Encyclopedia Astronautica
Ariane 1



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Ariane 1 L01
Ariane 1 L01 - COSPAR 1979-104
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Ariane 1
Credit: © Mark Wade
French orbital launch vehicle. First version of the Ariane launch vehicle.

LEO Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Payload: 1,850 kg (4,070 lb) to a GTO, 7 deg. Failures: 2. First Fail Date: 1980-05-23. Last Fail Date: 1982-09-09. Launch Price $: 32.000 million in 1985 dollars.

Stage Data - Ariane 1

  • Stage 1. 1 x Ariane 1-1. Gross Mass: 160,030 kg (352,800 lb). Empty Mass: 13,750 kg (30,310 lb). Thrust (vac): 2,771.940 kN (623,157 lbf). Isp: 281 sec. Burn time: 145 sec. Isp(sl): 248 sec. Diameter: 3.80 m (12.40 ft). Span: 8.30 m (27.20 ft). Length: 18.40 m (60.30 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 4. Engine: Viking 2. Other designations: L-140. Status: Out of Production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Ariane 1-2. Gross Mass: 37,130 kg (81,850 lb). Empty Mass: 3,625 kg (7,991 lb). Thrust (vac): 720.965 kN (162,079 lbf). Isp: 296 sec. Burn time: 132 sec. Isp(sl): 200 sec. Diameter: 2.60 m (8.50 ft). Span: 2.60 m (8.50 ft). Length: 11.50 m (37.70 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: Viking 4. Other designations: L-33. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Ariane 1-3. Gross Mass: 9,687 kg (21,356 lb). Empty Mass: 1,457 kg (3,212 lb). Thrust (vac): 61.674 kN (13,865 lbf). Isp: 443 sec. Burn time: 563 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Span: 2.66 m (8.72 ft). Length: 10.23 m (33.56 ft). Propellants: Lox/LH2. No Engines: 1. Engine: HM7-A. Other designations: H- 8. Status: Out of Production.
  • Stage 4. 1 x Mage 1. Gross Mass: 369 kg (813 lb). Empty Mass: 34 kg (74 lb). Thrust (vac): 19.397 kN (4,361 lbf). Isp: 295 sec. Burn time: 50 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 0.77 m (2.52 ft). Span: 0.77 m (2.52 ft). Length: 1.13 m (3.70 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Mage 1. Status: Out of Production.

Gross mass: 207,200 kg (456,700 lb).
Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Height: 50.00 m (164.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.80 m (12.40 ft).
Thrust: 2,446.50 kN (549,995 lbf).
Apogee: 40,000 km (24,000 mi).
First Launch: 1979.12.24.
Last Launch: 1986.02.22.
Number: 11 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Sirio Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1977.08.25 (Sirio 1) and 1982.09.09 (Sirio 2). SIRIO was a spin stabilized geostationary experimental communications satellite with a nominal life of two years. More...
  • ECS/OTS European communications satellite. 20 launches, 1977.09.13 (OTS 1) to 2001.02.07 (Skynet 4F). More...
  • Meteosat European earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1977.11.23 (Meteosat 1) to 1997.09.02 (Meteosat 7). More...
  • CAT European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1979.12.24 (CAT 1) to 1981.12.20 (Tech. capsule). More...
  • Firewheel French technology satellite. 5 launches, 1980.05.23 (Feuerrad subsatellite 4) to (Feuerrad subsatellite 4). Multiple European technology test satellites launched on the first Ariane. More...
  • Intelsat 5 American communications satellite. 9 launches, 1980.12.06 (Intelsat 5 F-2) to 1984.06.09 (Intelsat 5 F-9). The last five of the nine spacecraft in this block carry a maritime mobile payload (seven additional transponders) for lease by Inmarsat. More...
  • Insat 1 Indian communications satellite. 5 launches, 1981.06.19 (Apple) to 1990.06.12 (Insat-1D; Insat 1D). Experimental communications satellite. More...
  • AS 3000 American communications satellite. 25 launches, 1981.11.20 (RCA Satcom 4; RCA Satcom 3R) to 1996.01.14 (Koreasat 2). More...
  • Giotto European comet probe. One launch, 1985.07.02. The Giotto mission was designed to study Comet P/Halley, and also studied Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during its extended mission. More...
  • SPOT-1-2-3 French earth land resources satellite. 3 launches, 1986.02.22 (SPOT 1) to 1993.09.26 (SPOT 3). SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program, with support from Belgium and Sweden. More...
  • Viking (Sweden) Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.02.22, Viking. Sweden's first satellite, Viking, was originally initiated as a means of providing experience in satellite system development and management. More...

Associated Engines
  • HM7-A SEP, Ottobrunn lox/lh2 rocket engine. 61.7 kN. Development begun 1973. Out of production. Isp=443s. Used on Ariane 1 launch vehicle. First flight 1979. More...
  • Mage 1 SEP solid rocket engine. 19.4 kN. Out of production. Orbital circularization motor. Isp=295s. First flight 1979. More...
  • Viking 4 SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 721 kN. Isp=296s. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1979. More...
  • Viking 2 SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 693 kN. In production. Isp=281s. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV space launchers. First flight 1979. More...

See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • Eutelsat EUTELSAT regional geostationary telecommunication satellite for European countries. Operated by the EUTELSAT organization. More...
  • GTE Through a series of purchases and mergers, General Telephone and Electronics (GTE) ended up with a consolidated constellation of geosynchronous communications satellites originally launched by itself and two other entities. Gstar was GTE's original planned fleet. More...
  • Insat Insat (Indian National Satellite System) was a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search and rescue services. More...
  • Intelsat Intelsat operated the world's first commercial communications satellite. It has provided the scheduled transoceanic television and voice and data communications service ever since. More...
  • MARECS Geostationary maritime communications satellites, which form part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. The program began as the experimental Maritime Orbital Test Satellite (Marots) in 1973, but was subsequently changed to an operational system resulting in a name change, a satellite redesign, and delayed development. Marecs is operated by ESA for Inmarsat. More...
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • SPOT Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre - French remote sensing satellite network. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

Associated Stages
  • Ariane 1-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,130/3,625 kg. Thrust 720.97 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Ariane H8 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,687/1,457 kg. Thrust 61.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 443 seconds. High energy upper stage for Ariane booster series. More...
  • Ariane 1-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,030/13,750 kg. Thrust 2,771.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds. More...
  • Mage 1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 369/34 kg. Thrust 19.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. More...

Ariane 1 Chronology


1973 July - . LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1.
  • Development of Ariane 1 launch vehicle authorised. - . Nation: France. Summary: Development took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 ECU's..

1979 December 24 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L01.
  • CAT 1 - . Payload: CAT 01. Mass: 1,602 kg (3,531 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. Decay Date: 1982-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11645 . COSPAR: 1979-104A. Apogee: 14,047 km (8,728 mi). Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Inclination: 17.8000 deg. Period: 259.10 min. Launch vehicle test. Technological Capsule (CAT). ESA registration number: ESA/79/2. Principal mission of the technological capsule (with ballast), which was equipped with batteries having a lifetime of approximately 8 orbits, was to transmit back to earth technological data on the first developmental flight L01 of the ARIANE launch vehicle. When the batteries were exhausted, the capsule ended its radio transmissions, and it is now inoperative but still in orbit.

1980 May 23 - . 14:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L02. FAILURE: Stage 1 combustion instability.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Firewheel - . Payload: Feuerrad. Nation: France. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Firewheel. Decay Date: 1980-05-23 . COSPAR: F800523A.
  • Amsat Phase 3A - . Payload: Amsat Phase 3A. Nation: USA. Agency: ESA. Program: Oscar. Spacecraft: Oscar. COSPAR: F800523F. Summary: The satellite never obtained orbit. Weight 92.2 kg. Mode B (435 MHz uplink and 145 MHz downlink) transponder and 145 MHz beacon. VHF and UHF helix wide beam antenna..
  • CAT - . Payload: CAT. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Spacecraft: CAT. COSPAR: F800523G.
  • Feuerrad subsatellite 2 - . Payload: Feuerrad. Nation: France. Agency: ESA. Spacecraft: Firewheel. COSPAR: F800523B.
  • Feuerrad subsatellite 1 - . Payload: Feuerrad. Nation: France. Agency: ESA. Spacecraft: Firewheel. COSPAR: F800523E.
  • Feuerrad subsatellite 3 - . Payload: Feuerrad. Nation: France. Agency: ESA. Spacecraft: Firewheel. COSPAR: F800523C.
  • Feuerrad subsatellite 4 - . Payload: Feuerrad. Nation: France. Agency: ESA. Spacecraft: Firewheel. COSPAR: F800523D.

1981 June 19 - . 12:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L03.
  • Meteosat 2 - . Mass: 697 kg (1,536 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. Completed Operations Date: 1991-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12544 . COSPAR: 1981-057A. Apogee: 36,329 km (22,573 mi). Perigee: 36,124 km (22,446 mi). Inclination: 11.1000 deg. Period: 1,458.60 min. Meteosat 2 is a geostationary meteorological satellite, operating within the world wide network of the World Weather Watch of WMO. Its main missions are: Imaging in the visible, IR and water vapour region of the spectrum; data reception from so-called dat a collection platforms (DCPs); data distribution to meteorological services and other interested parties (research institutes etc). Launch time 1233:03 UT. Geostationary position 0 deg E. Designator ESA/81/03. As of 3 September 2001 located at 58.52 deg W drifting at 5.577 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.67W drifting at 5.583W degrees per day.
  • Apple - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 1. Completed Operations Date: 1983-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12545 . COSPAR: 1981-057B. Apogee: 35,945 km (22,335 mi). Perigee: 35,752 km (22,215 mi). Inclination: 10.0000 deg. Period: 1,439.30 min. Experimental communications satellite. Geosynchronous altitude, longitude 10 deg East. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 102 deg E in 1981-1982 As of 31 August 2001 located at 42.73 deg W drifting at 0.834 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 39.31E drifting at 0.875W degrees per day.
  • CAT 3 - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. USAF Sat Cat: 12546 . COSPAR: 1981-057C. Apogee: 26,528 km (16,483 mi). Perigee: 261 km (162 mi). Inclination: 10.7000 deg. Period: 461.20 min. Launch vehicle test payload. Technological capsule. ESA registration ESA/81/02. Launch time 1233:03 UT. The technological capsule, equipped with batteries for a lifetime of about six orbital revolutions, transmits to earth technological data about test flight L-03 of ARIANE. After di scharge of the battery the capsule will stop its transmissions and remain in orbit on inactive status. Frequency 136-138 MHz (transmission until 65h after launch only). Projected time of reentry 1986.

1981 December 20 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L04.
  • Tech. capsule - . Payload: CAT/Thesee. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. Decay Date: 1988-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 13025 . COSPAR: 1981-122C. Apogee: 36,051 km (22,401 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 10.6000 deg. Period: 636.00 min. Ariane L-04 technological capsule, ESA designator ESA/81/04. The technological capsule, equipped with batteries for a lifetime of about 6 orbital revolutions (65h), transmits to earth technological data about test flight L-04 of Ariane. After discharge of the battery the capsule will stop its transmissions and remain in orbit in an inactive status. Frequency 136-138 MHz, projected time of reentry before 1990.
  • MARECS 1 - . Payload: MARECS A. Mass: 582 kg (1,283 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 13010 . COSPAR: 1981-122A. Apogee: 37,858 km (23,523 mi). Perigee: 36,782 km (22,855 mi). Inclination: 10.8000 deg. Period: 1,515.20 min. MARECS-A was a geostationary maritime communications satellite, which formed part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. MARECS-A moved to a new position on the geostationary orbit. Old position: 334E. New position: 22.5 E. The Marecs satellites were members of Inmarsat's first generation global maritime communications network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg W in 1982-1986; 178 deg E in 1986-1991; 20 deg E in 1991-1992; 22 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 1 September 2001 located at 11.08 deg W drifting at 18.839 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 168.28W drifting at 18.837W degrees per day. Additional Details: here....
  • CAT 4 - . Payload: MARECS 1 / CAT 4. Mass: 217 kg (478 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CAT. USAF Sat Cat: 13011 . COSPAR: 1981-122B. Apogee: 30,744 km (19,103 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 10.4000 deg. Period: 536.80 min. Summary: Launch vehicle test payload. .

1982 September 9 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L5. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • MARECS B - . Payload: MARECS B. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Decay Date: 1982-09-10 . COSPAR: F820909A. Summary: Marecs B intended for maritime communications, planned for lease to Inmarsat; launched with Sirio 2. Geosynch orbit..
  • Sirio 2 - . Payload: Sirio 2. Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Program: MARECS. Spacecraft: SIRIO. COSPAR: F820909B.

1983 June 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L6.
  • Eutelsat 1 - . Payload: ECS 1. Mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Completed Operations Date: 1996-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14128 . COSPAR: 1983-058A. Apogee: 36,246 km (22,522 mi). Perigee: 36,123 km (22,445 mi). Inclination: 9.2000 deg. Period: 1,456.50 min. Designator ESA/83/4. Launch time 1159 GMT. Launch agency ESA. Geostationary position 10+/- 0.1 deg E. EUTELSAT 1 is a regional geostationary telecommunication Satellite for European countries. It is operated by the EUTELSAT organization. Frequency plan: 1 36-138 MHz (S-E). 148-149.9 MHz (E-S). 10.7-11.7 GHz (S-E). 14-14.5 GHz (E-S). Positions: Document Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1983; 13 deg E in 1983-1989; 16 deg E in 1989-1991; 25 deg E in 1992-1993; 48E1993-1996; 36 deg E in 1996 As of 31 August 2001 located at 12.27 deg W drifting at 5.043 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 109.78W drifting at 5.059W degrees per day.
  • Oscar 10 - . Payload: Phase 3B. Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 14129 . COSPAR: 1983-058B. Apogee: 35,442 km (22,022 mi). Perigee: 4,007 km (2,489 mi). Inclination: 27.2000 deg. Period: 699.50 min. AMSAT Oscar 10, registration no D-R 001. Scientific and communication satellite for the amateur radio service. Frequency plan: Transponder U: 435.1 MHz (uplink), 145.9 MHz (downlink), Bandwidth +/- 75 kHz. Transponder L: 1269.45 MHz (uplink), 436.55 MHz ( downlink), bandwidth +/- 400 kHz. Two beacons adjacent to passband. Launch vehicle Ariane L6. First amateur satellite with onboard propulsion (which did not function entirely correctly, due to collision with launch vehicle after separation - hence the not-quite-Molniya-orbit). Computer control failed December 1986 due to radiation damage to memory. As a result, ground control stations have no control over the spacecraft. However, when the orientation is favourable (with respect to the Earth and Sun), OSCAR 10 continues to provide good Mode B service. If users coorperate, OSCAR 10 may provide many more years of service. Project Management: AMSAT-NA (Jan King, W3GEY) and AMSAT-DL (Karl Meinzer, DJ4ZC). Spacecraft sub-systems: Contributed by groups in Canada, Hungary, Japan, United States and West Germany. Spacecraft: Spin Stabilised with Magnetorquers: Power: 50 W solar array, 2 NiCd batteries. Payload: Transponders/Beacons: Mode B: Type: Linear, inverting, 50W; General Beacon: 145.809 MHz (Carrier); Engineering Beacon: 145.987 MHz; Uplink: 435.030-435.180 MHz; Downlink: 145.975-145.825 MHz. Mode L (no longer operational): Type: Linear, inverting, 50W: Beacons: 436.020, 436.040 MHz; Uplink 1269.450 MHz (800 kHz); Downlink 436.550 MHz.

1983 October 19 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L7.
  • Intelsat 5 F-7 - . Mass: 1,928 kg (4,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 5. Completed Operations Date: 1996-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 14421 . COSPAR: 1983-105A. Apogee: 35,972 km (22,351 mi). Perigee: 35,928 km (22,324 mi). Inclination: 8.5000 deg. Period: 1,444.50 min. Ariane third stage. Launched by European Space Agency. Launch time 0045:36 GMT. Launched spacecraft Intelsat V F7. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 60 deg E in 1984-1985; 66 deg E in 1985-1991; 57 deg E in 1991-1995; 47 deg E in 1995-1996 As of 28 August 2001 located at 140.34 deg E drifting at 2.062 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 88.83W drifting at 2.097W degrees per day.

1984 March 5 - . 00:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 L8.
  • Intelsat 5 F-8 - . Mass: 1,928 kg (4,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 5. Completed Operations Date: 1994-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 14786 . COSPAR: 1984-023A. Apogee: 36,755 km (22,838 mi). Perigee: 36,531 km (22,699 mi). Inclination: 8.2000 deg. Period: 1,480.10 min. Summary: Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg W in 1984-1985; 180 deg E in 1985-1994 As of 28 August 2001 located at 164.20 deg W drifting at 10.735 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 110.10E drifting at 10.740W degrees per day..

1984 May 23 - . 01:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 V9.
  • Spacenet F1 - . Mass: 705 kg (1,554 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GTE. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: GTE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 14985 . COSPAR: 1984-049A. Apogee: 35,897 km (22,305 mi). Perigee: 35,840 km (22,260 mi). Inclination: 4.9000 deg. Period: 1,440.30 min. Stationed at 120 deg W. C, Ku band communications satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 120 deg W in 1984-1993; 115 deg E in 1993-on. As of 2 September 2001 located at 165.12 deg E drifting at 0.985 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.23W drifting at 1.077W degrees per day.

1985 July 2 - . 11:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 V14.
  • Giotto - . Mass: 583 kg (1,285 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Comet. Type: Comet probe. Spacecraft: Giotto. USAF Sat Cat: 15875 . COSPAR: 1985-056A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 6.9000 deg. Period: 631.51 min. Encountered comet Halley March 13, 1986. The Giotto mission was designed to study Comet P/Halley, and also studied Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during its extended mission. The spacecraft encountered Halley on March 13, 1986, at a distance of 0.89 AU from the sun and 0.98 AU from the Earth and an angle of 107 degrees from the comet-sun line. The actual closest approach was measured at 596 km. All experiments performed well and returned a wealth of new scientific results, of which perhaps the most important was the clear identification of the cometary nucleus. Fourteen seconds before closest approach, Giotto was hit by a `large' dust particle. The impact caused the spacecraft angular momentum vector to shift 0.9 degrees. Scientific data were received intermittently for the next 32 minutes. Some experiment sensors suffered damage during this 32-minute interval. Other experiments (the camera baffle and deflecting mirror, the dust detector sensors on the front sheet of the bumper shield, and most experiment apertures) were exposed to dust particles regardless of the accident and also suffered damage. Many of the sensors survived the encounter with little or no damage. Questionable or partially damaged sensors included the camera (later proved to not be functional) and one of the plasma analyzers (RPA). Inoperable experiments included the neutral and ion mass spectrometers and one sensor each on the dust detector and the other plasma analyzer (JPA). During the Giotto extended mission, the spacecraft successfully encountered Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup on July 10, 1992. The closest approach was approximately 200 km. The heliocentric distance of the spacecraft was 1.01 AU, and the geocentric distance, 1.43 AU at the time of the encounter. The payload was switched-on in the evening of July 9. Eight experiments were operated and provided a surprising wealth of data. The Johnstone Plasma Analyser detected the first presence of cometary ions 600,000 km from the nucleus at 12 hours before the closest approach. The Dust Impact Detectors reported the first impact of a fairly large particle at 15:30:56. Bow shocks/waves and acceleration regions were also detected. After the P/Grigg-Skjellerup encounter operation were terminated on 23 July 1992. The spacecraft will fly by the Earth on 1 July 1999.

1986 February 22 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 1. LV Configuration: Ariane 1 V16.
  • SPOT 1 - . Payload: Spot 1 / Viking. Mass: 1,830 kg (4,030 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Program: SPOT. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: SPOT-1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 16613 . COSPAR: 1986-019A. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 824 km (512 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Summary: Remote sensing satellite. Registration 1986-1.B.
  • Viking - . Payload: Spot 1 / Viking. Mass: 538 kg (1,186 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Viking (Sweden). USAF Sat Cat: 16614 . COSPAR: 1986-019B. Apogee: 13,524 km (8,403 mi). Perigee: 817 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 261.60 min. Studied magnetic, electric, UV properties of auroral regions. Scientific satellite for the investigation of space plasma physics in the part of the magnetosphere close to the Earth, particularly in connection with the auroral phenomena. The nominal mission period is eight months but an extension can be envisaged. ST /SG/SER.E/167: The satellite Viking has ceased to function on 12 May 1987 due to a gradual degradation of its electrical power supply system. The satellite remains, however, in Earth orbit.

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