Encyclopedia Astronautica
Energia M



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Energia M
Energia M in static test building
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Energia M
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Energia M on Pad
Credit: RKK Energia
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Energia M Rollout
Credit: RKK Energia
Launch vehicle originally designed in the 1980's to fullfill the third generation 20-30 tonnes to orbit launcher requirement. It was an adaptation of the Energia launch vehicle, using two strap-on booster units instead of four, and a reduced-diameter core using a single RD-0120 engine instead of four. In the 1990's a structural test article was built and it was proposed that several Energia-M's be launched for commercial customers using surplus Energia components. No buyers came forward for the untested design.

It was later proposed as an alternate for the Angara launch vehicle, but it was not accepted for that role since Angara was to be an all-Russian design (the Energia boosters were built in Ukraine).

LEO Payload: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb) to a 200 km orbit. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 80.000 million in 1985 dollars.

Stage Data - Energia M

  • Stage 0. 2 x Energia Strapon. Gross Mass: 355,000 kg (782,000 lb). Empty Mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 7,906.100 kN (1,777,362 lbf). Isp: 337 sec. Burn time: 145 sec. Isp(sl): 309 sec. Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Span: 4.20 m (13.70 ft). Length: 37.70 m (123.60 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-170. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Essentially identical to Zenit stage 1.
  • Stage 1. 1 x Energia M. Gross Mass: 272,000 kg (599,000 lb). Empty Mass: 28,000 kg (61,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 1,960.000 kN (440,620 lbf). Isp: 455 sec. Burn time: 550 sec. Isp(sl): 352 sec. Diameter: 7.70 m (25.20 ft). Span: 7.70 m (25.20 ft). Length: 20.00 m (65.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/LH2. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-0120M. Status: Development 1993.

Status: Development ended 1993.
Gross mass: 1,022,800 kg (2,254,800 lb).
Payload: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb).
Height: 24.00 m (78.00 ft).
Diameter: 7.70 m (25.20 ft).
Thrust: 16,015.80 kN (3,600,495 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • OK-M2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0120M Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1961 kN. Energia-M core stage. Development ended 1993. Isp=455s. From 1987 KBKhA worked on upgrading the 11D122 (RD-0120) engine for Energia-M launcher, including the possibility to throttle the engine down to 28% thrust. More...
  • RD-170 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Energia strap-on. Developed 1973-1985. Isp=337s. First flight 1987. Used one-plane gimablling versus the two-plane gimablling required on the RD-171 of the Zenit launch vehicle. Designed for 10 reuses. More...

See also
  • Energia The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993. More...
  • Winged In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Stages
  • Energia M Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272,000/28,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. More...
  • Energia Strapon Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,906.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Essentially identical to Zenit stage 1. More...

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