Encyclopedia Astronautica
Black Brant 2


Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Payload: 68 kg (149 lb) to a 274 km altitude. Failures: 4. Success Rate: 92.86%. First Fail Date: 1964-09-08. Last Fail Date: 1970-04-22.

AKA: Black Brant II.
Status: Retired 1974.
Gross mass: 880 kg (1,940 lb).
Payload: 68 kg (149 lb).
Height: 8.45 m (27.72 ft).
Diameter: 0.44 m (1.44 ft).
Thrust: 89.00 kN (20,007 lbf).
Apogee: 274 km (170 mi).
First Launch: 1960.10.12.
Last Launch: 1974.02.22.
Number: 56 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Black Brant The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Bristol Canadian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Bristol Aerospace Limited, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • Fort Churchill Fort Churchill is an Arctic site on Hudson Bay with a rail link. It is near the point of maximum auroral activity. This combination of circumstances made it ideal for far-north sounding rocket launches. In 1954, the Canadian Army conducted the first series of rocket firings at Fort Churchill. Following a period of inactivity, construction of more elaborate facilities in support of the International Geophysical Year began in 1956. IGY firings began in July 1957. The range was closed again in December 1958 after the IGY program ended. It was reopened again in August 1959 by the US Army as part of its network of sounding rocket stations. This allowed use of the site by other groups over the years. More...
  • Kiruna The sounding rocket launch site at Kiruna was officially opened in September 1966 under the auspices of ESRO (European Space Research Organisation). When ESA was created in 1972 and replaced ESRO, Kiruna came under the management of the Swedish Space Corporation, a state-owned limited liability company under the Swedish Ministry of Industry. The 'Esrange' is located 45 km from the town of Kiruna and has seven permanent pads able to launch the largest sounding rockets, including the Black Brant 9, Skylark 12, and Castor 4B-boosted vehicles. More...

Associated Stages
  • 15KS25000 Solid rocket stage. 111.00 kN (24,954 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). More...

Black Brant 2 Chronology


1960 October 12 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-13.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1960 October 12 - . 21:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-14.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi).

1963 May 7 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II BB-2A-22.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 139 km (86 mi).

1963 June 11 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II BB-2A-21.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1963 June 24 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-18.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1963 June 24 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-17.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 162 km (100 mi).

1963 October 14 - . 05:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II BB-2A-20.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: DRTE. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1963 October 18 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-39.
  • NO2 release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1963 October 26 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-19.
  • Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: DRTE. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1963 October 29 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-40.
  • NO2 release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1964 January 9 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2-41.
  • Auroral particles Aurora / ionosphere / micrometeorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1964 January 14 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2-25.
  • Auroral particles Aurora / ionosphere / micrometeorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1964 January 17 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AD-2-42.
  • Aurora / ionosphere / micrometeorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 January 20 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-29.
  • Fin test - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1964 January 20 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CC-2A-30.
  • Fin test - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CARDE. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1964 April 7 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2A-43.
  • Auroral particles Aurora / ionosphere / micrometeorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1964 April 8 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AD-2A-44.
  • Auroral study Apr9? Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1964 April 16 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AD-2A-36.
  • Ionosphere / particles / micrometeorite mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1964 September 8 - . 03:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AK-2A-59. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1964 September 15 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AD-2A-58.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1964 October 27 - . 16:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AC17.606.
  • D region Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1964 November 27 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2A-37.
  • Test/Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Chemical release mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1965 March 17 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AE-2A-24.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1965 March 19 - . 06:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2A-52.
  • Fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1965 March 24 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2A-53.
  • Fields mission (date may be 23 March) - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1965 March 25 - . 05:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2A-60.
  • or Mar 24 Ionosphere / micrometeorite mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1965 May 27 - . 23:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II BB-2A-51. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1965 June 2 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II BB-2A-50.
  • Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1966 March 26 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2A-103.
  • Aurora / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 153 km (95 mi).

1966 March 30 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AK-2A-104.
  • Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1966 September 28 - . 18:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II CRL AC17.604D.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1966 November 19 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AAD-2A-106.
  • Hydrogen line emission Aurora / ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi).

1967 January 21 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2-105.
  • Aurora / ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1967 January 22 - . 18:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2-102.
  • Aurora / ionosphere / meteorology mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1967 February 4 - . 05:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AA-2-101.
  • Recovery test / Ionosphere Aurora / ionosphere / meteorology mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1968 January 19 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AAF-2-108.
  • Te / ne Aeronomy / ionosphere / Fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 142 km (88 mi).

1968 January 23 - . 05:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II ADD-2-109/ADD-VB-109.
  • Fields / Ionosphere / Micrometeorites Aurora / ionosphere / fields mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1968 January 30 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AKD-2A-111.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 161 km (100 mi).

1968 April 16 - . 03:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AKD-2A-113.
  • Auroral breakup Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 April 18 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AKD-2A-110.
  • Auroral breakup Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1968 April 18 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AKD-2A-112.
  • Auroral breakup Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1968 April 23 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AMF-2A-116. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Auroral spectrum Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 21 km (13 mi).

1968 April 23 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AMF-2A-115.
  • dup for 116? Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi).

1968 November 19 - . 01:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II BB-2.
  • Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi).

1968 December 13 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. Launch Complex: Fort Churchill LC7. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AAF-2-125.
  • Geminids Ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 143 km (88 mi).

1969 January 28 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AEF-2-118.
  • N2, temperature profile Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1969 February 13 - . 23:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AMF-2-46.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1969 February 19 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AMF-2-117.
  • VUV auroral spectrum Aurora mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1969 September 11 - . 01:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AAD-2-122.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1969 September 12 - . 01:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AAD-2-123.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / meteorites mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1970 April 22 - . 08:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AEF-2-121. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1971 January 13 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II ADD-2-124.
  • O2 profile Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1971 March 20 - . 07:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AHF-2-115.
  • Auroral VUV Test / aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1972 February 15 - . 03:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II ADD-2-114.
  • Auroral VUV Aurora / ionosphere mission Aurora / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1973 February 26 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II ADD-2-127.
  • Auroral VUV Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1974 February 22 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II ADD-2A-128.
  • Auroral VUV Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi).

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