Encyclopedia Astronautica
Black Brant 10



blackb10.jpg
Black Brant
Black Brant 10
Canadian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Black Brant VB or VC + 1 x Nihka. Payload 90 kg to 1,200 km or 317 kg to 550 km.

The Black Brant X rocket system was a three-stage system, and unique because the third stage motor was ignited once the vehicle system reached exoatmospheric conditions. The first stage booster consisted of a Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration. The finless third stage was the Nihka rocket motor, developed specifically for the Black Brant X rocket system by Bristol Aerospace. The standard payload configuration for the Black Brant X vehicle was 44 cm in diameter with a 3:1 ogive nose shape. Payload length and weight limits for the Black Brant X were the same as the Black Brant V. Standard hardware systems available for Black Brant V motors included aft recovery systems, payload separation systems (including High Velocity Separation System) and despin systems. These units were modular "stackable" so that a great deal of flexibility existed in meeting experiment requirements.

Failures: 1. Success Rate: 96.67%. First Fail Date: 1987-03-07. Last Fail Date: 1987-03-07.

AKA: Black Brant X.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb).
Height: 14.50 m (47.50 ft).
Diameter: 0.44 m (1.44 ft).
Thrust: 257.00 kN (57,775 lbf).
Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).
First Launch: 1981.08.14.
Last Launch: 2010.08.04.
Number: 31 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Nihka Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. 50.5 kN. Upper stages. Out of production. Isp=284s. Used on Black Brant 10 launch vehicle. First flight 1981. More...

See also
  • Black Brant The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Bristol Canadian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Bristol Aerospace Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • Poker Flat Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather. More...
  • Andoya Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) is the world's northernmost permanent launch facility for sounding rockets and scientific balloons and is responsible for all scientific-related balloon and rocket operations in Norwegian territory. ARR provides complete services for launch, operations, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The range has conducted more than 650 rocket launches and hosted scientists and engineers from more than 70 institutes and universities. More...
  • Barking Sands Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. Known to have been used for 2320 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Cape Parry Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 18 launches from 1969 to 1982, reaching up to 662 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Sonde Stromfjord The Danish Meteorological Institute established this sounding rocket range in 1971. The site was located next to an airport at the end of the fjord and was only occupied during launch campaigns. The location was well-suited for observation of the Arctic aurora and ionosphere. Known to have been used for 31 launches from 1971 to 1987, reaching up to 816 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Alcantara Sounding rocket and orbital launch site. Used for 53 known launches from 1990 to 2007. The launch complex for Brazil's indigenous VLS orbital booster was located here. More...

Associated Stages
  • 17KS12000 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 399/70 kg. Thrust 50.50 kN. The Nihka rocket motor was developed specifically for the Black Brant X rocket system by Bristol Aerospace. More...
  • 26KS20000 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,264/268 kg. Thrust 75.70 kN. Four-finned version. More...

Black Brant 10 Chronology


1981 August 14 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 12.38GT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 625 km (388 mi).

1981 December 1 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.001UE.
  • CENTAUR Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 612 km (380 mi).

1981 December 13 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.002UE.
  • CENTAUR Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi).

1982 April 16 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.003GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1982 April 20 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.004GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,195 km (742 mi).

1983 April 10 - . 07:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.005UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi).

1984 February 7 - . 09:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.006UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,020 km (630 mi).

1984 March 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.007GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 948 km (589 mi).

1984 April 1 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.008GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 954 km (592 mi).

1985 January 23 - . 09:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.009UE.
  • COPE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 769 km (477 mi).

1985 February 10 - . 02:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.012UE.
  • TOPAZ I Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi).

1986 January 18 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.010CE.
  • CENTAUR 2 Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 676 km (420 mi).

1986 April 1 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.015GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 912 km (566 mi).

1986 April 13 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.016GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 977 km (607 mi).

1986 April 22 - . 08:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.013UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1986 May 13 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.014UE.
  • CVE Ba Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi).

1987 March 7 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.018UE. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1987 December 14 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X GL A22.703.
  • SPEAR I Active plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi).

1988 January 19 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.017UE.
  • TOPAZ II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 926 km (575 mi).

1988 March 4 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.023GE.
  • UCB Alaska '88 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 December 17 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.024UE.
  • CUSP Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 515 km (320 mi).

1989 May 4 - . 01:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.019UE.
  • CRIT-2? Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi).

1989 July 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X Black Star 3.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1989 July 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X Black Star 3.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1990 April 5 - . 13:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.28CE.
  • WISP 1 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 586 km (364 mi).

1993 July 22 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.29UE.
  • WISP 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi).

1994 October 14 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.030IE.
  • GUARA High Altitude Spread F Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 956 km (594 mi).

1999 February 11 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.032UE.
  • ENSTROPHY Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 1,071 km (665 mi).

2004 July 16 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X ARAV-ER.
  • 3-stage ARAV - . Nation: Canada. Agency: USN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2007 February 14 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.037.
  • HEX-II H Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2010 August 4 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10.
  • NASA 12.073GT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Summary: Qualification test of a new version of the Black Brant's Nikha solid motor..

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