Encyclopedia Astronautica
Black Brant 5C


Canadian sounding rocket. Four-fin version.

Failures: 4. Success Rate: 96.15%. First Fail Date: 1971-07-21. Last Fail Date: 1994-10-06.

AKA: Black Brant VC.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 1,300 kg (2,800 lb).
Height: 8.30 m (27.20 ft).
Diameter: 0.44 m (1.44 ft).
Apogee: 350 km (210 mi).
First Launch: 1970.04.04.
Last Launch: 2009.01.29.
Number: 105 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Black Brant The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Bristol Canadian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Bristol Aerospace Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • White Sands White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. White Sands, a true desert area, was even more unpopulated than Roswell. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range. The first launch of a Tiny Tim rocket was on 26 September 1945. On 11 October a Tiny Tim boosted a WAC Corporal rocket from the tower. This was the first use of Launch Complex 33, later to be used for V-2, Nike, Viking, Corporal, Lance and Multiple Launch Rocket System testing. More...
  • Poker Flat Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather. More...
  • Fort Churchill Fort Churchill is an Arctic site on Hudson Bay with a rail link. It is near the point of maximum auroral activity. This combination of circumstances made it ideal for far-north sounding rocket launches. In 1954, the Canadian Army conducted the first series of rocket firings at Fort Churchill. Following a period of inactivity, construction of more elaborate facilities in support of the International Geophysical Year began in 1956. IGY firings began in July 1957. The range was closed again in December 1958 after the IGY program ended. It was reopened again in August 1959 by the US Army as part of its network of sounding rocket stations. This allowed use of the site by other groups over the years. More...
  • Eglin This US Air Force proving ground and missile test range, based in Valparaiso, Florida and extending over a vast expanse of the Gulf of Mexico, was founded in 1935, In early 1946 the First Experimental Guided Missiles Group was activated at Eglin. The highly-instrumented Eglin Gulf Test Range supported flight tests of Bomarc, Matador, Quail, and Hound Dog cruise missiles. Both the military and NASA used Eglin to support launch of sounding rockets in support of their programs. Eglin was known to have been used for 441 launches from 1959 to 1980, reaching up to 686 kilometers altitude. The actual number of missile tests was many times greater. More...
  • Kwajalein The US military base located on this Pacific island group has major tracking facilities and is near the impact area for dummy warheads fired by ICBM's from Vandenberg AFB. It is a key test location for anti-ballistic missile systems. More...
  • Andoya Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) is the world's northernmost permanent launch facility for sounding rockets and scientific balloons and is responsible for all scientific-related balloon and rocket operations in Norwegian territory. ARR provides complete services for launch, operations, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The range has conducted more than 650 rocket launches and hosted scientists and engineers from more than 70 institutes and universities. More...
  • Barking Sands Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. Known to have been used for 2320 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Kiruna The sounding rocket launch site at Kiruna was officially opened in September 1966 under the auspices of ESRO (European Space Research Organisation). When ESA was created in 1972 and replaced ESRO, Kiruna came under the management of the Swedish Space Corporation, a state-owned limited liability company under the Swedish Ministry of Industry. The 'Esrange' is located 45 km from the town of Kiruna and has seven permanent pads able to launch the largest sounding rockets, including the Black Brant 9, Skylark 12, and Castor 4B-boosted vehicles. More...
  • Natal Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 233 launches from 1965 to 2007, reaching up to 1100 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Biscarosse In April 1962 France signed the final agreements with Algeria, requiring them to evacuate their rocket test ranged there by July 1967. Three months later a site on French soil on the Bay of Biscay, at Landes, near Biscarosse, was selected. The site would allow the testing of missiles over the Atlantic out to a range of 3000 km. This would put the RV impact area near the Azores, and a tracking station was opened in October 1966 on Flores island. More...
  • Arecibo Sounding rocket launch site near world's largest radio telescope, known to have been used for 40 launches from 1966 to 1998, reaching up to 375 kilometers altitude. More...
  • El Arenosillo Spanish sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 335 launches from 1966 to 1994, reaching up to 700 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Alcantara Sounding rocket and orbital launch site. Used for 53 known launches from 1990 to 2007. The launch complex for Brazil's indigenous VLS orbital booster was located here. More...
  • Biscarosse CE Black Brant launch complex. Probable launch from CEL (Site "CE" in Chesser's BAL list) More...
  • White Sands LC36 Terrier, Redstone, Nike, Little Joe II, Honest John, Black Brant, Storm, Aries, Apollo LES launch complex. Originally designated Army Launch Area 2, LC36 was later a LC36 was a NASA facility that supported tests of the Apollo Launch Escape System. It was also used to launch NASA sounding rocket missions. The complex included a blockhouse, launch control equipment, and launchers with environmental shelters. These launchers included:
    • An 11-m rail with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 15-m rail with 11,000 kg capacity
    • A 50-m tower with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 1.2-m diameter stool with 23,000 kg capacity
    • A 9-m rail with 7000 kg capacity.
    More...

Associated Stages
  • 26KS20000 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,264/268 kg. Thrust 75.70 kN. Four-finned version. More...

Black Brant 5C Chronology


1970 April 4 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.903-3.
  • Extreme ultraviolet Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi).

1971 March 24 - . 05:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.006-3.
  • Airglow / Auroral infrared Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi).

1971 July 21 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.04GT. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1972 January 27 - . 18:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.06GT.
  • MSFC RR-1 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1972 February 3 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC N-BB/V-42.
  • DLR N-BBV-42 Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1972 March 8 - . 10:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC N-BB/V-41.
  • DLR N-BBV-41 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1972 April 5 - . 05:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.109-1.
  • E Field / Particles Plasma / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi).

1972 May 31 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.01US.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1972 June 9 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.08UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi).

1972 September 25 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.05UE.
  • ECHO II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi).

1972 November 2 - . 04:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.02UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi).

1972 December 5 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.006-5.
  • Auroral infrared Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi).

1973 January 22 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.09GT-US.
  • Aeronomy / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi).

1973 February 1 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • DLR N-BBVC-52 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi).

1973 February 3 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • DLR N-BBVC-50? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 97 km (60 mi).

1973 February 7 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • DLR N-BBVC-54 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1973 February 9 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.16UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi).

1973 February 15 - . 02:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • DLR N-BBVC-53 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi).

1973 March 22 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.006-2.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1973 March 27 - . 09:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.205-1.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1973 April 3 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.11DS-NP.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1973 May 12 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC A-BBVC-51.
  • DLR A-BBVC-51 Erna Aeronomy /ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi).

1973 May 18 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.19US-GT.
  • Test / aeronomy / solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi).

1973 June 4 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.21NP-US. FAILURE: Failure.
  • CALROC 1 Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1973 June 13 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.12DS-NP.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi).

1973 July 4 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC A-BBVC-49.
  • DLR A-BBVC-49 Barbara Aeronomy /ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1973 August 9 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.22NP-US.
  • CALROC 2 Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi).

1973 August 30 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.07US.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi).

1973 September 4 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.13DS-NP.
  • Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi).

1973 December 10 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.23NP-US.
  • CALROC 3 Solar extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi).

1974 January 15 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.14DS-NP.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1974 February 14 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.006-4.
  • CVF Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1974 February 21 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.116-1.
  • HIRIS Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1974 February 25 - . 07:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC CRL A18.219-1.
  • MUTI Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1974 February 26 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.18US. FAILURE: Failure.
  • LPSP-EUV3 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1974 April 17 - . 10:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.26UE.
  • ECHO III Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1974 June 16 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.17UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1974 June 29 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.28IA.
  • Aladdin 74 aeronomy release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi).

1974 October 4 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.15GP.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1974 November 25 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.31UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1975 January 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.24US.
  • LPSP-EUV4 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi).

1975 July 21 - . 15:31 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.25DS.
  • HRTS-1 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1975 July 28 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.29US.
  • Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1975 December 11 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.32NP.
  • SPAR 1 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1976 January 10 - . 14:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA5. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 12.29GT-IT.
  • SSC S19A Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi).

1976 January 31 - . 06:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.27UE.
  • ECHO IV Auroral mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1976 February 18 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.30US-IS.
  • OSO-I Cal Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi).

1976 March 31 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.03UI.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1976 May 17 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.33NP.
  • SPAR 2 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1976 May 23 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.48NP.
  • SFHe Experiment Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1976 October 22 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.36DS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi).

1976 December 14 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.34NP.
  • SPAR 3 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 174 km (108 mi).

1977 January 15 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.49UL.
  • Colorado microchannel Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi).

1977 March 9 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.41US.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 191 km (118 mi).

1977 April 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.54UG.
  • JHU FOT 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1977 June 10 - . 03:06 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC DLR H-BBV-84.
  • Heatpipe 2 Technology mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1977 June 21 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.45NP.
  • SPAR 4 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi).

1978 February 13 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.42DS.
  • HRTS 2 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1978 September 11 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.46NP.
  • SPAR 5 Microgravity mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1979 January 27 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC SSC S23-L1.
  • Substorm-GEOS Auroral mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi).

1979 January 27 - . 21:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC SSC S23-L2.
  • Substorm-GEOS Auroral mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi).

1979 March 1 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.60DS.
  • HRTS 3 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1979 August 7 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC GL A18.805.
  • POSTBO ABM technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi).

1979 September 20 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.57UL.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1979 September 27 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.62GS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi).

1980 September 30 - . 18:16 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.65UL.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi).

1981 May 27 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.67UG.
  • JHU FOT 4 (Io) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1981 September 30 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.63GS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

1982 September 15 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC AMF-VC-53.
  • Solar infrared mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi).

1982 November 1 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.69UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1982 December 13 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.74UG.
  • JHU UVT F10 Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi).

1983 March 7 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.84DS.
  • HRTS 4 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1983 June 11 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC ADD-VC-56.
  • OASIS Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1984 October 24 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC SSC S38.
  • TOR Aurora / fields / chemical release mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi).

1985 March 18 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.70UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1988 November 7 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.98IE.
  • NEED I(Ferdinand 79) Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi).

1988 November 10 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.101UU.
  • NCAR / CU-1 Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 March 4 - . 01:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.96GE.
  • ERRRIS II Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1989 May 31 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse CE. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • Site CE test - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 July 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC Black Star 5.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1989 September 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC Black Star 6.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 July 12 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse CE. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1990 October 12 - . 20:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.102IE.
  • NEED II (F-80) Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi).

1990 October 15 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse CE. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ACF. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1992 June 23 - . 00:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.105GE.
  • EL COQUI Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1994 September 9 - . 13:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.110GE.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 September 21 - . 13:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.111GE.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 October 6 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.112GE. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1994 October 15 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.113GE.
  • GUARA Electrojet Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1996 June 13 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • LAADEX Target - . Nation: Canada. Agency: USN. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi).

1996 August 29 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: BMDO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1997 August 8 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.120NE.
  • METEORS Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1998 February 20 - . 00:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.117UE.
  • Coqui Dos SAL Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1998 February 20 - . 00:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.119UE.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1998 February 25 - . 03:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.118UE.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere / release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1998 March 7 - . 01:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.114UE.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere/Release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1998 March 25 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Arecibo. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.115UE.
  • Coqui Dos Ionosphere/Release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1999 July 5 - . 03:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.116GE.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

2000 October 26 - . 09:57 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.126CE.
  • TOMEX Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

2001 June 29 - . 00:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.125GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. Launch Complex: Poker Flat LC1. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.131UE.
  • JOULE Auroral/release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

2004 September 7 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.132GE.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

2004 September 17 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.133GE.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

2007 January 19 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.138UE.
  • JOULE II Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2009 January 29 - . 09:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C.
  • NASA 21.139UE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi). Summary: Aurora.

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