Encyclopedia Astronautica
CZ-3



cz3.jpg
CZ-3
Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3 was a three-stage launch vehicle designed for delivery of satellites of 1,500 kg mass into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The first and second stages were based on the CZ-2C, and designed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. The majority of the technology and flight hardware used in the CZ-3 had been qualified and proven on the CZ-2C. The third stage, manufactured by CALT, was equipped with an LOX/LH2 cryogenic engine. Long March 3 was also capable of placing spacecraft into an elliptical or circular low earth orbit and sun synchronous orbit.

The third stage used the first Chinese liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engine. This had a vacuum thrust of 44 kN (4.5 tonnes thrust) and was capable of one restart. Development of the cryogenic third stage engine was a major technical achievement. This advanced in technology engine was superior in performance (vacuum specific impulse 50% more than that of a conventional propellant engine). Its combustion products were safe and non- toxic. But the boiling points of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen were low (-253 deg C and –183 deg C respectively) and they were inflammable and explosive. Many problems in low temperature technology and multiple restarting of the engine in high vacuum and zero-G had to be solved. During development longitudinal coupling vibration was a knotty problem that took some time to cure. The problems were all surmounted under the leadership of Chief Designer Xie Guanxuan.

LEO Payload: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 28.50 degrees. Payload: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb) to a GTO. Failures: 2. First Fail Date: 1984-01-29. Last Fail Date: 1991-12-28. Launch Price $: 40.000 million in 1999 dollars.

Stage Data - CZ-3

  • Stage 1. 1 x CZ-3-1. Gross Mass: 151,000 kg (332,000 lb). Empty Mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust (vac): 3,000.000 kN (674,400 lbf). Isp: 289 sec. Burn time: 132 sec. Isp(sl): 259 sec. Diameter: 3.35 m (10.99 ft). Span: 6.00 m (19.60 ft). Length: 20.22 m (66.33 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 4. Engine: YF-20A. Other designations: L-140. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x CZ-3-2. Gross Mass: 39,000 kg (85,000 lb). Empty Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust (vac): 761.900 kN (171,282 lbf). Isp: 295 sec. Burn time: 130 sec. Isp(sl): 270 sec. Diameter: 3.35 m (10.99 ft). Span: 3.35 m (10.99 ft). Length: 9.71 m (31.85 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: YF-22A/23A. Other designations: L-35. Status: In Production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x CZ-3-3. Gross Mass: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb). Empty Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust (vac): 44.100 kN (9,914 lbf). Isp: 425 sec. Burn time: 800 sec. Diameter: 2.25 m (7.38 ft). Span: 2.25 m (7.38 ft). Length: 7.48 m (24.54 ft). Propellants: Lox/LH2. No Engines: 4. Engine: YF-73. Other designations: H-8. Status: In Production.

AKA: Chang Zheng 3; Long March 3; Chang Zheng-3; CSL-3.
Status: Retired 2000.
Gross mass: 204,000 kg (449,000 lb).
Payload: 4,800 kg (10,500 lb).
Height: 43.25 m (141.89 ft).
Diameter: 3.35 m (10.99 ft).
Thrust: 2,960.00 kN (665,430 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1984.01.29.
Last Launch: 2000.06.25.
Number: 13 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • DFH-2 Chinese military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1984.01.29 (STTW-T1) to 1991.12.28 (Zhongxing-4). The DFH-2 was a spin-stabilized, drum-shaped military communications satellite with a despun antenna, a diameter of 2.1 m, and a height of 3.1 m. More...
  • FY-2 Chinese earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1997.06.10 (FY-2A) to 2008.12.23 (FY-2C). The Feng Yun 2 spin-stabilized geosynchronous meteorological spacecraft was slightly more massive than China's DFH-2 communications satellite. More...

Associated Engines
  • YF-20A Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 750.2 kN. Out of production. Isp=289s. Boosted CZ-2A, CZ-2C, CZ-2E(A), CZ-3, FB-1. First flight 1972. More...
  • YF-22A/23A Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 762 kN. Out of production. Cluster of YF-22A and 4 x YF-23 verniers. Isp=295s. Boosted CZ-2C, CZ-3. First flight 1975. More...
  • YF-73 Beijing Wan Yuan lox/lh2 rocket engine. 11 kN. In development. Gas-generator turbopump. Gimballed engine. Isp=425s. Used on CZ-3 launch vehicle. First flight 1984. More...

See also
  • CZ China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • CALT Chinese manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing, China. More...

Associated Programs
  • Asiasat AsiaSat is a wholly owned subsidiary of Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Ltd., a company listed on both the Hong Kong (SEHK: 1135HK) and New York (NYSE: SAT) stock exchanges. AsiaSat's two major shareholders are China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC) and Société Européene des Satellites (SES), the operator of EuropeÌs premier ASTRA satellite system. More...
  • Chinastar Zhongxing and Zhongwei (Chinastar) communications satellites were orbited by China Orient Telecommunications Satellite Company, part of the Chinese telecommunications ministry. A combination of indigenous and foreign satellites are used. Zhongxing 1 to 4 were apparently some of the earlier DFH-2 and DFH-3 satellites (although more than four reached geosynchronous orbit). Zhongxing 5 was the former Spacenet 1. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Xichang China's launch site for geosynchronous orbit launches. Xichang Satellite Launch Centre is situated in Xichang, Sichuan Province, south-western China. The launch pad is at 102.0 degrees East and 28.2 degrees North. The head office of the launch centre is located in Xichang City, about 65 kilometers away. Xichang Airport is 50 km away. A dedicated railway and highway lead directly to the launch site. More...

Associated Stages
  • CZ-3-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 151,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 3,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. More...
  • CZ-3-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 761.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. More...
  • CZ-YF-73 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,500/2,000 kg. Thrust 44.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. More...

CZ-3 Chronology


1984 January 29 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-1 (9). FAILURE: Third stage failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • STTW-T1 - . Payload: STTW-T1. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. USAF Sat Cat: 14670 . COSPAR: 1984-008A. Apogee: 6,446 km (4,005 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 36.1000 deg. Period: 162.00 min. Summary: First launch of a prototype DFH-2 communications satellite. Payload stranded in low earth orbit, but all subsystems including the communications payload were completely checked and tested..

1984 April 8 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-2 (10).
  • STTW-T2 - . Payload: STTW-T2. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 14899 . COSPAR: 1984-035A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,733 km (22,203 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.00 min. Prototype of DFH-2 communications satellite. After on-orbit testing and check out of the satellite and the ground stations, the satellite system was declared operational, and was used experimentally for the transmission of television, telephone, and data messages with good results. It stayed in operation for more than four years, exceeding the design life of three years by a comfortable margin. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg E in 1984-1988. As of 4 September 2001 located at 40.81 deg E drifting at 0.320 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 133.57E drifting at 0.079W degrees per day.

1986 February 1 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-3 (13).
  • STTW 1 - . Payload: STTW 1. Mass: 1,024 kg (2,257 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. Completed Operations Date: 1990-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 16526 . COSPAR: 1986-010A. Apogee: 35,819 km (22,256 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 9.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.60 min. Second successful DFH-2 launch. Also designated STW-2, the satellite was positioned at 103 deg E. In comparison to the first two DFH-2's, a parabolic antenna reflector replaced the horn antenna. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1986-1990. As of 3 September 2001 located at 102.75 deg E drifting at 0.030 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 46.50E drifting at 0.019E degrees per day.

1988 March 7 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-4 (17).
  • Zhongxing-1 - . Payload: STTW 2. Mass: 1,024 kg (2,257 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. Completed Operations Date: 1997-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18922 . COSPAR: 1988-014A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 87 deg E in 1988-1997. As of 28 August 2001 located at 87.94 deg E drifting at 0.038 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 64.00E drifting at 0.067E degrees per day..

1988 December 22 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-5 (20).
  • Zhongxing-2 - . Payload: STTW 3. Mass: 1,024 kg (2,257 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. USAF Sat Cat: 19710 . COSPAR: 1988-111A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1989-1999. As of 27 August 2001 located at 91.92 deg E drifting at 0.244 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 83.40E drifting at 0.283W degrees per day..

1990 February 4 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-6 (21).
  • Zhongxing-3 - . Payload: STTW 4. Mass: 1,024 kg (2,257 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. Completed Operations Date: 1998-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20473 . COSPAR: 1990-011A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. National operational communications satellite. Designation 1990-2. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 98 deg E in 1990-1998. As of 4 September 2001 located at 52.36 deg E drifting at 0.045 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 96.88E drifting at 0.061W degrees per day.

1990 April 7 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-7 (22).
  • Asiasat 1 - . Mass: 1,442 kg (3,179 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Asiasat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Asiasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20558 . COSPAR: 1990-030A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 2.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. First commercial Chinese launch; Stationed at 105 deg E; formerly Westar 6 (retrieved by STS-51A and refurbished). Fixed-satellite telecommunication services and transmission of television signals. Operational life about 10 years. Orbital position 105.5E. Owner/operator: Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co, Ltd. 23-24/F, East Exchange Tower, 38-40 Leighton Rd, Hong K ong. Telex 68345 ASAT HX Fax 852 576 4111. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 1990-1999; 122 deg E in 1999-2000. As of 3 September 2001 located at 121.97 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.96E drifting at 3.706W degrees per day.

1991 December 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-8 (26). FAILURE: Third stage failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Zhongxing-4 - . Payload: STTW 5. Mass: 1,025 kg (2,259 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21833 . COSPAR: 1991-088A. Apogee: 34,041 km (21,152 mi). Perigee: 2,023 km (1,257 mi). Inclination: 32.3000 deg. Period: 632.60 min. Summary: Third stage failure; unusable orbit. DFH-2 operational communications satellite..

1994 July 21 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-9 (34).
  • Apstar 1 - . Mass: 1,383 kg (3,048 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23185 . COSPAR: 1994-043A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Asia-Pacific communications. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 138 deg E in 1994-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 138.04 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 141.96E drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1996 July 3 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-10 (41).
  • Apstar 1A - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: APT. Program: Apstar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 23943 . COSPAR: 1996-039A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 24 C-band transponders; Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 134 deg E in 1996-1999. As of 6 September 2001 located at 134.02 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 129.99E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day..

1996 August 18 - . 10:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-11 (42).
  • Zhongxing 7 - . Payload: Zhongxing 7. Nation: China. Agency: Chinasat. Program: Chinasat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24282 . COSPAR: 1996-048A. Apogee: 46,499 km (28,893 mi). Perigee: 21,674 km (13,467 mi). Inclination: 26.3000 deg. Period: 1,350.20 min.

1997 June 10 - . 12:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-12 (45).
  • FY-2A - . Payload: Fengyun 2A. Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: SARTI. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: FY-2. USAF Sat Cat: 24834 . COSPAR: 1997-029A. Apogee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous weather satellite; also known as FY-2B. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 1997-2000; 85 deg E in 2000.. The FY-2A stopped transmission in April 1998 but was put back into partial operation in December 1998. Its imager then failed completely on 30 September 1998 and it was retired in April 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 83.55 deg E drifting at 0.074 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 58.96E drifting at 0.025W degrees per day.

2000 June 25 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-13 (61).
  • Fengyun-2 - . Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: FY-2. USAF Sat Cat: 26382 . COSPAR: 2000-032A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Second Fengyun-2 weather satellite, replacing the first FY-2 (retired in April after a three year service life). The spin-stabilised FY-2 fired its solid apogee motor early on Jun 26. By July 3, it was in a 35,791 x 35,804 km x 1.1 deg orbit drifting over the Pacific. Stationed at 104 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 2000. As of 5 September 2001 located at 104.56 deg E drifting at 0.030 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 34.70W drifting at 0.629W degrees per day.

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