Encyclopedia Astronautica
GSLV



gslv1.jpg
GSLV
Credit: ISRC
Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a Lox/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology.

The 49 metre tall GSLV was a three stage vehicle. The first stage, GS1, comprised a core motor with 138 tonnes of solid propellant and four strap-on motors each with 40 tonnes of hypergolic liquid propellants (UH25 and N204). The second stage had 39 tonnes of the same hypergolic liquid propellants. The third stage (GS3) was a cryogenic stage with 12.5 tonnes of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

The aluminium alloy GSLV payload fairing was 3.4 m in diameter and 7.8 m long. GSLV employed a flexible linear shaped charge separation system for the first stage, a pyrotechnically-actuated collet release mechanism for the second stage, and a Merman band bolt cutter separation mechanism for the third stage. Spacecraft separation was by spring thrusters mounted at the separation interface. The three-axis attitude stabilisation of GSLV was achieved by autonomous control systems provided in each stage. Single plane engine gimbal controls on the four strap-ons of the first stage were used for pitch, yaw and roll control. The second used engine gimbal control for pitch and yaw and a hot gas reaction control system for roll control. Two swivelling vernier engines using LH2 and LOX provided pitch, yaw and roll control for the third stage during thrust phases. A cold gas orientation system was used during third stage coast phases. The booster's inertial guidance system was located in the equipment bay above the third stage. The closed loop guidance scheme used by the on-board computer ensured the required accuracy in orbital injection conditions.

LEO Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 45.00 degrees. Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb) to a GTO. Failures: 1. Success Rate: 80.00%. First Fail Date: 2006-07-10. Last Fail Date: 2006-07-10. Launch data is: continuing. Development Cost $: 500.000 million. Launch Price $: 45.000 million in 1985 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 4.000 million in 1999 dollars in 1985 dollars.

Stage Data - GSLV

  • Stage 0. 4 x GSLV-0. Gross Mass: 45,600 kg (100,500 lb). Empty Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Thrust (vac): 735.000 kN (165,234 lbf). Isp: 281 sec. Burn time: 159 sec. Isp(sl): 240 sec. Diameter: 2.10 m (6.80 ft). Span: 2.10 m (6.80 ft). Length: 19.70 m (64.60 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: Viking 2. Other designations: Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. Status: Out of Production.
  • Stage 1. 1 x GSLV-1. Gross Mass: 157,300 kg (346,700 lb). Empty Mass: 28,300 kg (62,300 lb). Thrust (vac): 4,860.070 kN (1,092,587 lbf). Isp: 266 sec. Burn time: 93 sec. Isp(sl): 237 sec. Diameter: 2.80 m (9.10 ft). Span: 2.80 m (9.10 ft). Length: 20.34 m (66.73 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: PSLV-1. Other designations: Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. Status: In production.
  • Stage 2. 1 x GSLV-2. Gross Mass: 42,900 kg (94,500 lb). Empty Mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb). Thrust (vac): 725.015 kN (162,990 lbf). Isp: 295 sec. Burn time: 149 sec. Isp(sl): 200 sec. Diameter: 2.80 m (9.10 ft). Span: 2.80 m (9.10 ft). Length: 11.60 m (38.00 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: Viking 4. Other designations: Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. Status: In production.
  • Stage 3. 1 x GSLV-3. Gross Mass: 14,600 kg (32,100 lb). Empty Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Thrust (vac): 75.050 kN (16,872 lbf). Isp: 460 sec. Burn time: 675 sec. Diameter: 2.80 m (9.10 ft). Span: 2.80 m (9.10 ft). Length: 8.72 m (28.60 ft). Propellants: Lox/LH2. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-56M. Other designations: Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. Status: In production.

AKA: Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 402,000 kg (886,000 lb).
Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Height: 49.00 m (160.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.80 m (9.10 ft).
Thrust: 6,810.00 kN (1,530,940 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 2001.04.18.
Last Launch: 2010.12.25.
Number: 7 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Insat 3 Indian communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2000.03.21. The multipurpose satellite design provided telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological and search and rescue services. More...
  • GSat Indian communications satellite bus. First launch 2001.04.18. More...
  • Orbital Vehicle Indian manned spacecraft. Study 2015. Design of an Indian manned spacecraft began in October 2006. Dependent on a full funding decision at the end of 2008, planned first flight of the two-man capsule was 2015. More...

Associated Engines
  • PSLV-1 ISRO solid rocket engine. 4860 kN. Isp=264s. Used on GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1993. More...
  • RD-56M Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine. 73.580 kN. Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB, 12KRB upper stage for GSLV (India). In development. Isp=461s. First flight 2001. More...
  • Viking 2 SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 693 kN. In production. Isp=281s. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV space launchers. First flight 1979. More...
  • Viking 4 SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 721 kN. Isp=296s. Used on Ariane 1, GSLV, PSLV. First flight 1979. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ISRO Indian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Indian Space Research Organization, India. More...

Associated Programs
  • Insat Insat (Indian National Satellite System) was a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology and search and rescue services. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Wilson, Andrew, editor,, Jane's/Interavia Space Directory, Jane's Information Group, Coulsdon, Surrey, 1992 et al.
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J, Hopkins, Joshua B, and Hopkins, Joseph P, International Reference to Space Launch Systems, AIAA, Washington DC, 2004.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Sriharikota India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present. More...

Associated Stages
  • GSLV-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 157,300/28,300 kg. Thrust 4,860.07 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds. More...
  • GSLV-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,900/5,400 kg. Thrust 725.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. More...
  • GSLV-3 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/2,200 kg. Thrust 75.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. The stage finally reached hardware status as a joint Russian-Indian development for India's GSLV booster. More...
  • GSLV-0 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 45,600/5,600 kg. Thrust 735.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds. More...

GSLV Chronology


2001 April 18 - . 10:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-D1.
  • GSAT-1 - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,530 kg (3,370 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 26745 . COSPAR: 2001-015A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 33,825 km (21,017 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,387.00 min. Experimental Rural Communications satellite. Launch delayed following pad abort on March 28. First launch of the Indian GSLV launch vehicle. GSat 1 was an Indian, 1500 kg scaled-dow) test model of a future geosynchronous communications spacecraft with a 440 N ISRO liquid apogee motor, and S-band and C-band ommunications transponders, similar to the Insat-2 satellites. The motor for the cryogenic, hydrogen-oxygen upper stage had been purchased from Russia but the design had never flown in space before. The stage cut off without providing the required delta-V - preliminary analysis revealed a shortfall of 0.5% in the thrust. An attempt was made to reach a usable orbit using the station-keeping motor of the GSAT satellite itself. After a series of burns, GSat 1 ran out of propellant - 10 kg more fuel would have been required to reach a stationary orbit. In the end, the parameters of the drifting (about 13 deg/day) orbit were period 23 hours, apogee 35,665 km, perigee 33,806 km, and inclination 0.99 deg. The fully functional transponders and transmitters on board were deactivated on instructions of the International Telecommunications Union. As of 4 September 2001 located at 54.88 deg E drifting at 13.212 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 50.16W drifting at 12.778E degrees per day.

2003 May 8 - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-D2.
  • GSAT-2 - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,825 kg (4,023 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27807 . COSPAR: 2003-018A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Experimental Rural Communications. Launch delayed from original target of late 2001, then October 2002, then February 2003. The satellite carried four C-band transponders, two Ku-band transponders and a Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) payload operating in S-band and C-band for forward link and return link respectively. GSAT-2 also carried four piggyback experimental payloads: Total Radiation Dose Monitor (TRDM), Surface Charge Monitor (SCM), Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) and Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment (CRABEX). As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.97E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.

2004 September 20 - . 10:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F01.
  • GSAT-3 / Edusat - . Payload: GramSat. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. USAF Sat Cat: 28417 . COSPAR: 2004-036A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Gsat-3 / Edusat was the first Indian satellite built exclusively for the educational sector. It was mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for India. Edusat was launched into a geosynchronous transfer orbit by its launch vehicle. Edusat was to reach geostationary orbit by firing, in stages, its on board Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). In geostationary orbit the satellite was to be co-located with Kalpana-1 and Insat-3C satellites at 74 deg East longitude.

    Compared to earlier satellites in the Insat series, Edusat used several new technologies. The spacecraft was built around the I-2K standardised spacecraft bus. It had a multiple spot beam antenna with a 1.2 m reflector to direct Ku band spot beams, a dual core bent heat pipe for thermal control, high efficiency multi-junction solar cells and an improved thruster configuration for optimised propellant use for orbit and orientation maintenance. The satellite used radiatively cooled Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube Amplifiers and a dielectrically loaded C-band demultiplexer for its communication payloads. Edusat carried five Ku-band transponders providing spot beams, one Ku-band transponder providing a national beam and six Extended C-band transponders with a national coverage beam. It was to join the Insat system that already provided more than 130 transponders in C-band, Extended C-band and Ku-band for a variety of telecommunication and television services.

    First operational flight of launch vehicle. Launch delayed from July, August and September 10. Dry mass 820 kg. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 73.92E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.


2006 July 10 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F02. FAILURE: One of the liquid-fueled strap-on motors failed to develop thrust. By 40 seconds after launch the GSLV had veered outside of the launch corridor and the destruct signal was sent.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Insat 4C - . Mass: 2,168 kg (4,779 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. COSPAR: F20060710.

2007 September 2 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV-F04.
  • Insat 4CR - . Mass: 2,130 kg (4,690 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. USAF Sat Cat: 32050 . COSPAR: 2007-037A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,221 km (21,885 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 421.80 min. Summary: Ku-band television satellite..

2010 April 15 - . 10:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV Mk II. FAILURE: Third stage failure..
  • GSAT-2 - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gsat. Summary: Failed to orbit due to third stage failure. Ka-band communications satellite with a GPS-augmentation navigation transmitter..

2010 December 25 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. Launch Vehicle: GSLV. LV Configuration: GSLV s/n F06. FAILURE: Destroyed at T+60 seconds after guidance commands from on-board computer to steering system of strapon boosters were cut off.. Failed Stage: 0.
  • Gsat 5P - . Payload: I-2K. Mass: 2,310 kg (5,090 lb). Nation: India. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 3. COSPAR: 2010-F04. Summary: Vehicle reached only 15 km. First use of stretched cryogenic third state. Gsat-5P communications satellite destroyed..

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