Encyclopedia Astronautica
Dnepr



zdnepr.jpg
Dnepr
Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles.

A commercial use was sought for approximately 150 R-36M2 ICBM's which were to be destroyed by 2007 under the START-2 treaty. During the 1990's a variety of civilian versions of the R-36M and R-36M2 were promoted as commercial launchers. Civilian or uprated versions of the MIRV dispenser buses were considered, dubbed Frakht and Lift. Straight use of surplus ICBM's was marketed under the designation RS-20K Konversiya. Under the 'Dnepr' code-name more radical modifications were considered, including converting the missile to a pad-launched booster using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. In the end commercial interest was minimal, and the Dnepr designation was used for launches using relatively unmodified surplus R-36M2 military rockets, launched to orbit from silos at Baikonur or ICBM bases in the standard manner.

The Dnepr launch vehicle could make timely, highly accurate injection of a single spacecraft or (using the ICBM's multiple warhead dispenser bus) multiple spacecraft with a total mass of up to 3.7 tonnes into low Earth orbits of 300-900 km altitude and 50.5°, 64.5°, 87.3°and 98° inclinations. The booster reliability of 97% had been confirmed by 157 test launches of the ICBM over its lifetime. The cold-launch and quick containerized reload features of the ICBM system meant that the existing launch complex could accomplish up to 25 launches per year. Within the standard missile shroud payloads of up to 2.5 m diameter could be accommodated. Injection accuracy to a 300 km circular orbit was 4.0 km in altitude, 3.0 seconds in orbital period, and 0.05 degrees in right ascension.

LEO Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 46.20 degrees. Payload: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb) to a 407 km 50.5 deg orbit. Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 2006-07-26. Last Fail Date: 2006-07-26. Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket, N2O4/UDMH. Cruise Thrust: 755.000 kN (169,730 lbf). Cruise Thrust: 77,000 kgf. Cruise engine: RD-0255.

AKA: RS-20K; 15A18M2; Ikar.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 208,900 kg (460,500 lb).
Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Height: 34.30 m (112.50 ft).
Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 3.05 m (10.00 ft).
Thrust: 4,525.00 kN (1,017,260 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1999.04.21.
Last Launch: 2010.07.31.
Number: 17 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • ROCSAT Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. More...
  • MiniSat-400 British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus. More...
  • Megsat Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. More...
  • Rubin German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. More...
  • Saudisat Saudi amateur radio communications satellite. 7 launches, 2000.09.26 (SaudiSat 1A) to 2007.04.17 (Saudisat 2). More...
  • UniSat Italian technology satellite. 3 launches, 2000.09.26 (UniSat) to 2004.06.29 (Unisat 3). Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma. More...
  • AprizeSat American civilian store-dump communications satellite. 6 launches, 2002.12.20 (LatinSat 1) to 2009.07.29. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption. More...
  • Cubesat American low-cost nanosatellite bus. Used in dozens of launches, the first on 2003.06.30. More...
  • Demeter French earth seismology satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). More...
  • Amsat Echo American military communications satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29. More...
  • MS-1 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment. More...
  • Reimei Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload. More...
  • Kirari Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 2005.08.23. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. More...
  • Genesis Pathfinder American technology satellite. 2 launches, 2006.07.12 (Genesis 1) to 2007.06.28 (Genesis 2). One third scale version of the Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. More...
  • TerraSAR-X German civilian surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2007.06.15. Scientific / commercial surveillance satellite, equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution More...
  • SSTL-150 German civilian surveillance satellite. Surrey satellite bus, notably used for the RapidEye constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites. Mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0255 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 755 kN. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2. Comprises of single-chamber main engine RD-0256 plus four-chamber steering engines RD-0257. Development based on RD-0228 with thrust increase by 11%. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-264 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4521 kN. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 Mod 1) stage 1. Consists of four RD-263 engines. Isp=318s. Used on Dnepr launch vehicle. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-274 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4952 kN. Developed 1975-85. Upgrade of RD-264 engine with increased chamber pressure and thrust. Development stopped due to problems with turbopump shaft balance. More...
  • RD-869 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 8.580 kN. R-36M2 vehicle bus. Based on RD-864. Two thrust levels. The four thrusters swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Diameter 3,0 / 4,02 m. Isp=313s. First flight 1986. More...

See also
  • R-36M The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Dombarovskiy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). One silo was modified to launch surplus R-36M missiles as orbital launch vehicles, and used for used for 3 launches from 2004 to 2007. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-36M2-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,266/2,356 kg. Thrust 18.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Main engine could be throttled to 800 kgf. More...
  • R-36M2-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,520/13,620 kg. Thrust 4,523.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 318 seconds. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994. More...
  • R-36M2-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 41,114/4,374 kg. Thrust 760.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994. More...

Dnepr Chronology


1999 April 21 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 6703542509.
  • UoSAT-12 - . Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MiniSat-400. USAF Sat Cat: 25693 . COSPAR: 1999-021A. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. First launch of Russia's Dnepr launch vehicle, a converted R-36M2 ICBM. The Dnepr was launched from a silo. The third stage maneuvring bus (used on the ICBM for dispensing multiple warheads) placed UoSAT-12 into a 638 km x 652 km x 64.6 deg orbit. The third stage separated from the payload at 05:13 GMT and then made a burn into a 599 km x 1403 km x 64.6 deg orbit. UoSAT-12 was the first test of the Minibus platform, at 325 kg a larger spacecraft than earlier 50 kg Surrey UoSATs. It carried a mobile radio experiment (MERLION), a GPS receiver, and imaging cameras.

2000 September 26 - . 10:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tiungsat-1 - . Payload: MY-Sat 1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Malaysia. Agency: BKSA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 26545 . COSPAR: 2000-057A. Apogee: 658 km (409 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5585 deg. Period: 97.67 min. Launch delayed from August 25/26. Customer: Astonautic Technology (M) SDN. BHD. Malaysia's first microsatellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd Carried multi-spectral Earth imaging CCD cameras, meteorological Earth imaging CCD camera, digital store and forward communications, cosmic-ray energy deposition experiment (CEDEX)
  • MegSat-1 - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: MegSat. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MegSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26546 . COSPAR: 2000-057B. Apogee: 649 km (403 mi). Perigee: 643 km (399 mi). Inclination: 64.5574 deg. Period: 97.56 min. Summary: Research satellite owned and built by MegSat Space Division, part of the Gruppo Meggiorin companies in Brescia, Italy..
  • UniSat - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: la Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26547 . COSPAR: 2000-057C. Apogee: 670 km (416 mi). Perigee: 643 km (399 mi). Inclination: 64.5585 deg. Period: 97.78 min. Experimental satellite developed by the GAUSS (Gruppo di Astrodinamica dell' Universita degli Studi 'la Sapienza') in Roma. Unisat was financed by ASI and MURST (Ministero dell'Universtia e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica). It carried NiMH batteries, a magnetometer, and a payload consisting of a space debris sensor and a camera.
  • SaudiSat 1A - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26548 . COSPAR: 2000-057D. Apogee: 651 km (404 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5576 deg. Period: 97.59 min. Summary: Saudisat 1A and 1B were developed by the Saudi Institute for Space Research at KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology), Riyadh, and carried amateur store-forward communications payloads..
  • SaudiSat 1B - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 26549 . COSPAR: 2000-057E. Apogee: 664 km (413 mi). Perigee: 644 km (400 mi). Inclination: 64.5547 deg. Period: 97.73 min. Summary: Saudisat 1A and 1B were developed by the Saudi Institute for Space Research at KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology), Riyadh, and carried amateur store-forward communications payloads..

2002 December 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • LatinSat 1 - . Payload: AprizeSat 3. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27605 . COSPAR: 2002-058A. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.90 min. Summary: Messaging satellite..
  • Rubin 2 - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27609 . COSPAR: 2002-058E. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 639 km (397 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Messaging technology satellite..
  • LatinSat 2 - . Payload: AprizeSat 4. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27606 . COSPAR: 2002-058B. Apogee: 702 km (436 mi). Perigee: 632 km (392 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Summary: Messaging satellite..
  • SaudiSat 1S - . Payload: SaudiSat 2. Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27607 . COSPAR: 2002-058C. Apogee: 690 km (420 mi). Perigee: 633 km (393 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Summary: Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • UniSat 2 - . Mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: La Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 27608 . COSPAR: 2002-058D. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 636 km (395 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 97.80 min.

2004 June 29 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Aprizesat 2 (LatinSat D) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Aprize. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28366 . COSPAR: 2004-025A. Apogee: 853 km (530 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Summary: Delayed from March. 31.
  • Demeter - . Mass: 125 kg (275 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Demeter. USAF Sat Cat: 28368 . COSPAR: 2004-025C. Apogee: 723 km (449 mi). Perigee: 695 km (431 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Demeter studied disturbances of the ionosphere due to seismo electromagnetic effects and human activities (power lines, VLF transmitters, HF broadcasting stations). Study of natural electromagnetic emissions in the ULF/ELF/VLF range related to seismic or volcanic activity could be used to predict earthquatkes or eruptions in advance. Demeter tracked these emissions and other space plasma parameters (ion composition, electron density and temperature, energetic particles). The scientific payload consisted of three electric and three magnetic sensors (covering six components of the electromagnetic field from DC to 3.5 MHz); a Langmuir probe; an ion spectrometer; and an energetic particle analyzer. 8 Gbits of onboard memory recorded the data, which was returned to earth as 18 Mb/s high bit rate telemetry in the X band. The two-year mission was handled from a control center in Toulouse.
  • Saudicomsat 1 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28369 . COSPAR: 2004-025D. Apogee: 751 km (466 mi). Perigee: 699 km (434 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Saudicomsat 2 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28370 . COSPAR: 2004-025E. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.60 min. Summary: Amateur store-forward communications payload..
  • Saudisat 2 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Manufacturer: KACST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28371 . COSPAR: 2004-025F. Apogee: 736 km (457 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Summary: Experimental technology satellite that included imaging with resolution better than 15 m for remote sensing..
  • Aprizesat 1 (LatinSat C) - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: AprizeSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28372 . COSPAR: 2004-025G. Apogee: 767 km (476 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.50 min.
  • Unisat 3 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: La Sapienza. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: UniSat. USAF Sat Cat: 28373 . COSPAR: 2004-025H. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.80 min.
  • Amsat Echo - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amsat Echo. USAF Sat Cat: 28375 . COSPAR: 2004-025K. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 697 km (433 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.00 min.

2005 August 23 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Kirari - . Mass: 570 kg (1,250 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Toshiba. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Kirari. USAF Sat Cat: 28809 . COSPAR: 2005-031A. Apogee: 614 km (381 mi). Perigee: 596 km (370 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.80 min. Moved from J-1A . Delayed from August 15. Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite. Its laser communications experiment was be used in with ESA's Artemis geostationary satellite. The satellite was renamed Kirari (twinkle) after launch.
  • Reimei - . Payload: Index. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: JAXA. Manufacturer: Mitsubishi. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Reimei. USAF Sat Cat: 28810 . COSPAR: 2005-031B. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 601 km (373 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Plasma Science Technology. INDEX, renamed Reimei ("Dawn") after launch, was a test satellite with new lightweight satellite components, and a demonstration auroral imager payload..

2006 July 12 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n 6.
  • Genesis 1 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 29252 . COSPAR: 2006-029A. Apogee: 565 km (351 mi). Perigee: 552 km (342 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module..

2006 July 26 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 804 (4502973804). FAILURE: First stage engine failed. Failed Stage: 1.
  • BelKA, Baumanets, Unisat 4, PicPot, and 9 nanosats - . Mass: 360 kg (790 lb). Nation: Belarus. Agency: BNAS. Manufacturer: Korolev. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. COSPAR: F20060726. Summary: Payload consisted of 19 nanosats from academic institutions: BelKA; Baumanets; Unisat-4; PICPOT; ICECube-1; ION; RINCON; AeroCube-1; CalPoly CP1; SEEDS; nCube-1; HAUSAT-1; MEROPE; CalPoly CP2; KUTESat; SACRED; Voyager; ICECube 3.

2007 April 17 - . 06:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 806.
  • MisrSat 1 - . Payload: Egyptsat 1 / MS-1TK. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Egypt. Agency: NARSSS. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: MS-1. USAF Sat Cat: 31117 . COSPAR: 2007-012A. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 657 km (408 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Summary: MisrSat/Egyptsat carried an imaging payload for Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences..
  • Saudisat 3 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Saudisat. USAF Sat Cat: 31118 . COSPAR: 2007-012B. Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Perigee: 656 km (407 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Summary: Saudisat 3 carried a suveillance instrument, backed by data collection and relay avionics, to work in concert with the five smaller SaudiComSats launched at the same time..
  • SaudiComsat-3 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31125 . COSPAR: 2007-012J. Apogee: 718 km (446 mi). Perigee: 653 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.50 min.
  • SaudiComsat-4 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31127 . COSPAR: 2007-012L. Apogee: 751 km (466 mi). Perigee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.80 min.
  • SaudiComsat-5 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31124 . COSPAR: 2007-012H. Apogee: 729 km (452 mi). Perigee: 652 km (405 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.60 min.
  • SaudiComsat-6 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31121 . COSPAR: 2007-012E. Apogee: 762 km (473 mi). Perigee: 649 km (403 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.90 min.
  • SaudiComsat-7 - . Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Saudi Arabia. Agency: RSRI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: SaudiComsat. USAF Sat Cat: 31119 . COSPAR: 2007-012C. Apogee: 740 km (450 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.70 min.
  • CAPE 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Louisiana. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31130 . COSPAR: 2007-012P. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment by the University of Louisiana at Lafayette..
  • Aerocube 2 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Aerospace. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31122 . COSPAR: 2007-012F. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: AeroSpace Corporation cubesat..
  • CSTB 1 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Boeing. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31133 . COSPAR: 2007-012R. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: CubeSat TestBed for Boeing IDS/Advanced Systems, Huntington Beach, California..
  • CP 3 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Cal Poly. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31128 . COSPAR: 2007-012M. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: California Polytechnic University cubesat, the backup for CP2 lost in a Dnepr launch failure in 2006..
  • CP 4 - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Cal Poly. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31132 . COSPAR: 2007-012Q. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Summary: California Polytechnic University cubesat..
  • Libertad - . Mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Nation: Colombia. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Arboleda. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31129 . COSPAR: 2007-012N. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Picosat built and operated by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda, Bogota, Colombia..
  • MAST - . Mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Tethers. Manufacturer: Stanford. Class: Technology. Type: Tether technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 31126 . COSPAR: 2007-012K. Apogee: 783 km (486 mi). Perigee: 647 km (402 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Multi Application Survivable Tether experiment, built by Tethers Unlimited Inc and Stanford University. MAST consisted of the TED (Tether Deployer) satellite, with a 1 km deployable multi-strand Hoytether; RALPH, a small end mass satellite; and between them, GADGET, an inspector satellite which could move along the tether. Before deployment the MAST package fit into a 0.3 m x 0.1 m module.

2007 June 15 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n No. 9.
  • TerraSAR-X - . Mass: 1,346 kg (2,967 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: TerraSAR-X. USAF Sat Cat: 31701 . COSPAR: 2007-026A. Apogee: 512 km (318 mi). Perigee: 499 km (310 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Summary: Scientific/commercial surveillance satellite. equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution.

2007 June 28 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n No. 10.
  • Genesis 2 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Bigelow. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Genesis Pathfinder. USAF Sat Cat: 31789 . COSPAR: 2007-028A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 556 km (345 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. One third scale version of the privately-financed Nautilus inflatable human space habitat module. The spacecraft's 22 interior and exterior cameras provided images of items and pictures carried for paying participants in Bigelow's “Fly your Stuff” program.

2008 August 29 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Tachys - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33312 . COSPAR: 2008-040A. Apogee: 632 km (392 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. RapidEye AG of Brandenberg paid for launch of a constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites in a single launch, each with a mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. The satellites had an optical resolution of 6 meters, and were designed to provide on-demand images for agricultural storm damage assessment and support of emergency services.
  • Mati - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33313 . COSPAR: 2008-040B. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 624 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.50 min.
  • Choma - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33314 . COSPAR: 2008-040C. Apogee: 631 km (392 mi). Perigee: 598 km (371 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.00 min.
  • Choros - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33315 . COSPAR: 2008-040D. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.30 min.
  • Trochia - . Mass: 152 kg (335 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: SSTL-150. USAF Sat Cat: 33316 . COSPAR: 2008-040E. Apogee: 647 km (402 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min.

2008 October 1 - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Theos - . Mass: 715 kg (1,576 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: Makeyev. Manufacturer: EADS Astrium. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 33396 . COSPAR: 2008-049A. Apogee: 693 km (430 mi). Perigee: 673 km (418 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Summary: Thai surveillance satellite, based on EADS Astrium bus used for ROCSAT-2..

2009 July 29 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Deimos 1 - . Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 35681 . COSPAR: 2009-041A. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 635 km (394 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Summary: Deimos Space SL, Madrid, Spain..
  • Dubaisat 1 - . Mass: 190 kg (410 lb). Nation: UAE. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: SatRec. USAF Sat Cat: 35682 . COSPAR: 2009-041B. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.20 min. Summary: Emirates Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Dubai..
  • DMC 2 - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 35683 . COSPAR: 2009-041C. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 625 km (388 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Summary: DMC International Imaging, Guildford, Surrey, UK..
  • Aprizesat 4 - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev. Program: AIS. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35684 . COSPAR: 2009-041D. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 607 km (377 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Spacequest, Fairfax, Virginia..
  • Nanosat 1B - . Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Makeyev. USAF Sat Cat: 35685 . COSPAR: 2009-041E. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 587 km (364 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: INTA, Spain..
  • Aprizesat 3 - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: Makeyev. Program: AIS. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 35686 . COSPAR: 2009-041F. Apogee: 677 km (420 mi). Perigee: 566 km (351 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. Summary: Spacequest, Fairfax, Virginia..

2010 April 8 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n D-14.
  • Cryosat 2 - . Mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Cryosat. USAF Sat Cat: 36508 . COSPAR: 2010-013A. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 713 km (443 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Satellite carried a Ku-band radar to study the thickness of the polar ice caps. Launched to fulfill mission of Cryosat 1, which failed to reach orbit in 2005..

2010 June 15 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Picard - . Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Myriade. USAF Sat Cat: 36598 . COSPAR: 2010-028A. Apogee: 730 km (450 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Summary: Solar observation payload..
  • Prisma - . Mass: 180 kg (390 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36599 . COSPAR: 2010-028B. Apogee: 787 km (489 mi). Perigee: 724 km (449 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Prototype Research Instruments and Space Mission technology Advancement satellite to test space rendezvous and formation-flight technologies. Consisted of 140 kg primary satellite and 40 kg target..

2010 June 21 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n D-16.
  • Tandem X - . Mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: TerraSar-X. USAF Sat Cat: 36605 . COSPAR: 2010-030A. Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Perigee: 507 km (315 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Radar surveillance satellite with 1-m resolution in spotlight mode..

2010 July 31 - . LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • Prisma Tango - . Payload: Tango. Nation: Sweden. Agency: Makeyev. Spacecraft: Prisma. USAF Sat Cat: 36827 . COSPAR: 2010-028F. Apogee: 786 km (488 mi). Perigee: 725 km (450 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Tango subsatellite separated from the main Prisma satellite Mango on 11 August 2010 at 17:51 GMT to begin formation flying experiments..

2011 August 17 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
  • RASAT - . Mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Nation: Turkey. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37791 . COSPAR: 2011-044D. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. Summary: Turkish Earth observation satellite with a Korean-built imager, built for TUBITAK, the Turkish science research council and UZAY, the Space Technology Research Insitute in Ankara..
  • Aprizesat 5 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37792 . COSPAR: 2011-044E. Apogee: 697 km (433 mi). Perigee: 610 km (370 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 97.80 min. Aprizesat 5 and 6 were built by SpaceQuest for exactEarth Ltd. Equipped with AIS (maritime Automatic Identification System) payloads for ship location tracking. The exactEarth system also included the SpaceQuest AprizeSat 3 and 4, and a payload attached to ISRO's ResourceSat-2 satellite.
  • Aprizesat 6 - . Mass: 14 kg (30 lb). Nation: USA. Program: AIS. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Aprizesat. USAF Sat Cat: 37793 . COSPAR: 2011-044F. Apogee: 698 km (433 mi). Perigee: 627 km (389 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 98.00 min.
  • Sich 2 - . Mass: 175 kg (385 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37794 . COSPAR: 2011-044G. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Summary: Ukrainian remote sensing satellite built by the Yuzhnoye..
  • BPA-2/SL-24 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37795 . COSPAR: 2011-044H. Apogee: 1,296 km (805 mi). Perigee: 692 km (429 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Yuzhnoye launch vehicle engineering payload which remained attached to the post-boost maneuvering upper stage after deployment of the other six satellites on the launch. 16 minutes after launch, at an altitude of 700 km, the upper stage dispensed the six satellites at two-minute intervals, then maneuvered into itself into a higher orbit.

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