Encyclopedia Astronautica
Athena-1



llv2.jpg
Athena-1
Athena-1 Launch Vehicle
Credit: Lockheed Martin
American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Basic version of the Athena with a Castor 120 first stage, Orbus second stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module.

LEO Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb) to a 185 km orbit at 28.50 degrees. Payload: 360 kg (790 lb) to a 800 km SSO. Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 1995-08-15. Last Fail Date: 1995-08-15. Launch Price $: 17.000 million in 2000 dollars.

Stage Data - Athena-1

  • Stage 1. 1 x Castor 120. Gross Mass: 53,020 kg (116,880 lb). Empty Mass: 4,211 kg (9,283 lb). Thrust (vac): 1,606.594 kN (361,177 lbf). Isp: 286 sec. Burn time: 83 sec. Isp(sl): 229 sec. Diameter: 2.36 m (7.74 ft). Span: 2.36 m (7.74 ft). Length: 10.70 m (35.10 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: Castor 120. Status: In Production. Comments: Modification of Peackeeper ICBM first stage.
  • Stage 2. 1 x ESBM. Gross Mass: 10,810 kg (23,830 lb). Empty Mass: 1,030 kg (2,270 lb). Thrust (vac): 189.200 kN (42,534 lbf). Isp: 293 sec. Burn time: 150 sec. Diameter: 2.30 m (7.50 ft). Span: 2.30 m (7.50 ft). Length: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: SRM-1. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x OAM. Gross Mass: 714 kg (1,574 lb). Empty Mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Thrust (vac): 882 N (198 lbf). Isp: 222 sec. Burn time: 1,500 sec. Diameter: 2.30 m (7.50 ft). Span: 2.30 m (7.50 ft). Length: 1.00 m (3.20 ft). Propellants: Hydrazine. No Engines: 4. Engine: MR-107. Status: In Production. Comments: Monopropellant final stage providing precise orbital injection. Pressure-fed, indefinite number of restarts.

AKA: LMLV; LLV.
Gross mass: 66,300 kg (146,100 lb).
Payload: 820 kg (1,800 lb).
Height: 18.90 m (62.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.36 m (7.74 ft).
Thrust: 1,449.00 kN (325,748 lbf).
Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).
First Launch: 1995.08.15.
Last Launch: 2001.09.30.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • GemStar American communications satellite. One launch, 1995.08.15. Global Electronic Messaging Satellite. More...
  • Lewis American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1997.08.23. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies. More...
  • ROCSAT Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. More...
  • Starshine American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.05.27 (Starshine) and 2001.09.30 (Starshine 3). The small Starshine satellite, built by NRL, was to be observed by students as part of an educational exercise. More...
  • UoSAT British amateur radio communications satellite. One launch, 2001.09.30, Picosat. Radio science; also carried amateur radio package. Communication and geophysics research satellite. More...
  • Sapphire American technology satellite. One launch, 2001.09.30. SAPPHIRE (a US DoD-funded microsatellite) was built by Stanford University students and carried experimental infrared horizon sensors, a voice synthesizer and a digital camera. More...

Associated Engines
  • Castor 120 Thiokol solid rocket engine. 1650 kN. Isp=280s. Motor similar in size to the Peacekeeper missile stage 1 motor; filled the gap between Castor 4A and the large segmented motors. First flight 1989. More...
  • SRM-1 CSD solid rocket engine. 181.5 kN. Used in TOS; IUS-1 on Shuttle, Titan 34D. Known by manufacturer as Orbus 21. Propellant: 86% solids made up of HTPB UTP-19360A. Shape: cylindrical. Isp=296s. First flight 1982. More...

See also
  • Athena Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Lockheed American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, CA, USA. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Kodiak In January 1998, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation began building a commercial spaceport at Narrow Cape on Kodiak Island, about 400 km south of Anchorage and 40 km southwest of the City of Kodiak. Kodiak Island was advertised as one of the best locations in the world for polar launch operations, providing a wide launch azimuth and unobstructed downrange flight path. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC46 Trident, Athena launch complex. This complex was built as part of the U.S. Navy's Trident II ballistic missile effort at the Cape. Construction was underway in February 1984, and the complex was ordnance-certified in November 1986. Complex 46 supported the Cape's first Trident II test missile launch on 15 January 1987. Eighteen more Trident IIs were launched from the site between 17 March 1987 and 27 January 1989. As Trident launch operations moved out to sea later in 1989, the complex was placed on standby status awaiting special Trident II test requirements. No new requirements surfaced in the 1990s, but the Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) won $4,890,000 in Air Force grants to redesign Complex 46 to handle small commercial space launch operations (e.g., Lockheed Martin's new LMLV-2 space launch vehicle). More...

Associated Stages
  • ESBM Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,810/1,030 kg. Thrust 189.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. More...
  • OAM Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 714/360 kg. Thrust 0.88 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 222 seconds. Monopropellant final stage providing precise orbital injection. Pressure-fed, indefinite number of restarts. More...
  • SR118 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,020/4,211 kg. Thrust 1,606.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds. Modification of Peackeeper ICBM first stage. More...

Athena-1 Chronology


1995 August 15 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC6. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-1. LV Configuration: LLV-1 DLV. FAILURE: Destroyed by range safety 160 sec into flight after failure of thrust vector control system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • GemStar 1 (VitaSat) - . Payload: Gemstar DSS-1. Mass: 113 kg (249 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: LMSC. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: GemStar. Decay Date: 1995-08-15 . COSPAR: F950815A. Summary: Global Electronic Messaging Satellite;..

1997 August 23 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC6. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-1. LV Configuration: LMLV-1 LM-002.
  • Lewis - . Payload: SSTI/Lewis. Nation: USA. Agency: TRW; NASA. Manufacturer: Chantilly. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Lewis. Decay Date: 1997-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 24909 . COSPAR: 1997-044A. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi). Perigee: 124 km (77 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Summary: Reentered Sep 28.

1999 January 27 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. Launch Pad: SLC46. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-1. LV Configuration: Athena-1 LM-006.
  • ROCSAT-1 - . Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: Taiwan. Agency: NSPO. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25616 . COSPAR: 1999-002A. Apogee: 653 km (405 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Taiwan's first satellite, with experimental communications, ocean imagery, and ionospheric studies instruments. The Primex OAM placed itself and the payload into an elliptical transfer orbit. A second OAM burn circularized the orbit, and ROCSAT separated into a 588 x 601 km x 35.0 deg orbit.

2001 September 30 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kodiak. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-1. LV Configuration: Athena-1 LM-001.
  • Starshine 3 - . Mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Starshine. Decay Date: 2003-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 26929 . COSPAR: 2001-043A. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 472 km (293 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Possibly last Athena flight. Launch delayed from September 1, 18, 22, 23, 25, 28. This was the first orbital launch from Alaska's Kodiak Island launch site (Foul weather and auroral conditions had delayed the launch many times) . The Lockheed Martin Athena-1's Orbit Adjust Module's (OAM) four MR-107 hydrazine engines fired for 12 minutes to put the payloads in a 237 x 815 km transfer orbit. After a coast to apogee above East Africa, a second burn at 0337 GMT circularized the orbit. USAF Space Test Program satellites Picosat, Sapphire and PCSat were deployed into an 790 x 800 km x 67 deg orbit between 0344 and 0352 GMT; the OAM then made a perigee lowering burn to a 470 x 800 km orbit. Another burn half an orbit later put OAM in a 467 x 474 km orbit, from wish Starshine 3 was deployed. Finally, the OAM made a perigee-lowering depletion burn which left in a 215 x 403 km x 67.2 deg orbit from which would reenter in a few months.

    Starshine-3 was a 90 kg, 0.9 m geodetic sphere that was to be observed by students. The NASA satellite was basically a passive light-reflecting sphere, consisting of 1,500 student-built mirrors (polished by kindergarten and grade school students from many countries) and 31 laser "retroreflectors". A few solar cells provide enough power to send a beacon at 145.825 MHz every minute. Ham operators around the world were expected to obtain signal strengths from which the decay (due to magnetic torque) of its spin rate could be determined. The project was managed by NASA GSFC and Starshine was built by the Naval Research Laboratory.

  • Picosat - . Mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 26930 . COSPAR: 2001-043B. Apogee: 795 km (493 mi). Perigee: 788 km (489 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. STP P97-1 Picosat was built by Surrey Satellite for the USAF using a Uosat-type bus. The 68 kg satellite was to test electronic components/systems in space conditions. It carried four test payloads: Polymer Battery Experiment (PBEX), Ionospheric Occultation Experiment (IOX), Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomagraphy (CERTO) and an ultra-quiet platform (OPPEX). Called Picosat 9 by some Agencies although not related to other satellites in that series.
  • PCSat - . Mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 26931 . COSPAR: 2001-043C. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. PCSat (Prototype Communications SATellite) was to act as a relay for UHF/VHF amateur radio transmissions. It was built by the midshipmen at the US Naval Academy. It was to augment the existing worldwide Amateur Radio Automatic Position Reporting System; mass was around 10 kg.
  • Sapphire - . Mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Lockheed. Manufacturer: Stanford. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Sapphire. USAF Sat Cat: 26932 . COSPAR: 2001-043D. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. Summary: SAPPHIRE (a US DoD-funded microsatellite) was built by Stanford University students and carried experimental infrared horizon sensors, a voice synthesizer and a digital camera. The satellite was about 0.5m in size and had a mass of 16 kg..

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