the construction of three ground-test articles to be followed by three test flights beginning by the end of 2000 and completed by June 2001. First launches would be from the former Zenit pad at Plesetsk.

As of 2008 funding problems continued, and no flight tests had been conducted. Instead South Korea had provided funds to develop a version of the Angara as its KSR booster.

Status: Development.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Kliper Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004. More...

Associated Engines
  • 17D58E Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.13 N. In Production. Isp=247s. Small attitude control thruster used in Briz, Briz-M upper stage propulsion system S5.98M. More...
  • RD-0120M Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1961 kN. Energia-M core stage. Development ended 1993. Isp=455s. From 1987 KBKhA worked on upgrading the 11D122 (RD-0120) engine for Energia-M launcher, including the possibility to throttle the engine down to 28% thrust. More...
  • RD-191M Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1976 kN. Angara stage I. Developed 1996-. Single chamber version of the RD-170 / RD-171. Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-134R Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 343 kN. Angara stage 2 vernier. Design concept 1993-on. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Steering engines for Angara upper stage. Kerosene RG-1. More...
  • RD-146 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 883 kN. Angara stage 2. Design concept 1993-on. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Kerosene RG-1. More...
  • RD-171 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Zenit stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. RD-171 used two-plane gimablling versus one-plane gimablling on RD-170 developed in parallel for Energia. First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-191 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2079 kN. Isp=337s. Proposed for stage 1 of Angara. Single chamber from 4-chamber RD-170 would have been cheap and fast to develop. Only reached the draft project stage by 2003. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. More...
  • S5.98M Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 19.62 kN. Used on Briz and Briz-M upper stages. Isp=325s. Engine system consists of: main engine (2000 kgf, Isp=325.5s) + 4x11D458 (40 kgf, Isp=252s) + 12x17D58E (1.36 kgf, Isp=247s). 8 restarts. First flight 1990. More...

See also
  • Angara The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Kiselev, Anatoly I, introduction, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, 1996.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J, Hopkins, Joshua B, and Hopkins, Joseph P, International Reference to Space Launch Systems, AIAA, Washington DC, 2004.

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use