Encyclopedia Astronautica
Index


10Kh.
  • Chelomei mobile-launched short range cruise missile derived from the German V-1. Did not reach production.

10KhN.

  • Manufacturer's designation for 10Kh short range cruise missile.

11A510.

11A511.

11A511L.

11A511M.

  • Article Number of the Soyuz 11A511M orbital launch vehicle. Reapplied 40 years later to the Soyuz M orbital launch vehicle.

11A511U.

11A511U2.

11A513.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. FOBS version. Warhead accuracy 5 km along orbital track, 3 km to either side. OKB-1 estimated warhead would be detected by Western defences only two minutes before it detonated. The designation SS-10 was assigned by the DOD to the UR-200, but was commonly and erroneously applied to the GR-1, which was shown publicly after its cancellation.

11A514.

11A52.

  • Article Number of the N1 1964 and N1 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

11A53.

11A54.

  • Article Number of N111 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

11A57.

11A59.

11K25.

  • Article Number of Energia winged orbital launch vehicle.

11K54.

  • Complex of N111 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

11K55.

  • Article Number of Soyuz 11K55 orbital launch vehicle.

11K56.

  • Article Number of Soyuz 11K56 orbital launch vehicle.

11K63.

11K64.

  • Article Number of 64S5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

11K65.

11K65M.

11K67.

  • Article Number of Tsiklon-2A orbital launch vehicle.

11K68.

  • Article Number of Tsiklon-3 orbital launch vehicle.

11K69.

  • Article Number of Tsiklon-2 orbital launch vehicle.

11K77.

  • Article Number of Zenit-2 orbital launch vehicle.

15A10.

  • Missile article number for UR-100 ICBM and Taran anti-ballistic missile..

15A11.

15A14.

  • Article Number of R-36M intercontinental ballistic missile.

15A15.

  • Article Number of MR-UR-100 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15A16.

15A18.

  • Article Number of R-36MU 15A18 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15A18M2.

  • Article Number of R-36M2 15A18M intercontinental ballistic missile and Dnepr space launch vehicle.

15A20.

  • Article Number of UR-100K intercontinental ballistic missile.

15A20U.

  • Article Number of UR-100U intercontinental ballistic missile.

15A30.

  • Article Number of UR-100N intercontinental ballistic missile and Strela and Rokot space launch vehicles.

15A35.

  • Article Number of UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missile.

15B86.

  • Standard RV of R-36M intercontinental ballistic missile.

15F1.

  • Standard RV of RT-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15F173.

  • Standard RV of R-36M2 15A18M intercontinental ballistic missile.

15F183.

  • Standard RV of R-36MU 15A18 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15F842.

15P015.

  • Launch System of MR-UR-100 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15P016.

15P020.

  • Launch System of UR-100U intercontinental ballistic missile.

15P030.

  • Launch System of UR-100N missile.

15P035.

  • Launch System of UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missile.

15P084.

  • Launch System of UR-100M missile.

15P098.

  • Launch System of RT-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15P098P.

  • Launch System of RT-2P intercontinental ballistic missile.

15P696.

  • Launch System of RT-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

15P784.

  • Launch System of UR-100 intercontinental ballistic missile and Taran anti-ballistic missile.

15P884.

  • Launch System of UR-100K intercontinental ballistic missile.

15Zh41.

  • Article Number of RT-21 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15Zh42.

  • Article Number of Temp-2S intercontinental ballistic missile.

15Zh44.

  • Article Number of RT-23 15Zh44 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15Zh45.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The missile was given a different DOD mod designation according to the number of warheads - Mod 1 for the single warhead version, Mod 2 for the triple warhead version.

15Zh45UTTKh.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The UTTKh model featured improved accuracy, range, and MIRV dispersal spread. It was not given a separate DoD 'mod' number.

15Zh52.

  • Article Number of RT-23 15Zh52 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15Zh53.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of a modernised version of the 15Zh45 IRBM began at the beginning of the 1980's. Flight trials either began in 1985 or were cancelled prior to their planned start in 1986. In 1988 the project was cancelled following the signature of the INF Treaty that banned intermediate range ballistic missiles. The missile (known to the Pentagon as both the SS-20 Mod 3 and the SS-28) would have had a range of 7500 km with a single warhead, or 5500 km with multiple warheads.

    Compared to the Pioner-U it used a larger launch container, a larger MIRV bus with greater accuracy. The KB Minsk Auto Factory developed a lighter, more comfortable crew cabin - important on constant field deployments.

15Zh58.

  • Article Number of Topol intercontinental ballistic missile, and Start and Start-1 orbital launch vehicles.

15Zh60.

  • Article Number of RT-23U 15Zh60 intercontinental ballistic missile.

15Zh61.

  • Article Number of RT-23U 15Zh61 intercontinental ballistic missile.

17D.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype air-breathing surface-to-air missile, using air-augmented solid propellant.

17K-AM.

  • A small two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle proposed for the Russian Air Force in 1993.

18D.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Variant of the 18D air-breathing surface-to-air missile using a magnesium alloy in the fuel to double the initial launch thrust.

205.

  • Standard warhead of Tu-121 intermediate range cruise missile, Tu-123 intercontinental boost-glide missile, and Tu-133 intercontinental cruise missile.

205.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Original missile of the S-25 system, development described above.

206.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The 206 was a version of the 205 using a single-chamber Isayev engine in place of the four-chamber design of the 205. Cancelled in April 1953.

207.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. This was an improvement of the 205 with an improved warhead and reduced cruise thrust. Trials were conducted of the missile in 1953, but it was decided not to put it into service.

207A.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The 207A, with numerous improvements to the 205 which had been developed in a crash program, completed trials in 1955 and rapidly replaced the 205 in PVO service. It basically doubled all of the performance characteristics of the 205.

207T.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The 207T was an alternative derivative of the 207A with a nuclear warhead. It was developed during 1958 but does not seem to have entered service.

208.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. In this version of the V-300 the warhead was increased to 430 kg to compensate for accuracy problems in the original production version. Cancelled in favour of the 207A.

212.

  • Russian air-to-surface missile. Korolev's second design for a rocket-propelled cruise missile. It was flight tested twice after his arrest in 1939 but work was then abandoned.

215.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The 215 was a derivative of the 207A with a nuclear warhead. It entered service in 1957.

217.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The 217 was a version of the V-300 with a variable thrust engine. Entered production.

217/I.

  • First anti-aircraft missile flown in the USSR. The 217/I had a conventional aircraft layout, with a main wing and aerodynamic control surfaces on the tail.

217/II.

  • Pre-World War II anti-aircraft missile flown in the USSR. The 217/II follow-on to the 217/I had the first 'rocket' layout - four small wings, each all-moving.

217M.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Developed together with the improved S-25M missile system, the 217M entered production and gave the S-25 an enormous performance in improvement.

218.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The 218 was a version of the 217M with a nuclear warhead, which entered service in 1964.

22D.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype surface-to-air missile, using liquid-propellant ramjets in place of the air-augmented solid propellant of the 17D.

2K11.

  • Article Number of Krug surface-to-air missile.

2K12.

  • Complex of Kub surface-to-air missile.

2K6.

  • Article Number of Frog 5, 3R9, and 3R10 tactical ballistic rockets.

3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-500 + 1 x TX-454 + 1 x TX-239.

  • Alternate designation for Spartan anti-ballistic missile.

32B.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Alternate missile developed for the S-25 system. Technically superior but not put into production, it led to the S-75 and later Soviet surface-to-air missiles.

3M17.

  • Article Number of R-31 submarine launched ballistic missile.

3M20.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1979. Four unsuccessful tests in 1980, two successful in 1981. Development completed 1983. SLBM on Typhoon subs.

3M30.

  • Missile of Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile.

3M37.

  • Missile of R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

3M40.

  • Missile of R-29R submarine-launched ballistic missile.

3M41.

  • Alternate Designation of S-300F surface-to-air missile.

3M65.

  • Missile of R-29RL submarine-launched ballistic missile.

3M65.

  • First flight 1983. As of March 1986 only Russian SLBM in production.

3M9.

  • Alternate designation for Kub surface-to-air missile.

3M91.

  • Article Number of R-39M and R-39UTTKh submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

3M9M / 9M9.

  • Missile of Kub surface-to-air missile.

3R1.

  • Article Number of Mars tactical ballistic rocket.

3R10.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

3R2.

  • Article Number of Filin tactical ballistic rocket.

3R65.

  • Article Number of 3M20 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

3R9.

  • Missile of Frog 5 tactical ballistic rocket.

3R9.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

44N6.

  • Alternate Designation of 218 surface-to-air missile.

46A.

  • Standard warhead of R-7A missile.

48N6.

48N6E.

48N6E.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved version of the 48N6E for the S-400 system, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles at incoming speeds of 4.8 km/s or hypersonic targets flying at 3.0 km/s at 150 km altitude.

48N6E2.

49FUE.

  • Standard RV of Variant S submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K10.

  • Article Number of R-27 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K18.

  • Article Number of R-27K submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K22.

  • Article Number of RT-15M submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K48.

  • Article Number of P-6 intermediate range cruise missile.

4K50.

  • Article Number of R-13 missile.

4K55.

  • Article Number of R-21 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K75.

  • Article Number of R-29 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K75D.

  • Article Number of R-29D submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K75DU.

  • Article Number of R-29R submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K75K.

  • Article Number of R-29K submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K75R.

  • Article Number of R-29RL submarine-launched ballistic missile.

4K75RM.

  • Article Number of R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

5 inch HARP Gun.

  • Canadian gun-launched sounding rocket. When most people think of the HARP Program they usually think of the big 16 inch guns roaring skywards as they launch test probes into the upper atmosphere. What most people do not realise was that even before HARP small portable gun launchers were used for the same purpose and even during HARP hundreds of high altitude flights were conducted using small guns. The 5 inch gun-launch system was initially designed to satisfy the requirements of the Meteorological Rocket Network This required that an 0.9 kg (2 lb) payload be carried to an altitude of 65 km (40 miles). Typical payloads were radar reflective chaff ejected at apogee, which was tracked by radar to yield wind data, and small Metsondes which drifted to earth under large parachutes and returned radio telemetry of temperature, humidity and the like.

51T6.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Exo-atmospheric interceptor component of A-135 ABM system.

51T6, 53T6.

  • Missile article number for A-135 missile.

53T6.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Endo-atmospheric interceptor component of A-135 ABM system.

5V11.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Dal surface-to-air missile.

5V21.

  • Manufacturer's designation for S-200 and V-860P surface-to-air missiles.

5V28.

  • Manufacturer's designation for V-880 and V-860PV surface-to-air missiles.

5V28E.

  • Manufacturer's designation for V-880E surface-to-air missile.

5V28M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for V-880M surface-to-air missile.

5V55R.

  • Missile article number for S-300 missile.

5V55RM.

  • Missile of S-300F surface-to-air missile.

5V55U.

5Ya24.

  • Manufacturer's designation for 218 surface-to-air missile.

5Ya25.

  • Manufacturer's designation for 217 surface-to-air missile.

5Ya25M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for 217M surface-to-air missile.

5Ya26, 5Ya27.

  • Manufacturer's designation for S-225 anti-ballistic missile.

63S1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kosmos 63S1 orbital launch vehicle.

63S1M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kosmos 63S1M orbital launch vehicle.

63SM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kosmos 11K63 orbital launch vehicle.

64S5.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Space launch version, never went beyond design stage.

65MP.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kosmos 65MP orbital launch vehicle.

65S3.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Kosmos 65S3 orbital launch vehicle.

7 inch HARP Gun.

  • Canadian gun-launched sounding rocket. The highly successful 5 inch HARP gun had demonstrated the immense versatility of small portable gun systems for atmospheric exploration. The 7 inch HARP gun system represented the 5 inch system scaled up to the largest barrel size practical, while still remaining portable.

761.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. Lightweight two-stage solid propellant sounding rocket. Designation indicates development was authorised in January 1976. Evidently replaced both the HP2 and HP6 from about 1980 on. Used for routine measurement of the upper atmosphere.

8A11.

  • Article number for R-1 missile.

8A61.

  • Article Number of R-11 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

8A62M.

  • Missile of R-5M intermediate range ballistic missile.

8A63.

  • Article Number of R-3A intermediate range ballistic missile.

8A67.

  • Article Number of R-3 intermediate range ballistic missile.

8A91.

  • Article Number of Sputnik 8A91 intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

8A92.

  • Article Number of Vostok 8A92 orbital launch vehicle.

8A92M.

8F17.

  • Standard RV of R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K11.

  • Article Number of R-1 missile.

8K14.

  • Article Number of R-11A suborbital launch vehicle and R-11 and R-11M submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

8K51.

  • Article Number of R-5M intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K513.

  • Russian anti-satellite missile. ASAT version. Little has emerged about Korolev's ASAT project, designed in competition with Chelomei's in 1961-1964.

8K61.

  • Article Number of R-11FM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

8K62.

  • Article Number of R-5 intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K63.

  • Article Number of R-12 missile.

8K63U.

  • Article Number of R-12U intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K64.

  • Article Number of R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K64U.

  • Article Number of R-16U intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K65.

  • Article Number of R-14 missile.

8K65U.

  • Article Number of R-14U intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K66.

  • Article Number of R-26 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K67.

  • Article Number of Tsiklon missile.

8K67P.

8K69.

  • Article Number of R-36-O orbital missile.

8K71.

  • Article Number of R-7 missile.

8K711.

  • Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. No other information available.

8K713.

  • Article Number of GR-1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K713.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version. Article number sometimes erroneously given as 8K73.

8K71PS.

  • Article Number of Sputnik 8K71PS intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

8K72.

8K73.

  • Alternate designation of GR-1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K73.

  • Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. Possibly designation for variant of GR-1.

8K74.

  • Article Number of R-7A missile.

8K75.

8K75M.

  • Complex of R-9M intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K76.

  • Article Number of R-9M intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K76.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version using storable propellants and Isayev engines. Studied but rejected prior to start of development.

8K77.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version with vacuum-isolated liquid oxygen tanks to provide capability to hold ready for instant launch. Studied but never developed.

8K78.

8K78L.

8K78M.

8K79.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Korolev 1961 design for a single stage military rocket. A competing missile was selected for the requirement.

8K81.

  • Article Number of UR-200 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K82.

  • Article Number of UR-500 missile.

8K82K.

  • Article Number of Proton-K orbital launch vehicle.

8K82K / 11S824.

  • Article Number of Proton-K-D orbital launch vehicle.

8K82K / 11S824F.

8K82K / 11S824M.

8K82K / 11S86.

  • Article Number of Proton-K-DM orbital launch vehicle.

8K82K / 11S861.

8K82K / 11S861-01.

8K82K / 17S40.

8K82KM.

8K82M.

8K82M / 11S861.

8K83.

  • Article Number of UR-200B orbital missile.

8K84.

  • Article Number of UR-100 intercontinental ballistic missile and Taran anti-ballistic missile.

8K84K.

  • Alternate Designation of UR-100K intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K84M.

  • Article Number of UR-100M missile.

8K84UTTKh.

8K94.

  • Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Unusual designation for the upper stages of another Yangel project - possibly reflecting design originally was stand-alone IRBM?

8K95.

  • Article Number of RT-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K96.

  • Article Number of RT-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K97.

  • Article Number of RT-25 intermediate range ballistic missile.

8K98.

  • Article Number of RT-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K98M.

  • Article Number of RT-2M intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K98P.

  • Article Number of RT-2P intercontinental ballistic missile.

8K99.

  • Article Number of RT-20 and RT-20P intermediate range ballistic missiles.

8Zh38.

  • Article Number of R-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

9K21.

  • Article Number of R-65 tactical ballistic rocket.

9K52.

  • Article Number of R-70 and R-75 tactical ballistic rockets.

9K714B.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. First flight 1974. SS-21 is Tochka SRBM mounted on a ZIL-375 transporter, while SS-23 is the same missile on an 8-wheeled TEL.

9K72.

  • Article Number of R-17 short-range ballistic missile.

9K76.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile.

9K76B.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Initially designated SS-22 by DoD; redesignated SS-12M Scaleboard B

9K79.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. SS-21 is Tochka SRBM mounted on a ZIL-375 transporter, while SS-23 is the same missile on an 8-wheeled TEL.

9K79-1.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Improved version.

9M/1/TEMP.

  • Russian short range ballistic missile. Two-stage deployed short range missile. Four solid motors strapped together, operating in staged pairs.

9M76.

  • Article number of missile of 9K76 and 9K76B intermediate range ballistic missile system.

9M79.

  • Article number of missile of 9K79 and 9K714B intermediate range ballistic missile systems.

9M79M1.

  • Missile of 9K79-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

9M8.

  • Missile of Krug surface-to-air missile.

9M82.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; outer-layer defense.

9M82M.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; outer-layer defense.

9M82M, 9M83M.

9M83.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; inner-layer defense.

9M83M.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; inner-layer defense.

9M96.

  • Article number of missile of S-400 missile system.

9M96.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved, longer range version of 9M96 for the S-400. Four 9M96's can be housed in a single 48N6E launch container position.

9M96E.

9M96E2.

A.

A.

  • Complex of V-1000 anti-ballistic missile.

A1.

  • German test vehicle. First in series of rockets leading to V-2. Exploded at Kummersdorf during a test run. Considered aerodynamically unstable (a stabilising flywheel was mounted forward) and no launch attempts were made.

A-1.

A-1 (R-1).

  • Single stage vehicle.

A12.

A-135.

  • Complex of 51T6 and 53T6 anti-ballistic missiles.

A-135.

  • Two-tier Russian anti-ballistic missile system for the defence of Moscow, with both endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. After protracted development, the system was said to have gone into operation in 1995.

A2.

  • German test vehicle. First flight test rocket in the series that led to the V-2. Two were built, dubbed Max and Moritz. Both were successfully flown.

A-2.

A-2e.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Molniya 8K78M orbital launch vehicle.

A-2-e.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Molniya 8K78 orbital launch vehicle.

A3.

  • German test vehicle. The A3 was the first large rocket attempted by Wernher von Braun's rocket team. It was equipped with an ambitious guidance package consisting of three gyroscopes and two integrating accelerometers. The rocket was intended as a subscale prototype for the propulsion and control system technology planned for the much larger A4. All of the launches were failures, and a total redesign, the A5, was developed.

A-35.

  • Complex of A-350Zh anti-ballistic missile.

A-35.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972.

A-350.

  • Alternate designation for A-350R missile.

A-350R.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Radiation-hardened version of the A-350.

A-350Zh.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Initial version of the A-350 missile.

A-350Zh, A-350R.

  • Missile article number for A-35 missile.

A-35M.

  • Complex of A-350R anti-ballistic missile.

A-35M.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Improved version of the A-35 with radiation-hardened missiles and command centres, improved radars, and capability against tactical missiles fired from Europe against Moscow. Went into operation in 1978.

A4.

  • Manufacturer's designation for V-2 short range ballistic missile.

A-4.

  • German production version.

A4b.

  • German intermediate range boost-glide missile. Winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. The A4b designation was used to disguise work on the prohibited A9 program.

A5.

  • German test vehicle. Subscale test model of A4 (V-2). Replaced the A3 in this role after its unsuccessful test series. The A5 used the same powerplant as the A3, but had the aerodynamic form of the A4 and a new control system. 25 all-up versions were flown, some several times.

A6.

  • German intermediate range cruise missile. The A6 designation was applied to a version of the A5 subscale V-2 using alternate propellants. It also seems to have been applied to a manned, ramjet-powered version of the A9 winged V-2.

A7.

  • German test vehicle. Subscale test model of the A9 rocket. Considered for use as a weapon as well.

A8.

  • German cruise missile. Planned stretched version of the V-2 with storable propellants. Never reached the hardware stage, but design continued after the war in France as the 'Super V-2'.

A9.

  • Alternate designation for A4b intermediate range boost-glide missile.

A9/A10.

  • German intercontinental boost-glide missile. The A9/A10 was the world's first practical design for a transatlantic ballistic missile. Design of the two stage missile began in 1940 and first flight would have been in 1946. Work on the A9/A10 was prohibited after 1943 when all efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project). In late 1944 work on the A9/A10 resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, but no significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b in January 1945.

A9/A10/A11.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. The A11 was planned at Peenemuende to use the A9/A10 transoceanic missile atop the tubby A11 stage to form the basis for launching the first earth satellite - or as an ICBM....

A9/A10/A11/A12.

  • German orbital launch vehicle. The A12 has been named as the designation for a true orbital launch vehicle, as sketched out at Peenemuende. It would have been a four-stage vehicle consisting of the A9+A10+A11+A12 stages. Caluclation suggest it could have placed 10 tonnes into low earth orbit.

A-925.

  • Alternate designation for 51T6 anti-ballistic missile.

AACB Class 1.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1965-1966 NASA and the Department of Defense jointly studied two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles as a follow-on to existing expendable launchers. Following review of the three classes of alternative approaches, it was recommended that the immediate goal of the United States should be development of a partially reusable 'Class I' launch vehicle, which could be available by 1975 and would be competitive with existing expendable boosters. A fully reusable vehicle should only be pursued at a later date.

AACB Class 2.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The AACB Class II launch vehicle was a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Both stages would be lifting bodies and be powered by Lox/LH2 engines. The system would be operational by 1978 and place 9,100 kg of payload in orbit.

AACB Class 3.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The AACB Class III launch vehicle was an advanced concept use air-breathing stages, but still requiring two stages to achieve orbit. The joint NASA/USAF panel concluded that the technology did not yet exist to develop this concept, so it was only regarded as an option by 1982 at the earliest.

Abdali.

  • Pakistani single-stage solid propellant tactical ballistic missile. Indigenous Pakistani design, developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO).

ABM-1.

  • Department of Defence designation for A-35 and V-1000 anti-ballistic missiles.

ABM-1A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of A-350Zh anti-ballistic missile.

ABM-1B.

  • Department of Defence designation of A-350R missile.

ABM-2.

  • Department of Defence designation of A-35M missile.

ABM-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 53T6 anti-ballistic missile.

ABM-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 51T6 anti-ballistic missile.

ACES.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. SDIO/BMDO project, follow on to Arrow

ADLER.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane-5 derived semi-reusable proposal of 1993. Expendable fuel tanks but recoverable propulsion/avionics module.

Advanced Launch System.

  • Alternate designation for ALS heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

Advanced Satellite Launch Vehicle.

  • Full name of ASLV all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Advanced Scout.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade of Scout proposed by the University of Rome with two strap-ons from the Ariane 4. Launch would have been from Italy's San Marco platform off Kenya. Further work cancelled in 1993.

Advanced Solid Rocket Motors.

  • Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM winged orbital launch vehicle.

Aeolus.

  • Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aeolus Booster + 1 x Mayfly

Aero High.

  • Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Gosling IV + 1 x Vela

Aerobee.

  • American sounding rocket. In late 1945 James Van Allen was assigned by John Hopkins University to survey sounding rocket requirements for upper atmosphere research. The V-2 was found to be too heavy and complex. In 1946 Van Allen decided that what was needed was a small rocket, derived from the Aerojet Wac Corporal and the Bumblebee missile developed under a US Navy program. This combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage was dubbed the Aerobee. Aerobees were launched for 53 m tall launch towers to provide the necessary stability until enough speed had been gained for the fins to be effective in controlling the rocket. Launch towers were built at White Sands, Fort Churchill, Wallops Island, and aboard the research ship USN Norton Sound. The Aerobee could take 68 kg to 130 km altitude.

Aerobee 100.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 100

Aerobee 150.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150.

Aerobee 150 MI.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150 MII.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150 MII 20.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150A.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150A

Aerobee 150A MII.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 170.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of a solid Nike booster paired with an Aerobee 150 liquid-propellant second stage.

Aerobee 170A.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Aerobee 150

Aerobee 170B.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Aerobee 150

Aerobee 200.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x AJ60-92

Aerobee 200A.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x AJ60-92

Aerobee 300.

  • American sounding rocket. The Aerobee 300, also called the Sparrowbee, consisted of an Aerobee 150 or Aerobee 180 lower stage with a 20 cm diameter Sparrow rocket as an upper stage. The Sparrow would ignite at 35 km altitude at 53 seconds into the flight, and boost the payload to 10,000 kph, allowing it to coast up to 420 km apogee. The rocket was designed for studies of the sun above the atmosphere and was only fired from Fort Churchill (the White Sands range was too small to cover the possible impact points of the high-altitude rocket).

Aerobee 300A.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerobee 300A used a four-fin Aerobee 150A second stage rather than the older three-fin 150.

Aerobee 350.

  • American sounding rocket. In March 1957 an Aerojet engineer conceived of the 'ultimate Aerobee', with the body diameter increased to 46 cm diameter and powered by four engines. The design found no takers until it was pitched to NASA in 1961 and development was authorised. The final configuration selected used a Nike Ajax missile booster, 56 cm in diameter, followed by the Aerobee 350, equipped with 4 Aerobee 150A engines. The rocket could take 65 kg to 480 km altitude or 455 kg to 240 km altitude.

Aerobee 75.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Aerobee AJ10-25.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25

Aerobee AJ10-27.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-27

Aerobee AJ10-34.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34

Aerobee Hi.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerobee Hi was a development of the basic Aerobee with longer propellant tanks, improved materials, a better propellant fraction, and smaller fins. 9.3 m l x 0.39 m dia. The booster stage fired for 2.5 seconds and took the rocket to 270 m altitude and 820 kph. The upper stage then fired for 25 seconds, burning out at 40 km altitude travelling at 6400 kph. Thereafter the payload would coast up to 270 km altitude before falling back toward earth.

Aerobee RTV-A-1.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee RTV-A-1a.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25

Aerobee RTV-A-1b.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee RTV-A-1c.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Aerobee RTV-N-10.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee RTV-N-10a.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25

Aerobee RTV-N-10b.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-24

Aerobee RTV-N-10c.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34

Aerobee RTV-N-8.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee XASR-SC-1.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee XASR-SC-2.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee-Hi.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Aerobee 150 sounding rocket.

Aerofan.

  • Popular Name of R-17 short-range ballistic missile.

Aerokosmos.

  • Popular Name of Shtil-3A intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

Aerospaceplane.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Development project from 1958-1963 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would carry three crew and additional paylaod from any airfield to orbit and back

Aerospatiale VTVL.

  • French SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Aerospatiale vertical takeoff, vertical landing single stage to orbit study.

Agate.

  • The Agate was the first of the 'precious stone' series of French rockets leading to the Diamant satellite launcher. The single-stage vehicle used the NA801 Mammouth solid propellant rocket developed originally for the SSBT program. The purpose of the fin-stabilised unguided rocket was to test the recoverable instrument pod planned for later missile tests. The Agate R / VE110RR version was used to develop recovery procedures at sea.

AGM-131A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of SRAM-2 air-to-surface missile.

AGM-28.

  • Department of Defence designation of Hound Dog missile.

AGM-28A.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

AGM-28B.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

AGM-48A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Skybolt air-to-surface missile.

AGM-69A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of SRAM air-to-surface missile.

AGM-86.

  • Department of Defence designation of ALCM missile.

AGM-86A.

  • American air-to-surface missile. Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy, full scale development begun in 1968, project cancelled 1973. Nuclear warhead.

AGM-86B.

  • American air-to-surface missile. The SCAD project was revived and the redesigned missile was designated the 'Air-Launched Cruise Missile'. Nuclear warhead.

AGM-86C.

  • American air-to-surface missile. Conventional warhead version of ALCM.

Agni.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage ballistic missile consisting of 1 x Agni + 1 x Prithvi

Agni 1.

  • Indian single-stage short range ballistic missile.

Agni 2.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Program revived in 1998, assumed to be nuclear warhead-capable.

Agni 3.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Agni TD.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile.

AICBM.

  • Advanced Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, a planned 1966 successor to the Minuteman. Cancelled in 1967, with the Minuteman also outlasting such competitors as the Peacekeeper and SICBM, to remain in service to the mid-21st Century.

Aigle VE10.

  • The Aigle's simple mission was to allow test of the telemetry equipment that would be used on later instrumented warheads. The first version of the Aigle was a simple fin-stabilised solid rocket propelled by a Stromboli SEPR 737 loaded with 984 kg of 'Plastolite' propellant.

Aigle VE10A.

  • The VE10A used an improved, lightened version of the Stromboli booster.

Air-Launched Cruise Missile.

  • Alternate designation for AGM-86B air-to-surface missile.

Air-Launched Miniature Vehicle.

  • Popular Name of ASAT anti-satellite missile.

ait.

  • American target missile. The ait vehicles were developed to support the USAF Airborne Intercept Technology program. They consisted of a Minuteman SR19AJ1 first stage (the basic ait version) or Thiokol Castor IVB first stage (designated ait-2), and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. A front-end module housed the payloads, the control system, GPS, and inertial guidance electronics.

ait-2.

  • American target missile. Version with a Thiokol Castor IVB first stage, and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage.

Ajax.

  • Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched, air-breathing, single stage to orbit, horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia.

Akvamarin.

  • Popular Name of Rif-MA missile.

Al Aabed.

  • Iraqi intermediate range ballistic missile.

Al Abbas.

  • Iraqi modification of the R-17 with an 800-km range, achieved by reducing warhead weight to 125 kg, and increasing propellant load by 30 percent .

Al Fatah.

  • Al Fatah

Al Hussein.

  • Iraqi modification of the R-17 that doubled the missile's range at the expense of more than halving the payload and accuracy.

Al Kahir.

  • Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Al Raid.

  • Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Al Zafir.

  • Egyptian short range ballistic missile.

Al Zahar.

  • Egyptian short range ballistic missile. United Arab Republic neither confirmed nor denied reports of November 8 that it had successfully launched its first rocket. Dr. Eugen Saenger of the Stuttgart Jet Propulsion Institute in Germany denied any connection with the United Arab Republic program as charged by Israel.

Alacran.

  • Argentinan short range ballistic missile.

ALARR.

  • American air-launched test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4D Phantom + 1 x Genie-Alarr

Albatros.

  • Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages. Hydrofoil would have been propelled to launch speed by the launch vehicles rocket engines, using a 200 tonne fuel store in the hydrofoil. Advantages: launch from the Caspian Sea into a variety of orbital inclinations, variations in launch track possible to meet range safety requirements. Proposal of Alexeyev/Sukhoi OKBs.

Albatros ICBM.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Albatros was an ICBM designed by NPO Mashinostroeniya under Chief Designer Gerbert Yefremov according to a decree of 9 February 1987. Like the Yuzhnoye Universal ICBM, it was to be built in enormous numbers in order to defeat any deployment by America of mass missile defences under their Strategic Defence Initiative. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the abandonment of SDI by the United States, the missile was cancelled.

ALCM.

  • Popular Name of AGM-86B air-to-surface missile.

ALCM.

  • Air-Launched Cruise Missile, the major long-range standoff attack missile of the for USAF B-52 bombers. At the end of the Cold War the nuclear warheads were replaced with high explosives.

Aldan.

  • Launch System of A-35 missile.

Aldebaran.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Immense nuclear pulse launch vehicle proposed by Dandridge Cole.

Alfa.

  • Italy briefly flirted with the creation of an independent nuclear deterrent in the late 1960's. The Alfa project for an indigenous Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile was begun in 1971. Three Alfa test missiles with inert second stages were successfully launched in 1975-1976 from Salto di Quirra in Sardinia. The programme was abandoned at this stage, when Italy and its neighbours ratified the nuclear proliferation treaty.

ALS.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), was a US Air Force funded effort in 1987-1989 to develop a flexible, modular, heavy-lift, high rate space launch vehicle that could deliver payloads to earth orbit at a tenth the cost of existing boosters. Such a vehicle was seen as essential to supporting the launch of the huge numbers of satellites required for deployment of the ‘Star Wars' ballistic missile defense system. With the end of the Cold War, Star Wars was abandoned. The projected launch rate without the Star Wars requirement could never pay back the $15 billion non recurring cost, and the program was ended.

ALSOR.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F-104A Starfighter + 1 x Viper I

AltAir.

  • American air-launched target missile. Single-stage launch vehicle air dropped from a C-130 consisting of a surplus Minuteman SR19 stage and a payload section.

ALV.

  • American sounding rocket. Family of small low-cost all-solid-propellant launch vehicles, which use numerous off-the-shelf components and require minimal ground support

AMROC.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The AMROC corporation proposed to develop low-cost hybrid-propulsion orbital launch vehicles in the 1980's. Actual flight hardware did not go beyond a small test vehicle.

AMROC IRR.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

AMS-H.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. Advanced Missile System - Heavy, US Army

Andrews ETOS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Earth-to-Orbit Segment booster for Andrews CEV architecture. Consisted of an Atlas V core, two Zenit-2 booster strap-ons, and a new-development Lox/LH2 upper stage.

Angara.

  • Launch System of S-200 missile.

Angara.

  • Launch System of V-860P surface-to-air missile.

Angara.

  • The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change.

Angara 1.1.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The initial flight version would be the Angara 1.1, featuring a single URM core module with the existing Briz upper stage. Payload would be 2.0 tonnes to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). Other vehicle variants were numbered according to the number of URM's.

Angara 1.2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. First planned upgrade of Angara, the 1.2 version would use a new Block I lox/kerosene upper stage. Payload would be 3.7 tonnes to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit.

Angara 3A.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 3A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use two universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters flanking one URM in the core, with a Lox/Kerosene upper stage. It could put 14 tonnes into low earth orbit

Angara 4A.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 4A had the same configuration as the Angara 1.2 but with a winged, recoverable URM. The booster would have 158 tonnes lift-off mass, and could place a 2.7 tonne payload into a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). The winged URM would have two jet engines and fly back to the Mirniy airfield at Plesetsk for recovery. One problem was that some abort profiles would require overflight of Norway. First flight of this version was predicted for 2003 in 1998.

Angara 5A.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 5A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use four universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters surrounding one URM in the core, with a Lox/LH2 upper stage. It could put 5.0 tonnes into geosynchronous orbit, or 8.0 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Angara Orel.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Orel, consisted of the Angara 3I plus an MKK spaceplane, similar to the MAKS. This would have a 431 tonne gross lift-off mass, with the spacecraft weighing 13.5 tonnes including a 4.2 tonne payload. This could be an eventual replacement of the Soyuz spacecraft for ferry of crews to space stations.

Antares.

  • French test vehicle. Antares was a re-entry vehicle test booster. The first three stages lofted the fourth stage and RV model to 150 km altitude. The fourth stage then fired downward to ram the RV at Mach 7 into the atmosphere.

Antey-2500.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range.

Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike.

Aphrodite.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. In July 1944, the USAAF implemented the idea to convert "war-weary" B-17 Flying Fortress bombers to radio-controlled assault drones. About 25 B-17s, mostly B-17F, were converted to BQ-7 configuration under program Aphrodite. The BQ-7 was to be flown from Great Britain against very hardened or heavily defended German targets - submarine pens or V-1 missile sites.

Apollo LES.

  • American test vehicle. Flight tests from a surface pad of the Apollo Launch Escape System using a boilerplate capsule.

Aquarius.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Proposed expendable, water launch, single-stage-to-orbit, liquid oxygen/hydrogen, low-cost launch vehicle designed to carry small bulk payloads to low earth orbit. A unique attribute was that low reliability was accepted in order to achieve low cost.

Aquila.

Arcas.

  • American sounding rocket. The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor.

Arcas-Robin.

  • American sounding rocket.

Arcon.

  • American sounding rocket. Similar to the Deacon and Cajun. Developed by the Atlantic Research Corp. for NRL. First used in 1958. Designed to lift 18 kg to 113 km. The two-stage vehicle consisted of two Arcon motors in tandem.

Ares.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The design selected to boost America's Orion manned spacecraft into space in the 21st Century was a family of launch vehicles dubbed Ares. Originally sold as being derivatives of space shuttle technology, tinkering by NASA engineers and necessary changes during development quickly resulted in the designs being essentially all-new. Following inevitable cost growth and schedule slippage, it was cancelled in 2010.

Ares FBB.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The ARES ((Affordable REsponsive Spacelift) concept was of a reusable fly-back booster with expendable upper stages. The US Air Force began development of a demonstrator in May 2005, with a first flight date of 2010. It was felt that derivatives of the concept could support all space lift requirements of the USAF.

Ares I.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle-derived launch vehicle design selected by NASA Administrator Mike Griffin to boost the manned CEV Crew Exploration Vehicle into low earth orbit. A single five-segment version of the shuttle solid rocket booster would be mated with a Lox/LH2 upper stage powered by a single J-2S engine.

Ares ICBM.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. The Ares single-stage, liquid-propellant ICBM was the objective of propulsion studies at both Aerojet and Rocketdyne.

Ares Mars Direct.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Ares launch vehicle was designed for support of Zubrin's Mars Direct expedition. It was a shuttle-derived design taking maximum advantage of existing hardware. It would use shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Boosters, a modified shuttle external tank for handling vertically-mounted payloads, and a new Lox/LH2 third stage for trans-Mars or trans-lunar injection of the payload. Ares would put 121 tonnes into a 300 km circular orbit , boost 59 tonnes toward the moon or 47 tonnes toward Mars. Without the upper stage 75 tonnes could be placed in low earth orbit.

Ares V.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA baseline heavy-lift vehicle to renew manned lunar exploration by 2020.

Argo.

  • Alternate Designation of Jason sounding rocket.

Argo.

  • American sounding rocket. Argo sounding rockets measured radiation caused by the Project Argus high altitude nuclear explosions. The missiles reached 800 km altitude, and were launched from Wallops Island, AMR, and Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico. The Argo A-1, also known as Percheron, consisted of a modified Sergeant plus 2 Recruits, and was later used on occasion by NASA's Langley Research Center. It could lift 180 kg to 177 km. The Argo D-4, D-8, and E-5 are listed under Javelin, Journeyman, and Jason.

Argo D-4.

  • Alternate Designation of Javelin sounding rocket.

Argo D-8.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Journeyman sounding rocket.

Argo E-5.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Jason sounding rocket.

Argus.

  • American sounding rocket. NASA Bios (biological investigation of space).

Ariane.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros.

Ariane 1.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. First version of the Ariane launch vehicle.

Ariane 2.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Basic three stage vehicle without solid rocket motor strap-ons. Payload to geosynchronous transfer orbit was 2,175 kg.

Ariane 2/3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Improved version of the Ariane 1. It featured increased thrust first and second stage engines, a 25% stretched third stage, 4 seconds specific impulse improvement in the third stage, a larger internal payload fairing volume, and introduced the Sylda payload carrier for dual payloads. The Ariane 3 version added two solid rocket motor strap-ons. Development was authorised in July 1980 and had a total cost of 144 million 1986 Euros.

Ariane 2010.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Projected version of Ariane 5 with improvements in engine and materials.

Ariane 3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x PAP solid rocket boosters + Ariane 2 core.

Ariane 4.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. The ultimate Ariane development. Compared with the Ariane 2/3, the Ariane 4 featured stretched first (61%) and third stages, a strengthened structure, new propulsion bay layouts, new avionics, and the Spelda dual-payload carrier. The basic 40 version used no strap-on motors, while the Ariane 42L, 44L, 42P, 44P, and 44LP versions used varous combinations of solid and liquid propellant strap-on motors). Development was authorised in January 1982, with the objective of increasing payload by 90%. Total development cost 476 million 1986 ECU's.

Ariane 40.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage core vehicle with original Ariane H10 upper stage. A fully fueled Ariane core cannot lift off the ground without strap-on liquid or solid motors. When Ariane 4 is launched in this configuration, the propellant tanks of the first and second stages are not completely filled.

Ariane 40-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage core vehicle with Ariane Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 40p.

  • 3 stage core vehicle with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 42L.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 42L-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 42L but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 42P.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 solid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 42P-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 42P but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 42Pp.

  • As Ariane 42P but with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 44L.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 44L-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 44L but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 44LP.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 44LP-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 44LP but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 44Lplus.

  • As Ariane 44L but with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 44LPp.

  • As Ariane 44LP but with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 44P.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 solid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 44P-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 44P but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 5.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000.

Ariane 5 EC-B.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. The ultimate evolved Ariane 5 funded as of the end of the millenium. A larger Lox/LH2 upper stage using the Vinci motor in place of the HM7B. The core remains the same. Result is an increase in GTO payload from 10.5 tonnes to 12.0 tonnes.

Ariane 5 FLS.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Partially reusable concept of 1988 using Ariane 5 core with twin reusable flyback boosters.

Ariane 5 RRL.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Partially reusable concept of 1993 using Ariane 5 core with flyback booster stages with Russian engines (RD-120 or RD-701).

Ariane 5 V.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Version of the evolved Ariane 5 using a version of the EPS storable propellant stage instead of a new Lox/LH2 stage. Result is a payload to GTO of 8 tonnes. The use of the new Aestus restartable engine in the upper stage fitted the vehicle for space station logistics missions or launch of space probes requiring complex orbital maneouvres.

Ariane 5 Versatile.

  • Alternate designation for Ariane 5 V orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane 5 VTVL.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Partially reusable concept of 1995 using Ariane 5 core with vertical takeoff, vertical landing boosters.

Ariane 5ECA.

  • French orbital launch vehicle, first version of the evolved Ariane 5. The solid booster motors propellant load was increased by 2.43 tonnes and the case was welded, for a weight saving in dry mass of 1.9 tonnes. The core was powered by an improved Vulcain 2 engine. The oxygen-rich cycle of the engine allowed the oxygen bulkhead to be moved within the stage, resulting in a 15.2 tonne increase in propellant in the core. A new Lox/LH2 upper stage, using the HM7B engine and oxygen tank from the Ariane 4 series, replaced the storable propellant EPS stage of earlier models. The result was an increase in payload to geoscynchronous transfer orbit from 6 tonnes to 10.5 tonnes.

Ariane 5ES.

  • Version of the Ariane 5 designed to orbit ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) resupply vehicle for the International Space Station.

Ariane 5G.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads.

Ariane 5Gp.

  • French orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane 5GS.

  • French orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane 6.

  • Manufacturer's designation for FLTP winged orbital launch vehicle.

Aries.

  • American target missile. Space Vector Corporation developed and flew the Aries test vehicle (based on the Minuteman 1 second stage) for Strategic Defence Initiative payloads.

ARPA Taurus.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x TU-904 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38

ARPAT.

  • American sounding rocket.

Arrow.

  • Israeli anti-ballistic missile. The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles.

Arrow 1.

  • Prototype and initial model Israeli Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile, originally an SDIO/BMDO project.

Arrow 2.

  • Israeli theater missile defense weapon developed and manufactured using substantial American funding.

ARS.

  • The ARS-2 was an improvement by the American Interplanetary Socity of the German Mirak design. It used liquid oxygen and gasoline propellants, and was successfully launched on 14 May 1933. Successive rockets refined the design.

Article R.

  • Alternate Designation of D-6 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

ASA.

  • Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched airbreathing single stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia.

ASAT.

  • American anti-satellite missile. The ASAT air-launched anti-satellite missile was developed by Vought in response to a 1977 Air Force requirement for a missile that could be launched from an F-15A fighter yet was capable of intercepting and destroying enemy satellites in low earth orbit. Four of five tests were successful before the program was cancelled in 1988.

Ascamp.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x RTV Motor

Ascender.

  • British winged rocketplane. The Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender of the 1990`s was a sub-orbital manned spaceplane concept proposed by David Ashford. The Ascender spaceplane would use a small Viper tubojet engine as well as a main liquid fuel rocket engine. The Ascender would act as a technology demonstrator for the orbiter of the orbital Spacecab concept,.

Ashura.

  • Iranian two-stage solid-propellant missile, evidently using some Shahab systems and its re-entry vehicle.

ASLV.

  • Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

ASM-135A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of ASAT anti-satellite missile.

ASMP.

  • French cruise missile. Tactical nuclear. ASMP-A is improved version expected to enter service in 2008.

Asp.

  • American sounding rocket. Sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureeau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km.

Asp Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x Apache

Asp II.

  • American sounding rocket.

Asp III.

  • American sounding rocket.

Asp IV.

  • American sounding rocket.

Astrid.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle to demonstrate laser-pumped propulsion.

Astro.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Douglas design of the early 1960's for a two-stage-to-orbit, winged, recoverable vehicle. Two versions were envisioned - a preliminary one the size of a DC-8 and a monster vehicle capable of delivering one million pounds payload to orbit. It was assumed at this scale that Lox/LH2 vehicles could achieve stage propellant mass fractions of 88% to 86%.

Astro IV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. A two-stage all-Lox/LH2 vehicle proposed for the USAF SLV-4 requirement. Ruled out because it did not use the large segmented solids then favored by the USAF and its think tanks.

Astrobee.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee.

Astrobee 1500.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Alcor

Astrobee 200.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor

Astrobee 500.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Asp

Astrobee D.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Astrobee F.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage solid-fueled dual-thrust rocket replacement for the Aerobee 150.

Astroliner.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept. Towing an aerodynamic vehicle to an altitude of 6,000 m yielded higher system performance due to vacuum engine performance, reduced drag and gravity losses, and aerodynamic lift during flight.

Astroplane.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Martin concept of 1961 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would be powered by nuclear magnetohydrodynamic engines.

Astros.

  • German sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Sled-launched horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit. Essentially similar to FESTIP FSS-4

ATACMS.

  • American short range ballistic missile. The ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) is the U.S. Army's current short/medium-range tactical ballistic missile system.

ATACMS (Block 1).

  • Popular Name of Block 1 short range ballistic missile.

ATACMS (Block 1A).

  • Popular Name of Block 1A short range ballistic missile.

ATACMS (Block 2).

  • Popular Name of Block 2 short range ballistic missile.

ATACMS II.

  • American short range ballistic missile. ATACMS Block II is a derivative of the MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System). The Block II designation applies to ATACMS variants designed to deliver the BAT (Brilliant Anti-Tank) guided submunition.

ATBM.

  • Alternate designation for Arrow 1 anti-ballistic missile.

Atea-1.

  • New Zealander sounding rocket. Single-stage New Zealand hybrid sounding rocket.

Atea-2.

  • New Zealander sounding rocket. Two-stage increased-diameter New Zealand hybrid sounding rocket.Payload: 25 kg (55 lb) to a 250 km altitude.

Athena.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's.

Athena H.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 4 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Alcor IA

Athena III.

Athena RTV.

  • American test vehicle. The Athena was designed to simulate the re-entry environment of an intercontinental ballistic missile and was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States.

Athena-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Basic version of the Athena with a Castor 120 first stage, Orbus second stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module.

Athena-2.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. The Athena-2 version featured a Castor 120 first stage, Castor 120 second stage, Orbus third stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module.

Athena-3.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Planned but never flown heavier-lift version of Athena.

ATK Launch Vehicle.

  • Alternate Designation of ATK LV and ALV sounding rockets.

ATK LV.

  • American sounding rocket. Suborbital version.

Atlantis.

  • Alternate designation for UR-500 launch vehicle.

Atlas.

  • The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career.

Atlas 3A.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas IIIA orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas 3B.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas IIIB orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas 3B DEC.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas 3B SEC.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas A.

  • American test vehicle. First test model of Atlas ICBM. Two booster engines, no sustainer, dummy warhead. 50% reliability in 8 flight tests.

Atlas Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas with upper stage based on Vanguard second stage.

Atlas Agena A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D + 1 x Agena A upper stage. Agena originally called 'Hustler', based on engine for cancelled rocket-propelled nuclear warhead pod for B-58 Hustler bomber.

Atlas Agena B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with improved, enlarged Agena upper stage.

Atlas Agena D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with further improved and lightened Agena upper stage.

Atlas Agena D SLV-3.

  • Standardized Atlas booster with Agena D upper stage.

Atlas Agena D SLV-3A.

  • Uprated Atlas booster with Agena D upper stage.

Atlas B.

  • American test vehicle. First all-up test version of the Atlas ICBM, with jettisonable booster engines and a single engine sustainer on core - a '1 1/2' stage launch vehicle.

Atlas Burner 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3 + 1 x Star 37B upper stage.

Atlas Burner 2A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37B + 1 x Star 26B upper stages.

Atlas C.

  • American test vehicle. Last development version of Atlas. Never deployed operationally or used for space launches.

Atlas C Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas C first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.

Atlas Centaur.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. First test version of Atlas with Centaur upper stage.

Atlas Centaur D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Centaur D upper stage.

Atlas Centaur G.

  • Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles using stretched, uprated Atlas core.

Atlas Centaur LV-3C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with basic Centaur upper stage.

Atlas Centaur SLV-3C.

  • Standardised SLV-3C Atlas booster with Centaur D upper stage.

Atlas Centaur SLV-3D.

  • Fully developed version of Atlas with Centaur D-1A upper stage.

Atlas D.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM.

Atlas D Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas D first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.

Atlas E.

  • Popular Name of CGM-16E intercontinental ballistic missile.

Atlas E.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles.

Atlas E Altair.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 20 upper stage.

Atlas E/MSD.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x MSD upper stage.

Atlas E/OIS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x OIS upper stage.

Atlas E/SGS-2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 48 + 1 x Star 48 upper stages.

Atlas E/SVS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages.

Atlas F.

  • Popular Name of HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missile.

Atlas F.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Final operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance systems. Deployed as missiles from 1961 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used for over thirty years as space launch vehicles.

Atlas F/MSD.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x MSD upper stage.

Atlas F/OIS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x OIS upper stage.

Atlas F/PTS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E upper stage.

Atlas F/SVS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages.

Atlas H.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas H used the Atlas first stage developed for the Atlas G vehicle. It was flown without the Centaur upper stage.

Atlas I.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas I launch vehicle was derived from the Atlas G, and included the same basic vehicle components (Atlas booster and Centaur upper stage). Significant improvements in the guidance and control system were made with an emphasis on replacing analog flight control components with digital units interconnected with a digital data bus.

Atlas II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than an Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. The original Atlas II model was developed to support the United States Air Force Medium Launch Vehicle II program. Its Centaur used RL10A-3-3A engines operating at an increased mixture ratio. The first Atlas II flew on 7 December 1991, successfully delivering AC-102/Eutelsat II F3 to orbit.

Atlas IIA.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas IIA was a commercial derivative of the Atlas II developed for the US Air Force. Higher performance RL10A-4 (or RL10A-4-1) engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A engines.

Atlas IIAS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than the Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. Higher performance RL10A-4 or RL10A-4-1 engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A. The Atlas IIAS model added four Thiokol Castor IVA solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to the core Atlas stage to augment thrust for the first two minutes of flight.

Atlas IIIA.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas IIIA was a development of the Atlas using Russian engines in place of the Rocketdyne MA-5 booster/sustainer group used on all previous models. It was the centerpiece of Lockheed Martin's strategy to remain a leader in the commercial launch services industry. However customers never materialized, and it was used for only two launches in 2002-2004 before being replaced by the Atlas V.

Atlas IIIB.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. This was the first version of the Atlas to fly using Russian RD-180 engines; and the last version to fly using the original balloon-tank concept for the first stage. It differed from the Atlas IIIA in use of a stretched, two-engine upper stage, and had a brief three-year operational career in 2002-2005 before being superseded by the Atlas V.

Atlas IIR; Atlas IIAR.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas IIIA orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas IIRC; Atlas IIARC.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas IIIB orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas LV-3B / Mercury.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D modified for use in Project Mercury.

Atlas SLV-3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with no or small solid upper stage.

Atlas V.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas V launch vehicle system was a completely new design that succeeded the earlier Atlas series. Atlas V vehicles were based on the 3.8-m (12.5-ft) diameter Common Core Booster (CCB) powered by a single Russian RD-180 engine. These could be clustered together, and complemented by a Centaur upper stage, and up to five solid rocket boosters, to achieve a wide range of performance.

Atlas V 401.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V version with a 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and no strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 7,095 kg (15,642 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 4,950 kg (10,910 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 411.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and one strap-on solid booster. Payloads: 8,763 kg (19,320 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 6,075 kg (13,393 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 421.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and two strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 10,168 kg (22,416 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 7,000 kg (15,432 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 431.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and three strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 11,547 kg (25,458 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 7,800 kg (17,196 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 501.

  • Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and no strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 6,319 kg (13,931 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 3,970 kg (8,752 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 521.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and two strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 10,161 kg (22,401 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 6,485 kg (14,297 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 531.

  • Atlas V 531

Atlas V 551.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and five strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 20,520 kg (45,238 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 8,700 kg (19,180 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V Growth Phase 1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed growth variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with three parallel 3.8-m-diameter Common Core Boosters (CCB), a 5-m-diameter wide body version of the Centaur upper stage with a single-engine, and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Another variant would use a stretched wide body version of the Centaur upper stage with 2 or 4 motors, allowing payloads of up to 13,500 kg to be lofted to earth escape velocity.

Atlas V Growth Phase 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed growth variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with three parallel 5-m-diameter wide-body Common Core Boosters (CCB), each with 1 or 2 RD-180 engines; a 5-m-diameter new Lox/LH2 stage with 2 or 4 engines with a total thrust of 180,000 kgf; and a 5 m diameter payload fairing.

Atlas V Growth Phase 3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Saturn-V class variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with five parallel 5-m-diameter wide-body Common Core Boosters (CCB), each with 1 or 2 RD-180 engines; a 7-m-diameter new Lox/LH2 stage; and a 7 m diameter payload fairing.

Atlas V Heavy.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle system with three parallel 3.8-m-diameter Common Core Boosters (CCB), and a stretched version of the Centaur upper stage (CIII), which could be configured as a single-engine Centaur (SEC) or a dual engine Centaur (DEC), and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. As of 2004 no work had been authorised to build Atlas V Heavy facilities at either Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg AFB.

Atlas Vega.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas-Vega consisted of an Atlas booster with a storable propellant upper stage. It was planned by NASA at its inception for deep space and planetary missions before the Atlas Centaur was available. Work had already begun when NASA discovered that the CIA and the US Air Force had an essentially identical launch vehicle (Atlas-Hustler, later called Atlas-Agena) in development for the highly classified Corona reconnaisance satellite program. Atlas-Vega was accordingly cancelled.

Atlas/Agena F/D.

  • Atlas F + 1 x Agena D upper stage.

Atlas/Trident E.

  • Atlas E + 1 x Trident upper stage.

Atlas/Trident F.

  • Atlas F + 1 x Trident upper stage.

Atlas-Hustler.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas Agena A orbital launch vehicle.

Atmospheric Sounding Projectile.

  • Alternate designation for Asp sounding rocket.

ATV.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced designs for SSTO vehicles as early as 1960. The expendable vehicle had a gross listoff mass of only 22 tonnes, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit.

Aurore.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Ausroc.

  • Australian low cost orbital launch vehicle. Proposed southern hemisphere launcher.

B-1.

B-29.

  • Alternate Designation of Banshee intercontinental cruise missile.

B-61A.

  • Alternate designation for Matador intermediate range cruise missile.

B-65.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas A test vehicle.

B-75.

  • Alternate designation for Thor intermediate range ballistic missile.

B-76.

  • Alternate designation for CGM-13B intermediate range cruise missile.

B-78.

  • Alternate designation for Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile.

B-87.

  • Alternate designation for Skybolt air-to-surface missile.

Baby Babylon.

  • Alternate designation for Babylon Gun gun-launched orbital launch vehicle.

Babylon Gun.

  • From March of 1988 until the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Iraq contracted with Gerard Bull to build three superguns: two full sized 'Project Babylon' 1000 mm guns and one 'Baby Babylon' 350 mm prototype. Nine tonnes of special supergun propellant could fire a 600 kg projectile over a range of 1,000 kilometres, or a 2,000 kg rocket-assisted projectile. The 2,000 kg projectile would place a net payload of about 200 kg into orbit at a cost of $ 600 per kg. The 1000 mm guns were never completed. After the war UN teams destroyed the guns and gun components in Iraqi possession.

Badr-2000.

  • Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat I.

  • Alternate designation for Beta ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat II.

  • Alternate designation for Beta II ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat III.

  • Alternate designation for Beta III ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Ballistisches Enistufiges Traeger-Aggregat IV.

  • Alternate designation for Beta IV ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Banshee.

  • American intercontinental cruise missile. Cruise missile version of B-29 bomber

Baranov SAM.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. First Soviet anti-aircraft barrage rocket, fired in limited numbers during siege of Leningrad, and downing two German aircraft.

Barbarian MDD.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle for large SDI 'Star Wars' payloads. Expected to cost $ 400-500 million, the Barbarian could place the Zenith-Star chemical laser into low earth orbit. It would consist of 3 Shuttle SRM's, attached around a ring of six Delta RS-27 first stage boosters, which in turn clustered around a single Delta first stage booster that was the last stage of the launch vehicle.

Barbarian MM.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Zenith Star space-based chemical laser missile defence weapon required a launch vehicle capable of placing a 45,000 kg payload into low earth orbit. Martin and Aerojet turned to their work 20 years earlier on advanced Titans for the MOL program. These earlier studies were combined with new concepts for tank construction and materials. The Martin Barbarian was a 4.57 m diameter Titan vehicle (instead of the customary 3.05 m) with four LR-87 engines on the first stage, and a single LR-87 engine on the second stage.

Beal BA-2.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The Beal Aerospace BA-2 was a privately-financed heavy-lift commercial launch vehicle that used innovative technical solutions to achieve low cost to orbit. It harkened back to the low-cost Truax Sea Dragon or TRW 'Big Dumb Booster' concepts of the 1960's but added several new twists. Beal abandoned the project at the end of 2000 after the collapse of the MEO satellite market and active measures by NASA to support other, competing, more high-tech projects by the major aerospace contractors.

Belenos.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Elan + 1 x Aurore

Belia.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Elan + 1 x Belisama

Belier.

  • Family of sounding rockets, developed by Sud Aviation, with the only or upper stage being variants of the Belier stage powered by a Jericho rocket motor. These were the most significant series of French civilian suborbital rockets. Manufacturing licenses were sold to India and Pakistan, becoming the basis of their rocket industries.

Belier I.

  • French sounding rocket. Basic Belier single stage vehicle, powered with a Jericho rocket motor loaded with 208 kg of 'Epictete' solid propellant with a specific impulse of 190 seconds.

Belier II.

  • French sounding rocket. Improved Belier single stage vehicle, loaded with 'Plastolite' propellant with a 205 second specific impulse.

Belier III.

  • French sounding rocket. Improved Belier single stage vehicle, using a Vega motor loaded with 230.5 kg of 'Isolane' propellant with a specific impulse of 240 seconds.

Belisama.

  • French sounding rocket.

Belka.

  • Launch System of RM-205 surface-to-air missile.

Berenice.

  • French sounding rocket. Berenice was Onera's successor to the Antares re-entry vehicle test booster. It was nearly double the mass of Antares.

Berenice Satmos.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. In April 1963, ONERA proposed using a modified Berenice suborbtial test vehicle to place a small 3.5 kg satellite ('Satmos') into a 250 x 1800 km orbit. They claimed this booster could be ready in 1964, one year before Diamant. However the given the marginal growth potential of such a design, the government decided to stick with Diamant.

Berkut.

Beta.

  • German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 rocket pioneer Dietrich Koelle was working at MBB (Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm). There he sketched out a reusable VTOVL design called BETA using Bono's SASSTO as a starting point. The vehicle, taking European technology into account, was a bit heavier than Bono's design. But the thorough analysis showed even this design would be capable of delivering 2 tonnes of payload to orbit.

Beta II.

  • German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Beta II was Dietrich Koelle's nominal 350 tonne lift-off mass SSTO design for launch of a 10 tonne European spaceplane.

Beta III.

  • German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 Dietrich Koelle proposed his BETA III design. This was to deliver 20 tonnes to orbit with a launch mass of 600 tonnes. In 1996 and 1998 he updated the design for use as an ISS resupply vehicle in place of the shuttle, and as a space tourism vehicle for 100 passengers.

Beta IV.

  • German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Beta II was Dietrich Koelle's largest SSTO concept, with a nominal 2000 tonne lift-off mass SSTO design and 100 tonne payload.

BGM-110.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. Losing design in Sea-Launched Cruise Missile competition. Nuclear warhead version with warhead mass of 120 kg.

BGM-75.

  • Department of Defence Designation of AICBM intercontinental ballistic missile.

Big Dumb Booster.

  • Manufacturer's designation for LCLV low cost orbital launch vehicle.

Big Stick.

  • Alternate designation for SLAM intercontinental cruise missile.

BIS 3 Stage.

  • The British Interplanetary Society (BIS) reusable booster concept of 1950 was a 3 stage, rocket, similar to Von Braun concepts of the time. The third stage was a winged vehicle which would use the skip-glide re-entry technique conceived by Saenger.

Bizan.

  • Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Bizan was the 1982 Soviet air-launched spaceplane design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport. Unlike the '49', it was a single-stage-to-orbit tripropellant concept.

Bizan-T.

  • Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from catamaran heavy-life aircraft, predecessor of later Gerakl / Molniya-1000 design. 900 tonnes takeoff mass. Release conditions: Suspended load, Mach 0.7 at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

Black Arrow.

  • British orbital launch vehicle. Britain's only indigenous launch vehicle. Following cancellation of the project in July 1971, one final launch was permitted, which successfully placed the Prospero satellite in orbit.

Black Brant.

  • The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The prototype was called the Propulsion Test Vehicle. It was a relatively heavy rocket, since it was designed to stand up to the use of a wide range of engine burning time, propellant loadings and launch angles associated with fuel development. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle.

Black Brant 1.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle using the Black Brant VA.

Black Brant 10.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Black Brant VB or VC + 1 x Nihka. Payload 90 kg to 1,200 km or 317 kg to 550 km.

Black Brant 10B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 10CM1.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 11.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle. Payload weights of 320 kg to 500 km or 550 kg to 350 km altitude.

Black Brant 12.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Black Brant XII rocket system was a four stage system used primarily to carry a variety of payloads to high altitudes. Its development is a spin-off of the Black Brant X development. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Taurus + 1 x Black Brant VB + 1 x Nihka. Payload 136 kg to 1,500 km or 522 kg to 500 km.

Black Brant 2.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Black Brant 2B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 3.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Brant IIIA or IIIB.

Black Brant 3B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 4.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Brant VA + 1 x Black Brant IIIA or IIIB.

Black Brant 4A.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 4B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 5.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Brant VA, VB, or VC.

Black Brant 5A.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 5B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Three-fin version. The Black Brant VB provided slightly improved performance over the VC. The burnout roll rate for the Black Brant V was 4 cycles per second. Maximum longitudinal acceleration varied with payload weight; for a typical payload weight of 270 kg, maximum thrust axis acceleration is approximately 12g's.

Black Brant 5C.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Four-fin version.

Black Brant 6.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Black Brant 7.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Black Brant 8.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike booster + Black Brant VB or VC upper stage. Payload 136 kg to 430 km or 408 kg to 230 km.

Black Brant 8B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 8C.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 9.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier Mk 70 + 1 x Black Brant VB.

Black Brant 9B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 9BM1.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant 9CM1.

  • Canadian sounding rocket.

Black Brant I.

Black Brant II.

Black Brant IIB.

Black Brant III.

Black Brant IIIB.

Black Brant IVA.

Black Brant IVB.

Black Brant IX.

Black Brant IXB.

Black Brant VA.

Black Brant VB.

Black Brant VC.

Black Brant VI.

Black Brant VII.

Black Brant X.

Black Brant XB.

Black Brant XI.

Black Brant XII.

Black Colt.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines. Takes off from runway; rendezvous with tanker to load oxidizer; then flies to Mach 12/150 nm to release Star 48V second stage and 450 kg payload. In comparison to Black Horse, uses existing engines and a much more achievable mass fraction by only flying to half orbital speed.

Black Horse.

  • American air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. Takes off from runway at 22,000 kg gross weight; rendezvous with tanker to load 66,760 kg oxidizer; then flies to orbit.

Black Knight.

  • The Black Knight was a British test vehicle designed to test re-entry vehicles for the Blue Streak MRBM. It was subsequently used for a series of US-sponsored test of RV radar signatures.

Black Knight 201.

  • British test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Black Knight 201/C.

  • British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 201 + 1 x Cuckoo IB

Black Knight 201/C2.

  • British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 201 + 1 x Cuckoo II

Black Knight 301/C.

  • British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 301 + 1 x Cuckoo IB

Black Knight 301/C2.

  • British test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Black Knight 301 + 1 x Cuckoo II

Blk Sparrow.

  • Black Sparrow

Block 1.

  • American short range ballistic missile. In production. Advanced TACtical Missile System, Fire Support , Deep Attack Field Artillery, 1000 bomblets

Block 1A.

  • American short range ballistic missile. In production.

Block 2.

  • American short range ballistic missile. In development.

Bloodhound.

  • British surface-to-air missile.

Bloodhound Mk. 1.

  • British surface-to-air missile.

Bloodhound Mk. 2.

  • British surface-to-air missile. 4 wrap-around spr, ramjet sustainer. Program ended.

Bloodhound Mk.1.

Blue Scout 1.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital tests.

Blue Scout 2.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital and orbital military tests.

Blue Scout ERCS.

  • American strategic communications missile. USAF initial Emergency Rocket Communications System booster.

Blue Scout I.

  • Alternate designation for Blue Scout 1 suborbital launch vehicle.

Blue Scout II.

  • Alternate designation for Blue Scout 2 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Blue Scout Jr.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Cetus

Blue Scout Jr 2.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor

Blue Scout Jr SLV-1B(m).

  • American suborbital launch vehicle.

Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle.

Blue Scout Junior.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Smaller Air Force version of Scout used for suborbital military tests.

Blue Steel.

  • British air-to-surface missile.

Blue Streak.

  • British intermediate range ballistic missile. Cancelled 1960

Blue Water.

  • British tactical ballistic missile. Cancelled 1962

Boeing EELV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing EELV as proposed in 1992.

Boeing SDV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Boeing SDV Class I vehicle would lead to the Shuttle-C, using the shuttle aft fuselage with SSME engines to power a cargo canister into orbit.

Boeing SPS SSTO.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1977 Boeing produced a vehicle design for a 227 tonne payload vertical takeoff launch vehicle to be used to launch components for the huge Satellite Solar Power platforms that NASA was promoting at the time. The booster would launch from the edge of a water-filled man-made lagoon and recover in the lagoon and used a water-cooled heat shield for reentry.

Bold Orion.

  • American air-launched anti-ballistic missile. Dropped from B-47 medium bombers, the missile consisted of a Sergeant booster and Altair upper stage.

Bold Orion 1.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-47 Stratojet + 1 x Sergeant

Bold Orion 2.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-47 Stratojet + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair

Bolo.

  • Alternate Designation of SLAM intercontinental cruise missile.

Bomarc.

  • Popular Name of CIM-10A surface-to-air missile.

Bomarc.

  • USAF Mach 3 ramjet surface-to-air missile; later converted to target missiles and launched from Vandenberg AFB.

Bomarc B.

  • Popular Name of CIM-10B surface-to-air missile.

Boojum.

  • Intercontinental supersonic cruise missile. A follow-on to the Snark that was Northrop's competitor with the North American Navaho. Never reached development stage and no details available. Name obviously derived from the punchline of Lewis Carroll's poem: "...for the Snark was a Boojum, you see..."

Boosted Arcas.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a booster + 1 x Arcas second stage.

Boosted Arcas 2.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x MARC 42A1 + 1 x Arcas

Boosted Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

BQ-1/BQ-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of BQ-1-BQ-2 intermediate range cruise missile.

BQ-1-BQ-2.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. In March 1942, the USAAF initiated a program to develop radio-controlled assault drones, frequently called "aerial torpedoes" at that time. These aerial torpedoes were to be unmanned expendable aircraft (either purpose-built or converted from existing types), fitted with a large payload of high-explosive, remote-control equipment and a forward-looking TV camera. The drones were to be directed to the target by radio commands from a control aircraft, where the operator would "fly" the drone watching the video transmitted by the camera.

BQ-3.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. In October 1942, Fairchild received a contract to build two XBQ-3 prototype unmanned assault drones based on the AT-21 Gunner twin-engined trainer design.

BQ-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of BQ-4-TDR intermediate range cruise missile.

BQ-4-TDR.

  • Early family of American unmanned remotely-controlled aircraft for use in combat.

BQ-7.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Aphrodite intermediate range cruise missile.

BQ-8.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. In 1944 the USAAF intended to convert some worn-out Consolidated B-24D/J Liberator bombers to BQ-8 radio-controlled assault drones for use against heavily defended targets on Japanese islands in the Pacific. The concept was the same as used for the B-17 Flying Fortress conversions in the BQ-7 Aphrodite project.

BQM-6C.

  • American intermediate range cruise drone. Drone version.

Brilliant Pebbles.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. ABM-missiles, SDIO/BMDO project

BT-310.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Derivative of S-310.

BTDS.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. SDIO/BMDO project, Baseline Terminal Defense System (ex-LoADS), with Sentry

Bulava.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Solid-propellant Soviet intercontinental-range ballistic missile, equipped with multiple independently targeted warheads.

Bullpup Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Bullpup + 1 x Apache

Bullpup Cajun.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Bullpup + 1 x Cajun

Bumblebee STV.

  • American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's.

Bumper-WAC.

  • German short range ballistic test vehicle. Pioneering US demonstration of a two stage launch vehicle, coupling a V-2 with a WAC Corporal. The first ballistic missile fired from Cape Canaveral.

Buran.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Myasishchev aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. The competing Burya design of Lavochkin was launched in July 1957, but the development of unstoppable ICBM's had made intercontinntal cruise missiles oboslete. The equivalent American Navaho project was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled on November 1957.

Buran-T.

  • Fully recoverable version of Energia launch vehicle, with four winged boosters and a winged core stage.

Burlak.

  • Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Burlak air-launched satellite launcher was proposed in 1992 and studied by Germany in 1992-1994. Evidently based on secret anti-satellite missile. Air launched from Tu-160 bomber, released at 13,500 m altitude and Mach 1.7. Development estimated to cost only DM 50 million, but not proceeded with. Burlak/Diana variant would have been launched from Concorde.

Burya.

  • A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. Burya launches began in July 1957. The project was cancelled, but the team was allowed final tests in 1961 that demonstrated a 6,500 km range at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle.

Butterfly.

C-1.

Cajun.

  • American sounding rocket. The Cajun research rocket was developed as a dimensionally-similar but higher performance successor to the Deacon.

Cajun Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

CALCM.

  • Popular Name of AGM-86C air-to-surface missile.

Caleb.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Heavily classifed project related to air-launched ASAT development. Launch tests in 1958. NOTS project staff believed they successully orbited a satellite but unconfirmed.

Canopus.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Canopus 2.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Capricorno.

  • Spanish all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Small all-solid-propellant launch vehicle pursued by Spain in 1992-1999. Cancelled in 2000 before any flights could be made.

Cargo Launch Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for Ares V heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

Castor.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Single stage version.

Castor (A).

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Canopus + 1 x Canopus

Castor 2R.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. 2 stage vehicle version of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor

Castor 4B.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle. First launch 1996.07.15.

Castor Lance.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Lance

Castor-M57A1.

  • Alternate designation for ait-2 target missile.

Castor-Orbus.

  • American sounding rocket. Vehicle consisting 1 x Castor + 1 x Orbus 1, sometimes augmented with a Recruit booster stage.

Castor-Recruit.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Recruit

Centaure.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier I II, or III single stage sounding rocket was augmented by a Venus booster with 94 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilised by small solid rocket engines on the four fins.

Centaure 1.

  • French sounding rocket.

Centaure 2A.

  • French sounding rocket.

Centaure 2B.

  • French sounding rocket.

Centaure 2C.

  • French sounding rocket.

CGM-13A.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

CGM-13B.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

CGM-16C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Atlas C test vehicle.

CGM-16E.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version

CGM-16F.

  • Department of Defence Designation of HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missile.

Chang Cheng 1.

  • Chinese winged orbital launch vehicle. The Chang Cheng 1 (Great Wall 1) vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage space shuttle was a compromise design created jointly by Shanghai Astronautics Bureau 805 (now the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology) and Institute 604 of the Air Ministry in 1988. An expendable booster, consisting of three of Shanghai's planned liquid oxygen/kerosene modular boosters, would boost the winged second stage shuttle to a high altitude. The engines of the winged shuttle stage would take it to orbit. This approach would allow a first flight to be made in 2008.

Chang Zheng 1.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-1 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 1D.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-1D orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 2A.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2A orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 2C.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2C orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 2C-III/SD.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2C-SD orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 2D.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2D orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 2E.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2E orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 2F.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2F orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 3.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 3A.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3A orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 3B.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3B orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 4.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-4A orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 4B.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-4B orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng 4C.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-4C orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-522-HO orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-504-HO orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-540-HO orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type D.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-504 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type E.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-522 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type F.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-540 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-1 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-1C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-1C orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-1D.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-1D orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-1M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-1M orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2A orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2C orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2C/SD.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2C-SD orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2D.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2D orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2E.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2E orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2E(A).

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2E(A) orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-2F.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-2F orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-3.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-3 orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-3A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-3A orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-3B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-3B orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-3B(E).

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-3B(A) orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-3C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-3C orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-4A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-4A orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-4B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-4B orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-4C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-4C orbital launch vehicle.

Chang Zheng-5-2.25.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CZ-NGLV-200 orbital launch vehicle.

China Type E.

  • Alternate designation for Project 921 orbital launch vehicle.

Chinese RLV.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. By the late 2000 a leading candidate for China's first reusable launch vehicle was a CALT-designed two-stage fully reusable rocket similar to the Kistler K-1.

Chinese Supergun.

  • In January 1995 the Chinese army unveiled a 21 m long supergun capable of firing large artillery shells into South Korea and Taiwan. The gun could fire 85 mm shells over a 300 km range. Nothing further was heard of the weapon. Interestingly, China was one of the countries that retained Gerard Bull as a consultant in artillery design in the 1980's. It would seem that the supergun retained its military appeal as a psychological weapon or in anti-satellite applications.

Ching Feng.

  • Taiwanese short range ballistic missile.

Chirok.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

Chusovaya.

  • Launch System of R-14U intermediate range ballistic missile.

CIM-10.

  • Department of Defence designation of Bomarc missile.

CIM-10A.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Also XIM-10, YIM-10.

CIM-10B.

  • American surface-to-air missile. CQM-10 drone version

Cirrus.

  • Cirrus was a two-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964. The propellant was developed by the DRG and fabricated at Liebenau Company for Production of Chemical Materials (GmbH zur Verwertung chemischer Erzeugnisse Liebenau).

Cirrus B.

  • Alternate designation for Cirrus II sounding rocket.

Cirrus I.

  • German sounding rocket. Cirrus I could carry meteorological or biological payloads up to a speed of 1000 m/s and an altitude of 35 km.

Cirrus II.

  • German sounding rocket. Cirrus II could carry meteorological or biological payloads to a speed of over 1000 m/s and an altitude of 50 km. The first stage produced 1800 kgf and the second 508 kgf.

CleanSweep III.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Clipper Graham.

  • Alternate Designation of DC-X vtovl test vehicle.

CLV.

  • Alternate Designation of Ares I heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

CNES Shuttle 1963.

  • French studies in the 1960's were supervised by the French Space Agency, CNES, and developed along two paths. Path 1 was a manned hypersonic booster stage, with upper stages coming in manned or unmanned variants according to the mission. Path 2 was more conservative, with either the Path 1 booster or an expendable booster launching a small re-entry vehicle - a 'Space Taxi'.

Cobra-BTV.

  • American test vehicle, part of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program that led to the operational Talos ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile in the 1950's.

Cockatoo.

  • The Cockatoo solid-propellant sounding rocket replaced HAD at Woomera in 1970, and consisted of a British Gosling I first stage and an Australian Lupus 1 second stage.

Commercial Titan 3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial version of Titan 34D military booster. It differed in having a lengthened second stage and a 4 m diameter payload shroud to handle shuttle-class or Ariane-type dual payloads.

Concept ICBM.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The January 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines plus two vernier engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was optimistically estimated as 460 m.

Condor.

  • Argentinan intermediate range ballistic missile.

Condor 1.

  • Argentinan short range ballistic missile.

Condor 2.

  • Argentinan intermediate range ballistic missile.

Conestoga.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle.

Conestoga 1620.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Castor 4B + 2 x Castor 4B + 1 x Castor 4B + 1 x Star 48V

Consolidated BQ-8.htm.

  • Alternate designation for BQ-8 intermediate range cruise missile.

Contracted Atlas.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The 1954 design for the Atlas as contracted for by the Air Force used three main engines to power a 110 metric ton rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 3700 m. The missile actually delivered six years later would have the same dimensions and launch mass, but 63% more range and four times better accuracy.

Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile.

  • Alternate designation for AGM-86C air-to-surface missile.

Copper Canyon.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. DARPA program of 1984 that proved the technologies and concept for the X-30 National Aerospace Plane concept.

Copper Canyon Phase 2.

  • Alternate designation for X-30 ssto winged orbital launch vehicle.

Cora.

  • European orbital launch vehicle. Cora was an experimental rocket to test the second and third stages of the Europa launch vehicle.

Corella.

  • Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Gosling + 1 x Dorado

Corporal.

  • Popular Name of MGM-5A and MGM-5B short range ballistic missiles.

Corporal.

  • American short range liquid-propellant ballistic missile. The first American operational guided missile, deployed 1954-1964. Replaced by the Sergeant solid-propellant missile.

Corporal E.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Experimental version of Corporal Missile

Corporal Type 1.

  • American short range ballistic missile. First prototype of Corporal missile.

Corporal Type 2.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Second prototype of Corporal Missile

Coyote.

  • American sounding rocket.

Crew Launch Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for Ares I heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

Crossbow.

  • American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1957.

CSL-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of CZ-1 orbital launch vehicle.

CSL-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of CZ-2A orbital launch vehicle.

CSL-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of CZ-3 orbital launch vehicle.

CSS-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

CSS-10.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-41 intercontinental ballistic missile.

CSS-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile.

CSS-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-4 intermediate range ballistic missile.

CSS-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

CSS-5.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-21 intermediate range ballistic missile.

CSS-6.

  • Department of Defence designation of DF-15 missile.

CSS-7.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-11 short range ballistic missile.

CSS-8.

  • Department of Defence Designation of M-7 short range ballistic missile.

CSS-9.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DF-31 intercontinental ballistic missile.

CSS-C-3.

  • Alternate designation for JL-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

CSS-N-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of JL-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

CSS-N-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of JL-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

CSST-600.

  • Alternate Designation of M-9 intermediate range ballistic missile.

CTV-G-5.

  • Popular Name of Hermes A-1 tactical ballistic missile.

CTV-N-8.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Bumblebee STV test vehicle.

Cyclone 3.

  • Popular Name of Tsiklon-3 orbital launch vehicle.

Cyclone 4.

  • Popular Name of Tsiklon-4 orbital launch vehicle.

CZ.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced.

CZ-1.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China began development of the CZ-1 (Changzheng-1 = Long March-1) launch vehicle in the second half of 1965. The project was undertaken with the specific objective of launching China's first satellite, the DFH-1. The CZ-l's first and second stages were adapted from those of the DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile. The third stage used a new-design solid rocket motor.

CZ-1C.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from the CZ-1, with a new upper stage. Never flown.

CZ-1D.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from the CZ-1, but with a new N2O4/UDMH second stage. Used for a suborbital re-entry vehicle test but never flown on an orbital mission.

CZ-1M.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from CZ-1, with an Italian Mage upper stage. Never flown.

CZ-2 Spaceplane Launcher.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Tsien's manned spacecraft design proposed in the late 1970's was a winged spaceplane, launched by a CZ-2 core booster with two large strap-on boosters. It so strongly resembled the cancelled US Dynasoar of 15 years earlier that US intelligence analysts wondered if it wasn't based on declassified Dynasoar technical information.

CZ-2A.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2 was originally designed for launch of the FSW-1 recoverable military reconnaissance satellite.

CZ-2C.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2C was the definitive low earth orbit launch vehicle derived from DF-5 ICBM. It became the basis for an entire family of subsequent Long March vehicles. Many adaptive modifications were made to the configuration of the CZ-2A to handle a variety of new satellites and upper stages. The CZ-2C had improved technical performance and payload capacity compared to the CZ-2A, with later versions having a payload capability of 2,800 kg into a 200 km circular orbit.

CZ-2C/CTS.

  • Article Number of CZ-2C-SD orbital launch vehicle.

CZ-2C/SD.

  • On April 28, 1993, the Chinese Great Wall Industrial Corporation and Motorola signed a launch services contract for multiple launch of Iridium communications satellites using CZ-2C/SD launch vehicles. The main differences between the CZ-2C and the CZ-2C/SD were: a modified fairing with a diameter of 3.35m; a newly developed Smart Dispenser; improved second stage fuel and oxidizer tanks; and second stage engines with higher expansion ratio nozzles.

CZ-2D.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 2D was a two-stage launch vehicle with storable propellants, suitable for launching a variety of low earth orbit satellites. Developed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, the CZ-2D had a typical payload capability of 3,500kg in a 200 km circular orbit. Its first stage was identical to that of the CZ-4. The second stage was essentially the same as that of the CZ-4, except for an improved vehicle equipment bay.

CZ-2E.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2E added four liquid rocket booster strap-ons to the basic CZ-2 core to achieve a low earth orbit payload capability approaching the Russian Proton, US Titan, or European Ariane rockets. The Long March 2E had a maximum payload capability of 9,500 kg to low earth orbit.

CZ-2E(A).

  • Planned upgrade of CZ-2E with enlarged liquid boosters. Probably intended for launch of Chinese space station modules in the 21st century. Fairing was 5.20 m in diameter and 12.39 m long.

CZ-2F.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Man-rated version of CZ-2E, designed for launch of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Little difference externally. Modifications were related to improved redundancy of systems, strengthened upper stage to handle large 921-1 spacecraft fairing and launch escape tower. President Jiang Zemin gave the name 'Shenjian' ('Divine Arrow') to the CZ-2F after the successful launch of the Shenzhou-3 mission.

CZ-3.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3 was a three-stage launch vehicle designed for delivery of satellites of 1,500 kg mass into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The first and second stages were based on the CZ-2C, and designed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. The majority of the technology and flight hardware used in the CZ-3 had been qualified and proven on the CZ-2C. The third stage, manufactured by CALT, was equipped with an LOX/LH2 cryogenic engine. Long March 3 was also capable of placing spacecraft into an elliptical or circular low earth orbit and sun synchronous orbit.

CZ-3A.

  • Chinese three-stage orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3A, by incorporating the mature technologies of the CZ-3 and adding a more powerful cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, had a greater geosynchronous transfer orbit capability, greater flexibility for attitude control, and better adaptability to a variety of launch missions.

CZ-3B.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 3B was the most powerful Long March launch vehicle. It could inject a 5,000 kg payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The CZ-3B was developed on the basis of the CZ-3A, but had enlarged propellant tanks, larger fairing, and four boosters strapped onto the core stage. The CZ-3B boosters were identical to those of the CZ-3A.

CZ-3B(A).

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. In February 1999 the China Great Wall Company announced it was developing more powerful Long March rockets using larger-size liquid propellant strap-on motors. The Long March 3B(A) would be available in 2002.

CZ-3C.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle combining CZ-3B core with two boosters from CZ-2E. The standard fairing was 9.56 m long, 4.0 m in diameter. On August 23, 2001, the CZ-3C launcher passed its critical design review. CZ-3C development had begun in 1995 but was suspended in 1996-2000 due to the 1996 CZ-3B failure. First launch was in 2008.

CZ-4A.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4 was developed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology. Its first stage was essentially the same as that of the CZ-3 and the second stage was identical to that of the CZ-3. The CZ-4's third stage, however, was a development, featuring a thin wall common intertank bulkhead tankage and two-engine cluster with both engines gimbling about two perpendicular axes. The third stage engine cluster connected to the tank aft bulkhead through the engine bay. The CZ-4 had two payload fairing configurations: Type-A and Type-B. The CZ-4 was designed for launching satellites into polar and sun-synchronous orbits.

CZ-4B.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4B introduced in 1999 was an improved model of the CZ-4B with an enhanced third stage and fairing. It measured 44.1 metres in length with a first stage thrust of 300 tonnes.

CZ-4C.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-4C, first flown in 2007, had an upgraded second-stage engine that could be restarted in space. The vehicle also had structural rings at the base of the first and second stages, an interstage weather cover,ejected at liftoff, and the larger payload shroud introduced on the CZ-4B. All of these indicated that the vehicle was designed to take larger payloads to higher, more precise orbits than the CZ-4B.

CZ-5-2.25.

  • Alternate Designation of CZ-NGLV-200 orbital launch vehicle.

CZ-5-3.35.

  • Alternate Designation of CZ-NGLV-320 orbital launch vehicle.

CZ-NGLV.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China's family of new generation expendable launch vehicles began development in 2000. Boosters of various capabilities would be assembled from three modular stages of 2.25 m, 3.35 m and 5.0 m diameter. These would be powered by new variable-thrust 120 tonne thrust Lox/Kerosene engines or 50 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines.

CZ-NGLV-200.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series small launcher would use the 2.25 m diameter module as the first stage and a single upper stage of the same diameter (probably the existing YF-73 stage of the CZ-3). Payload was given as 1.5 tonnes into low earth orbit. First launch was expected after 2008. Although the configuration was not shown at the Wuzhai Air Show in 2002 it re-emerged at the FAI in 2003. It seemed to be in competition with the all-solid-propellant KT-1, KT-2, and KT-2A series.

CZ-NGLV-320.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series medium launcher would use the 3.35 m diameter module and a new 3.35 m diameter second stage as the core vehicle. Either two or four 2.25 m diameter modules would be used as strap-ons. Payload to low earth orbit would be three tonnes with two strap-ons and 10 tonnes with four strap-ons.

CZ-NGLV-504.

  • The 504 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with four 3.35 m diameter stages as strap-ons. Payload was given as 25 tonnes to low earth orbit. A standard large 5.2 m diameter fairing tops the vehicle. It would be used to launch the Chinese Space Laboratory in 2010.

CZ-NGLV-504/HO.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 504/HO configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 4 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. First flight of this version was expected after 2010. Payload was given as 14 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

CZ-NGLV-522.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 522 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with 2 x 2.25 m plus 2 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. Payload is estimated as 18-20 tonnes to low earth orbit.

CZ-NGLV-522/HO.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 522/HO was the 'all up' baseline configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series. It would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 2 x 2.25 m plus 2 x 3.35 m strap-on stages. It was announced in 2003 that it would be first to fly, with a launch before the Beijing Olympics in 2008. It would be used for launch of large communications satellites. Payload is estimated as 10-12 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

CZ-NGLV-540.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 540 configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m diameter core stage with four 2.25 m diameter stages as strap-ons. Payload was given as 10 tonnes to low earth orbit. A standard short 5.2 m diameter fairing tops the vehicle.

CZ-NGLV-540/HO.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The 540/HO configuration for the Long March New Generation Launch Vehicle series would use the 5.0 m core stage, topped by the 5.0 m upper stage, together with 4 x 2.25 m strap-on stages. First flight of this version was expected after 2010. Payload was given as 6 tonnes to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

CZ-NGLV-A.

CZ-NGLV-B.

CZ-NGLV-C.

CZ-NGLV-D.

CZ-NGLV-E.

CZ-NGLV-F.

CZ-NGLV-Light.

CZ-NGLV-Medium.

D.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-133 intercontinental cruise missile.

D.

  • Library of Congress designation of UR-500 missile.

D-1.

  • Launch System of R-11FM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-1.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Proton-K orbital launch vehicle.

D-1.

  • Russian tactical ballistic missile. Korolev design for a 'long range' rocket prior to orders to copy the V-2. The 1000 kg rocket would have a range of 32 km. Wingspan 1.0 m; 370 kg propellants; minimum range 12..8 km; maximum velocity 854 m/s; maximum altitude 12.5 km.

D-11.

  • Launch System of R-31 submarine launched ballistic missile.

D-19 Rif.

  • Launch System of 3M20 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-19M.

  • Launch System of Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile.

D-19UTH Grom.

  • Launch System of R-39M submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-1e.

D-2.

  • Launch System of R-13 missile.

D-2.

  • Russian tactical ballistic missile. Korolev design for a 'long range' rocket prior to orders to copy the V-2. Extended-range winged version of the D-1. The 1200 kg rocket would have a range of 76 km. Wingspan 1.5 m; 370 kg propellants; minimum range 20 km; maximum velocity 628 m/s; maximum altitude 10.7 km.

D-21.

  • American air-launched drone. Project 'Tagboard', Project 'Senior Bowl'. Mach 3.5 ramjet recoverable reconnaisance drone air-launched from back of A-12 or with booster rocket from B-52.

D-3.

  • Launch System of R-15 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-4.

  • Launch System of R-21 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-5.

  • Launch System of R-27 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-6.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First Soviet solid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile. Development began in 1958, but the system was cancelled in 1961 in favour of the D-7 naval version of the RT-15 IRBM (itself in turn cancelled).

D-7.

  • Launch System of RT-15M submarine-launched ballistic missile.

D-8.

D-9.

  • Launch System of R-29K, R-29R, and R-29RL submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

D-9RM Shtil.

  • Launch System of R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

DAC Helios.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono 1963 concept for a chemical-boosted / nuclear upper stage launch vehicle, designed as alternatives to the Convair/Ehricke Helios. The baseline version used a nuclear, recoverable upper stage boosted above the atmosphere by a minimum chemical stage.

DAC Helios ISI.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. As the basic design, but featuring an Improved Specific Impulse chemical stage that used many engines feeding into single large nozzle.

Dac Roc.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Dal.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Trials of this long range surface-to-air missile were conducted in 1960-1963 but the project was cancelled after the system failed to down a single target. V-200 missiles were installed in the Dal installations built around Leningrad for the failed missile. In a bit of disinformation, the V-400 was paraded in Moscow, and US intelligence, thinking it was operational, applied the SA-5 designation. The SA-5 code was transferred to the V-200 after the La-400 was cancelled.

Dal-2.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned next generation high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963.

Dal-M.

  • Launch System of Dal-2 surface-to-air missile.

Dal-M.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned improved version of the Dal high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963.

Daniel.

  • French test vehicle. Three stage test vehicle for Israel's Jericho consisting of 1 x SPRAN-50 + 1 x MD-620 + 1 x Melanie

DARPA Falcon.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed Martin all-hybrid propulsion, mobile orbital launch system that could launch from an unimproved site with limited infrastructure on 24 hours notice, placing up to 840 kilograms into LEO

Dart.

  • American surface-to-surface anti-tank missile. Development started in 1953 Program cancelled in 1958 in favor of the the French SS.10.

Dauphin.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket consisting of a single Stromboli motor.

Davy Crockett M-28.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket.

Davy Crockett XM-29.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket.

DC-I.

  • Alternate designation for DC-Y ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

DC-X.

  • American VTOVL test vehicle. The DC-X was an experimental vehicle, 1/3 the size of a planned DC-Y vertical-takeoff/vertical-landing, single stage to orbit prototype. It was not designed as an operational vehicle capable of achieving orbital flight. Its purpose was to test the feasibility of both suborbital and orbital reusable launch vehicles using the VTOVL scheme. The DC-X flew in three test series. The first series ran from August 18 to September 30, 1993, before the initial project funding ran out in late October 1993. Additional funding was provided and a second series was conducted June 1994-July 1995.

DC-X2.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Proposed intermediate 1/2 scale test vehicle between DC-X and DC-Y orbital version. No government agency was willing to fund the $450 million development cost -- and neither were any private investors.

DC-XA.

  • Alternate designation for DC-X vtovl test vehicle.

DC-XA.

  • American VTOVL test vehicle. After a hard landing in the last flight of this series, the vehicle was rebuilt to the DC-XA configuration. The DC-XA flew from May 1996 until destroyed when it tipped over while landing on its fourth flight on 31 July 1996.

DC-Y.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The ultimate goal of the Delta Clipper program, a prototype reusable single-stage to orbit, vertical takeoff/vertical landing space truck. The DC-I Delta Clipper would be the full production version. No government sponsor could be found for the concept and the $ 5 billion development cost was never funded. If it had been funded in 1991, the first DC-Y suborbital flight was predicted for 1995, and a first orbital mission in 1997.

Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. The Deacon was an advanced solid rocket motor design cancelled at the end of World War II. In 1947 NACA began using reworked surplus motors to boost instrumented subscale aircraft models to speeds of up to Mach 4. They became a workhorse for the Agency's aerodynamic research, resulting in new production. Thousands were flown, until, by the end of the 1950's, supersonic wind tunnels took over the job. Data shown is for single-stage version.

Deacon Arrow II.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Arrow II

Deacon Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Deacon

Deacon HVAR.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x HVAR

Deacon Judi.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x Judi III

Deacon Rockoon.

  • American sounding rocket. The Rockoon concept involved release of a 12 m diameter balloon from a ship, which took a Deacon sounding rocket to 9 to 27 km altitude in 80 minutes. The rocket was ignited at a preset time or altitude or by remote control, and then boosted an 18 kg payload to a 50 to 100 km altitude. The Deacon was painted black and wrapped in plastic to protect it against the cold, and fitted with larger fins for stability at high altitude.

Deacon Rockoon Loki.

  • Two stage version of Rockoon balloon-launched soundinr coekt consisting of a Deacon first stage and Loki second stage.

Deacon Sidewinder.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Deacon + 1 x HPAG

Delta.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced.

Delta 0100.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The military Thor-Delta vehicles were developed into the first of a series of commercial satellite launch vehicles. The Delta 0100 series featured Castor 2 solid propellant strap-ons and a Long Tank Thor core with MB-3 engine.

Delta 0300.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x DSV-3N-4

Delta 0900.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x DSV-3N-4

Delta 1000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 1000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons and the Extended Long Tank core with MB-3 engine.

Delta 1410.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201

Delta 1604.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta F + 1 x Star 37C

Delta 1900.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta F

Delta 1910.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201

Delta 1913.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D

Delta 1914.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/MB-3 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37C

Delta 2 6000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 6000 series used the Castor 4A strap-ons with the ultimate Extra Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine.

Delta 2 7000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 7000 series used GEM-40 strap-ons with the Extra Extended Long Tank core, further upgraded with the RS-27A engine.

Delta 2000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 2000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons together with an Extended Long Tank core equipped with the more powerful RS-27 engine. This engine was derived from surplus H-1 engines intended for the Saturn IB booster of the Apollo programme. The Delta P upper stage was built by Douglas and used surplus Apollo lunar module engines from TRW.

Delta 2310.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201

Delta 2313.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D

Delta 2910.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201

Delta 2913.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37D

Delta 2914.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E

Delta 3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Delta 3 was an attempt by the manufacturer to provide the ultimate development of the original Delta booster. The core vehicle was beefed-up to accomodate much larger solid rocket boosters and a new cryogenic upper stage. However problems were incurred during development, resulting in the first two launches being failures. Meanwhile the satellite launch market crashed and the new vehicle was left without customers. The venerable Delta 7925 soldiered on for NASA, and the new Delta 4 series captured the USAF EELV requirement.

Delta 3000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 3000 series upgraded the boosters to Castor 4 solid propellant strap-ons, while retaining the Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. The 3910 series used the TRW Lunar Module engine in the second stage, while the 3920 series reintroduced the Aerojet AJ110 Delta engine.

Delta 3910.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201

Delta 3910/PAM.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P + 1 x Star 48B

Delta 3913.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37N

Delta 3914.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E

Delta 3920.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K

Delta 3920/PAM.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B

Delta 3920-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K

Delta 3924.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37E

Delta 3925.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B

Delta 4000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 4000 series used more powerful Castor 4A strap-ons, but the old Extended Long Tank core with MB-3 engine. Only two of these were launched.

Delta 4925-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor /MB-3 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 4H.

Delta 4M.

Delta 4M+(4,2).

Delta 5000.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 5000 series used the more powerful Castor 4A strap-ons but with the Extended Long Tank core with RS-27 engine. Only one was launched.

Delta 5920-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 6920-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 6920-X.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing

Delta 6925.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B

Delta 6925-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7320-10.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K

Delta 7320-XC.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Delta 7326-9.5.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37FM with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7420-10.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Delta 7420-XC.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter composite fairing

Delta 7425-10.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing

Delta 7425-9.5.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7426-9.5.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 37FM with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7920-10L.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter long fairing

Delta 7920-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7920H.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Delta 7000 using much larger GEM 46 solid rocket motors originally developed for the Delta 3.

Delta 7920-X.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing

Delta 7920-XC.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter composite fairing

Delta 7925.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B

Delta 7925-10.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 3.05 m (10 foot) diameter fairing

Delta 7925-10L.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Delta 7925-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7925-9.5.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.9 m (9.5 foot) diameter fairing)

Delta 7925H.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-46 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B

Delta 8930.

  • Alternate designation for Delta 3 orbital launch vehicle.

Delta A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118 + 1 x Altair

Delta B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118A + 1 x Altair

Delta C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Unaugmented Thor with Delta D and solid propellant upper stages.

Delta Clipper.

  • Manufacturer's designation for DC-Y ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Delta Clipper Experimental.

  • Manufacturer's designation for DC-X vtovl test vehicle.

Delta Clipper-Experimental.

  • Alternate designation for DC-X vtovl test vehicle.

Delta Clipper-Prototype.

  • Alternate designation for DC-X2 ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Delta D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2

Delta E.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Thor augmented with 3 x Castor 2 motors with Delta E and Altair 2 upper stage.

Delta E1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta E + 1 x FW4D

Delta G.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta E

Delta III.

  • Alternate designation for Delta 3 orbital launch vehicle.

Delta IV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta IV was the world's first all-Lox/LH2 launch vehicle and represented the only all-new-technology launch vehicle developed in the United States since the 1970's. It was the winner of the bulk of the USAF EELV orders and was based on the all-new RS-68-powered Lox/LH2 cryogenic Common Booster Core (CBC). This could be used with new Delta cryogenic upper stages powered by the RL10 engine but unrelated to previous Centaur upper stages. It could be flown without augmentation, or use 2-4 large GEM-60 solid rocket boosters. The heavy lift version used two core vehicles as a first stage, flanking the single core vehicle second stage.

Delta IV Heavy.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy lift all-cryogenic launch vehicle using two Delta-4 core vehicles as first stage flanking a single core vehicle as second stage. A heavy upper stage is carried with a 5 m diameter payload fairing.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 30 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 35 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding RS-68B upgraded engines to the core vehicles and an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-45 or RL-45 20 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 40 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68 Regen upgraded engines with regeneratively-cooled nozzles to the core vehicles, and cryogenic propellant densification. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 42 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding new RS-800 engines to the core vehicles, an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines, and aluminium-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminium in all stages. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 43 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68 Regen upgraded engines with regeneratively-cooled nozzles to the core vehicles, cryogenic propellant densification, and an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 1 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engine. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 45 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 6 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68B upgraded engines to the core vehicles, and an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 1 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engine. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 48 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by adding 4 GEM-60 solid rocket boosters, RS-68 Regen upgraded engines with regeneratively-cooled nozzles to the core vehicles, cryogenic propellant densification, and cryogenic propellant cross-feed between the strap-ons and core. 6.5 m diameter payload fairing. Introduction would require modifications to existing launch pads.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 53 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering five common booster modules, using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines, and aluminium-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminium in all stages. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 67 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, and using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 2 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines. A payload fairing over 6.5 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 70 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 3 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines. A payload fairing over 6.5 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 76 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 3 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines, and aluminium-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminium in all stages. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 87 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using a new RS-800K engine in the booster stages, and an AUS-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 upper stage. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure.

Delta IV Heavy Upgrade 94 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade to Delta IV Heavy by clustering seven common booster modules, using a new RS-800K engine in the booster stages, an AUS-60 upper stage powered by 4 MB-60 or RL-60 27 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines, and aluminium-lithium lightweight alloy in place of the existing aluminium in all stages. Payload fairings over 6.5 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure.

Delta IV Medium.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Basic Delta-4 vehicle with no strap-ons, the core vehicle, and RL10B-1 upper stage with a 4 m diameter payload fairing. World's first all-cryogenic launch vehicle.

Delta IV Medium+ (4.2).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. As Delta 4 medium but with 2 x GEM-60 solid rocket boosters and a 4 m diameter payload fairing.

Delta IV Medium+ (5.2).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. As Delta 4 medium but with 2 x GEM-60 solid rocket boosters and a 5 m diameter payload fairing.

Delta IV Medium+ (5.4).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. As Delta 4 medium but with 4 x GEM-60 solid rocket boosters and a 5 m diameter payload fairing.

Delta IV Small.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Light launch vehicle using the Delta-4 core with the traditional Delta K and PAM-D upper stages. 2 m diameter payload fairing. Not flown as of 2008 but cancellation of the Delta II could lead to its eventual use.

Delta J.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta E + 1 x Star 37D

Delta L.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1B + 1 x Delta E + 1 x FW4D

Delta M.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Long Tank Thor augmented with 3 Castor 2 boosters and Delta E / Burner 2 (Star 37D) upper stages.

Delta M6.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x Delta E + 1 x Star 37D

Delta N.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Long Tank Thor augmented with 3 Castor 2 boosters and Delta E upper stage.

Delta N6.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x LT Thor DSV-2L-1C + 1 x Delta E

Desna.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure.

Desna-N.

  • Alternate Designation of Romashka intercontinental ballistic missile.

Desna-V.

  • Launch System of Desna intercontinental ballistic missile.

DF-1.

  • Chinese version of Soviet R-2.

DF-1 (before 1964).

  • Alternate designation for DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile.

DF-11.

  • Chinese single-stage solid-propellant short range ballistic missile. Export designation M-11, assembled as Ghaznavi in Pakistan.

DF-15.

  • Chinese mobile single-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile.

DF-2.

  • First Chinese IRBM, a single stage missile with the objective of carrying a 1500 kg warhead to Japan. The starting point for the design were R-12 construction drawings and a single exemplar of the missile provided by the Soviet Union prior to the break with Moscow in 1960. Following protracted development the design was accepted by the Chinese military for service in 1970.

DF-21.

  • Chinese two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile.

DF-2A.

  • Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Extended-range version of DF-2. The missile featured reduced thrust, but 20% more range, and used autonomous gyroscopic guidance in place of the DF-2's radio system.

DF-3.

  • Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. The DF-3 project began in 1964 with the objective of developing a nuclear-tipped missile capable of reaching the Philippines (earlier referred to as the DF-1).

DF-3 Tsien.

  • Development of the original DF-3 10,000 km missile was undertaken personally by Tsien Hue Shen, the father of Chinese rocketry, but faced insurmountable technical and management difficulties. It was cancelled and replaced by the DF-4.

DF-31.

  • Chinese intercontinental ballistic missile. Version of JL-2. Mobile, solid propellant, land-based, medium range, three-stage ballistic missile. Basis for the KT-1 light orbital launch vehicle.

DF-3A.

  • Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile.

DF-4.

  • Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the DF-4 began in 1964 with the objective of fielding a ballistic missile capable of hitting Guam. The technical solution was to add a second stage to the DF-3 IRBM.

DF-41.

  • New Chinese solid propellant, mobile ICBM. The DF-41 is expected to be a longer-range version of the DF-31. It is still in the development stage, with deployment not expected until after 2010.

DF-5.

  • Development of the the DF-5 began in 1964. The goal was an ICBM capable of reaching the United States. Although deployed in very limited numbers as an ICBM, this rocket became the basis for an entire family of space launch vehicles and the foundation of the Chinese space program.

DF-57.

  • Chinese intercontinental ballistic missile.

DF-5A.

  • Chinese intercontinental ballistic missile. Modernised DF-5 incorporating guidance and propulsion improvements developed for the CZ-series of launch vehicles.

Dhanush.

  • Indian short-range, sea-based, liquid-propellant ballistic missile thought to be a variant of the Prithvi.

Diamant.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. In December 1961 France decided to demonstrate an indigenous satellite-launch capability, using stages in development for its ballistic missile program. Following careful evolutionary development, Diamant was successful on its first attempt in 1965. Improved versions were flown over the next ten years.

Diamant A.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Diamant development could be done relatively quickly using stages and systems being developed for strategic missiles. In May 1962 CNES selected DMA as program manager, with SEREB as the prime contractor. The Diamant orbital launch vehicle was created by replacing the payload of the existing Saphir test vehicle with a new third stage. Prior to any all-up satellite launch attempt the P064 third stage was flight tested on the smaller suborbital Rubis test vehicle. This evolutionary approach paid off.

Diamant B.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As a follow-on to the Diamant-A, CNES decided to evolve a more capable launch vehicle. The Diamant-B used a new first stage with 50% more propellants and 33% more thrust; the same second stage; and a fatter third stage. Six Diamant-B boosters were ordered. Originally four of these were to be used to test the Europa 2 launch vehicle's Perigee-Apogee System. These tests were cancelled and instead CNES used five of the six boosters for orbital attempts.

Diamant BP.4.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. In January 1972 a further evolution, the Diamant BP.4, was authorized. The second stage was replaced with the P4 Rita motor developed for the MSBS SLBM. The larger 1.38 m diameter fairing developed for the British Black Arrow launcher allowed larger payloads to be accommodated. Three launches of the BP.4 in 1975 completed the Diamant saga.

Divine Arrow.

  • Alternate Designation of CZ-2F orbital launch vehicle.

Dnepr.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Dolina.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Alternate silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure.

Dolphin.

  • American sea-launched test vehicle. The Dolphin hybrid rocket (solid fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer) was built by Starstruck (formerly ARC Technology), a predecessor to AMROC. The Dolphin included not only innovative propulsion technology but was also launched from a floating launch cannister at sea. One test article of the hybrid was successfully launched in the summer of 1984. But the project was backed entirely with private funds and when backing for further development was not forthcoming, the project folded.

Dong Feng 5.

  • Alternate designation for DF-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Dong Feng-15.

  • Popular Name of DF-15 missile.

Dong Feng-21.

  • Popular Name of DF-21 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 1.

  • Popular Name of DF-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 2.

  • Popular Name of DF-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 2A.

  • Popular Name of DF-2A intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 3.

  • Popular Name of DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 31.

  • Popular Name of DF-31 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 3A.

  • Popular Name of DF-3A intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 4.

  • Popular Name of DF-4 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 57.

  • Popular Name of DF-57 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Dong-Feng 5A.

  • Popular Name of DF-5A intercontinental ballistic missile.

Doorknob.

  • American test vehicle. Test vehicle developed by Sandia for aeronomy measurements during atmospheric nuclear tests. One (Doorknob-1) or two surplus Lacrosse (Doorknob-2) missile motors were mated with the payload section.

Doorknob 1.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Doorknob 2.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Lacrosse + 1 x Lacrosse

DOT.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Star 26C

Double Cajun T40.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Cajun + 1 x T-40

Double Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicles consisting of 2 Deacon motors fired in parallel.

Double Deacon HPAG.

  • Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x HPAG + 1 x Deacon

Double FFAR.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Mk7 + 1 x Mk7

Douglas Astro.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The Douglas "Astro" was a VTHL TSTO system designed for launching space station crews and cargo by the 1968-70 period. A key requirement was that off-the-shelf technologies must be used, e.g. existing M-1, J-2 and RL-10 engines from the Saturn and Nova expendable launch vehicle programs.

Douglas Clipper.

  • Alternate designation for DC-Y ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Douglas HATV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Douglas HATV design of 1946 was laid out by the Douglas engineer William Ballhaus. He proved that there were no obstacles to a single-stage-to-orbit space launch vehicle, as long as pressurized 'metal balloon' tanks were used instead of using aircraft-structure design approaches.

DP.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-130 intercontinental boost-glide missile.

DP.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-123 intercontinental boost-glide missile.

Draco.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-20 Sergeant + 1 x TX-30

Dragon.

  • Alternate designation for Dragon 1 sounding rocket.

Dragon 1.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier upper stage was augmented by a Stromboli booster with 686 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilised by small solid rocket engines on the four fins.

Dragon 2B.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Stromboli + 1 x Belier II

Dragon 3.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Stromboli + 1 x Belier III

D-Region Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket.

DRM1.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Mars Design Reference Mission version 1.0 studied a number of heavy-lift boosters capable of lofting more than 200 tonnes into low earth orbit. The Red Team recommended configuration was an NLS / shuttle-derived vehicle with F-1A powered liquid rocket boosters.

DSL HTHL.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Horizontal Takeoff / Horizontal Landing Two Stage to Orbit proposal with Mach 3 stage separation. Later evolved into the FESTIP FSS-11,which was merged with FSS-12. Reusable and expendable upper stage options.

DSV-2A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Thor Agena D orbital launch vehicle.

DSV-2C.

DSV-2L.

Dubna.

  • Launch System of V-880M surface-to-air missile.

Dun-1.

  • Alternate Designation of DF-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dun-2.

  • Alternate Designation of DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dvina.

  • Launch System of R-12U intermediate range ballistic missile.

Dvina.

  • Launch System of S-75 and S-75M surface-to-air missiles.

EA 1941.

  • First French liquid fuel rocket. Developed in the 1931-1942, tested in 1945.

EA 1946.

  • Alternate Designation of Eole test vehicle.

Eagle SLV.

  • Alternate designation for Scorpius low cost orbital launch vehicle.

Eagle S-Series.

  • Alternate designation for Eaglet all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Eaglet.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. E'Prime Aerospace of Titusville, Florida, conceived of a family of launch vehicles, called the Eagle S-series, using rocket stages from the LGM-118A Peacekeeper ICBM. The smallest vehicle, the Eaglet, could launch 580 kilograms into LEO. A somewhat larger version, the Eagle, could put 1,360 kilograms into LEO. Both vehicles would use Peacekeeper solid propellant lower stages and liquid propellant upper stages.

EARL.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takoff / horizontal landing two-stage launch vehicle study from the 1980s.

EARL I.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. A larger Earl 14 configuration was studied, but the study centered on the Earl 5 / 18 / 7 configurations. The second stage was mounted on top of the booster. Earl 5 and 7 had winged second stages, with payloads to low earth orbit of 5380 kg to 7180 kg. Earl 14 featured an expendable upper stage which increased payload to 18,000 kg.

EARL II.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Later EARL version from 1990. Parallel staging, both stages winged and recoverable. Expendable upper stage for heavy-lift missions.

EBH LV.

  • German orbital launch vehicle. The EBH (Engel - Bödewaldt - Hanischlaunch) vehicle was a 1949 manned design which would had a gross launch mass of 220 tonnes and delivered a payload of 3 tonnes to a 557-kilometre orbit

EC47.

EDIN05.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. In February 1976 this version of the shuttle was proposed. A single liquid rocket booster under the external tank would replace the two solid rocket boosters.

EER Aries.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Aries launched to promote a commercial launch vehicle of entirely different configuration.

EKR.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. B Chertok of NII-8 took the preliminary German R-13 cruise missile design and elaborated it, including consideration of the key problem of long-range automatic astronavigation. By 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental design, the EKR. I Lisovich had developed a prototype astronavigation system that met the necessary specifications, and solution of basic problems in use of steel and titanium hot airframe technology had been solved at VIAM (All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials) and MVTU Bauman Institute. An expert commission in 1953 examined the EKR design and felt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev.

Elbrus.

  • Launch System of R-17 short-range ballistic missile.

ELDO A.

  • Alternate designation for Europa orbital launch vehicle.

ELDO A.

  • European orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version of the Europa vehicle.

Emeraude VE121.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Emeraude was a step toward larger liquid propellant launch vehicles, building on the Veronique and Vesta experience. It burned 12.8 tonnes nitric acid/turpentine pressure-fed propellants in 91 seconds. Tthe engine was gimbaled for pitch and yaw control, with aerodynamic fins controlling roll. In anticipation of the next step, Saphir, a dummy Topaze stage topped the vehicle to confirm aerodynamic characteristics. The first three launches were failures due to propellant sloshing. This was remedied in the later tests.

Emma.

  • French test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Emma Booster + 1 x Emma

Energia.

  • The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993.

Energia M.

  • Launch vehicle originally designed in the 1980's to fullfill the third generation 20-30 tonnes to orbit launcher requirement. It was an adaptation of the Energia launch vehicle, using two strap-on booster units instead of four, and a reduced-diameter core using a single RD-0120 engine instead of four. In the 1990's a structural test article was built and it was proposed that several Energia-M's be launched for commercial customers using surplus Energia components. No buyers came forward for the untested design.

Energia/Buran.

  • Design version of Energia, with the reusable Buran manned spaceplane mounted to the side of the core.

Energiya/Buran.

  • Alternate designation for Energia-Buran winged orbital launch vehicle.

Enzian.

  • German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II but abandoned in 1945 in favour of Wasserfall.

Eole.

  • French test vehicle. Second missile developed by Jean-Jacques Barre and end of that lineage.

Epona.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Belisama + 1 x Belisama

EPOS.

  • Alternate designation for Spiral 50-50 winged orbital launch vehicle.

Eridan.

  • French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of two Stromboli motors in tandem.

ERINT.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Extended-Range Interceptor, Patriot improvements, SDIO/BMDO project

ERIS.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Flight test vehicle for Exoatmospheric Re-Entry Interceptor Subsystem, an anti-ballistic missile hit-to-kill interceptor warhead. The ERIS vehicle itself consisted of surplus Minuteman ICBM second and third stages.

ETV.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x LE-3

Europa.

  • European orbital launch vehicle. Europe's first space launcher. The first stage was a British Blue Streak IRBM, the second stage the French Coralie, and the third stage the German Astris. All orbital launch attempts failed due to unreliability of the third stage. The project was cancelled after withdrawal of British support and replaced by the Ariane.

Europa II.

  • European orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version of the Europa vehicle, adding a P068 fourth stage.

European eXperimental Test Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for EXTV winged orbital launch vehicle.

Excalibur.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Excalibur was a subscale version of Sea Dragon proposed by Truax Engineering in the 1990's. It featured the same attributes as Sea Dragon: low cost design (pressure fed engines), Lox/Kerosene first stage (combustion chamber pressure 24 atmospheres) and Lox/LH2 second stage (chamber pressure 5 atmospheres). Guidance would be by a combined Inertial/GPS system. An even smaller Excalibur S vehicle would prove the concept and place 500 kg in orbit.

Excalibur Model S.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Two recoverable pressure-fed stages.

Excalibur Target System.

  • The Canadian-made Excalibur Target System was a boosted dart ballistic rocket whose flight could be tailored to simulate various threats for anti-tactical ballistic missile (TBM) system tests. The solid-propellant launched the dart segment to the necessary angle and velocity for the mission. The dart then separated from the booster. It carried a sophisticated electronic RFSAS Radio Frequency Signature Augmentation System, which electronically enlarged the target's radar cross-section to mimic the larger missile appropriate to the mission.

Exos.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit

Exploration HLLV.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Numerous NASA studies in the late 1980's and 1990's came to the same conclusion as the Nova studies of the 1960's - to get to Mars, an extremely heavy lift launch vehicle was needed to assemble Mars expeditions in low earth orbit. A nominal heavy list vehicle with a payload of at least 140 tonnes into a Space Station Freedom orbit would have to be developed for such missions.

EXTV.

  • French winged orbital launch vehicle. This was to be a reusable winged rocket-powered atmospheric reentry demonstrator capable of reaching speeds of Mach 4 to 10 in the atmosphere. The aim was for ESA to build up experience in reuse operations and high-speed atmospheric flight in the 2003-2007 period. The demonstrator would weigh two tonnes and have a range of 1500 kilometers. It would be able to land on a conventional runway. Dassault and Aerospatiale Matra were to merge their VEHRA and ARES projects to produce a single design. Ares estimated cost was 550 million dollars.

F-1.

F-1r.

  • Library of Congress Designation of R-36-O orbital missile.

F-2.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Tsiklon-3 orbital launch vehicle.

F-3.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Tsiklon-4 orbital launch vehicle.

F6F-5K.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

Fahd.

  • Iraqi short range ballistic missile.

Falcon 1.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Falcon I was a two stage, reusable, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. A single engine powered the first stage. It was designed for cost-efficient and reliable transport of satellites to low Earth orbit. First launch of the Falcon I was scheduled for mid-2004 from Vandenberg, carrying a US Defense Department communications satellite. Development delays and problems with USAF clearances for launch from Vandenberg resulted in the first launch attempt being made in 2006 from a private facility at Omelek near Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. Success was achieved on the fourth launch in 2008. The Falcon 1 was to be superseded by the Falcon 1e, with an extended-tank first stage, from 2010.

Falcon 1e.

  • Version of Falcon 1 with stretched first stage and much more powerful Merlin engine.

Falcon 5.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Falcon V was a two stage, reusable, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The maiden flight was targeted for mid-2005 as of early 2004. It used of the same engines, structural materials and concepts, and avionics and launch system as the Falcon I, differing in having five first-stage engines instead of 1 and a larger diameter. This meant that all the critical components would have a flight proven history even before first launch. By 2006 it had been superseded by the slightly larger Falcon 9.

Falcon 9.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. In September 2006 SpaceX was named as one of two winners of the NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services competition. The SpaceX award was $278 million for three flight demonstrations of the Falcon 9 booster carrying the Dragon space capsule. On 23 December 2008 NASA announced that the Falcon 9 / Dragon had been selected for launch of a guaranteed minimum of 20,000 kg of payload to the International Space Station in 2010-2014. The firm contract was worth $1.6 billion, with another $1.5 billion of options.

Falcon 9 Heavy.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The Falcon 9 Heavy would consist of a standard Falcon 9 with two additional Falcon 9 first stages as liquid strap-on boosters.

FalconLaunch.

  • FalconLaunch

Falstaff.

  • British sounding rocket. Single stage hypersonic test vehicle using the Stonechat II solid rocket motor.

Farside.

  • American sounding rocket. Project Farside was an attempt to reach extreme altitudes with the rockoon concept. Using a four-stage solid-propellant rocket hung below a 106 188-m3 (3 750 000-ft3) balloon, altitudes approaching 6437 km (4000 mi) were reached during the fall of 1957. Farside was a four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 4 x Arrow II + 1 x Arrow II.

Favorit.

  • Popular Name of S-300PMU-2 surface-to-air missile.

FB-1.

  • Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The FB-1, like the CZ-2 launch vehicle begun the following year, was a two-stage booster developed from the DF-5 intercontinental ballistic missile. Payload for the booster was the JSSW, believed to have been a television-transmission military reconnaissance satellite. The incredible decision to develop two nearly identical rockets concurrently can be blamed on the turbulent factional politics after the Cultural Revolution.

Feng Bao 1.

  • Alternate designation for FB-1 orbital launch vehicle.

Feng-Bao-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for FB-1 orbital launch vehicle.

FFAR.

  • American air-to-air rocket. Folding-Fin Air Rocket, boosted by 1 x Mk7. Unguided fighter weapon, later used as sounding rocket.

Filin.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

Flamenco.

  • Popular Name of INTA-300 sounding rocket.

FLTP.

  • European winged orbital launch vehicle. Europe's Future Launcher Technology Program (FLTP) was an ESA study program that ran from 1999-2002, with the objective of identifying and developing technologies necessary for the successor to the Ariane 5. The planned configuration was a two-stage fully recoverable winged launch vehicle. The winged booster would deliver the orbiter to a given altitude, then booster fly back to its launch base at Kourou. The second stage orbiter continued to orbit, delivered its payload and then returned to Kourou. The program faded out following collapse of the commercial launch market, development problems with the Ariane 5, and cancellation of NASA reusable launch vehicle projects.

FOBS; Fractional Orbital Bombing System.

  • Alternate designation for R-36-O orbital missile.

Forschungsflugkorper.

  • German sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Fort.

  • Popular Name of S-300F surface-to-air missile.

Fort-M.

  • Popular Name of S-300FM surface-to-air missile.

Frog 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Filin tactical ballistic rocket.

Frog 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Mars tactical ballistic rocket.

Frog 3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 3R10 tactical ballistic rocket.

Frog 4.

  • Department of Defence designation of 3R9 missile.

Frog 5.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Evidently redundant DOD designation.

Frog 6.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Designation issued by US DOD, but cannot be linked to any known missile post-cold war.

Frog 7.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-65 tactical ballistic rocket.

Frog 7A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-70 tactical ballistic rocket.

Frog 7B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-75 tactical ballistic rocket.

Frog 8.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket. US designation; does not appear to have existed.

Frog 9.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket. US designation; does not appear to have existed.

Fulmar.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Heron (107 kN) + 1 x Snipe (16.7 kN).

Future Launcher Technology Program.

  • Alternate designation for FLTP winged orbital launch vehicle.

G-1.

  • Library of Congress Designation of N1 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

G-1.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The G-1, an improved 600 km range version of the V-2 missile, was the first design produced by Groettrup's German engineering team after they had been moved to Russia. A Soviet state commission found in 1948 that it was superior to Korolev's R-2 concept. Nevertheless the R-2 was put in production instead.

G-2.

  • The G-2 design objective was to create the first IRBM - to deliver a 1000 kg payload over a 2500 km range. The missile would use three V-2 derived engines with a total thrust of 100 tonnes. A variety of alternate configurations (R-12A through R-12K) were considered by the German team in Russia. These included parallel and consecutive staging, gimballed motors, and other innovations. The R-12K was particularly interesting because it represented a concept later used on the US Atlas missile - jettisoning of the two outboard engines at altitude to significantly improve range. The G-2 was given the secret designation R-6 and overt designation R-12 by the Russians.

G-3.

  • German aerodynamicist Albring designed the G-3 missile for the Russians in October 1949. This would use a rocket-powered Groettrup-designed G-1 as the first stage. The cruise stage would have an aerodynamic layout like that of the Saenger-Bredt rocket-powered antipodal bomber of World War II. Cruising at 13 km altitude, the supersonic missile would carry a 3000 kg warhead to a range of 2900 km.

G-4.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The G-4 was designed by the Groettrup German team in the Soviet Union in competition with Korolev's R-3. Rocket chief Ustinov informed Groettrup of the requirement on 9 April 1949: to deliver a 3000 kg atomic bomb to a 3000 km. This requirement meant a massive improvement over existing V-2 technology. The G-4 was evaluated against Korolev's R-3 on 7 December 1949 - and the G-4 was found to be superior. Neither ended up in production, but the design concepts of the G-4 led directly to Korolev's R-7 ICBM (essentially a cluster of G-4's or R-3A's) and the N1 superbooster. Work on the G-4 continued through 1952.

G-5.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Some sources indicate the G-5 / R-15 designation was assigned to an ICBM designed by the Groettrup team. If so, it may have been the 'packet of G-4's' that was the direct ancestor of the Korolev R-7. The designation G-5 / R-15 has also been reported as that of the ramjet missile more often referred to as G-3 or R-13.

Gainful.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of Kub surface-to-air missile.

Galosh Mod.1.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of A-350Zh anti-ballistic missile.

Galosh Mod.2.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of A-350R missile.

GAM-63.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Rascal air-to-surface missile.

GAM-67.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Crossbow air-to-surface missile.

GAM-77.

  • Alternate Designation of AGM-28A intermediate range cruise missile.

GAM-77A.

  • Alternate Designation of AGM-28B intermediate range cruise missile.

GAM-87.

  • Alternate Designation of Skybolt air-to-surface missile.

Gamma Centauro.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Argentine two-stage solid-propellant fin-stabilized rocket flown in the early 1960's for technology development and scientific research.

Gammon.

Ganef.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of Krug surface-to-air missile.

Gazelle.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 53T6 anti-ballistic missile.

Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle.

  • Full name of GSLV orbital launch vehicle.

Gerkules.

  • Alternate designation of UR-500 missile.

Ghauri.

  • Pakistani intermediate range ballistic missile. Derivative of North Korean Nodong. First fired April, 1998. Payload is about 700 kg. Managed by A Q Khan Research Laboratories.

Ghaznavi.

  • Pakistani single-stage solid-propellant tactical ballistic missile, a license-built version of the Chinese DF-11. Flown in October 2003, believed to have entered service in 2004.

Giant.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 9M82 and 9M82M surface-to-air missiles.

GIRD-09.

  • Russian sounding rocket. The first rocket successfully launched by the Soviet GIRD organisation was a hybrid, using a liquid oxygen to burn gelled petroleum in large casing. Development of the rocket was begun by GIRD's second brigade under M K Tikhonravov.

GIRD-10.

  • Russian sounding rocket. The first liquid propellant rocket launched in the Soviet Union, the GIRD-10 used liquid oxygen and alcohol propellants, pressure-fed to the combustion chamber by nitrogen gas.

Gladiator.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 9M83 and 9M83M surface-to-air missiles.

GLO-1B.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. When compared to the early Martlet 4 designs the GLO-1B was a considerably more sophisticated vehicle with many of the shortcomings of it's predecessor having been addressed. Not long after the original HARP project ended the major assets of the project were acquired by the projects management, Dr. Gerald Bull in particular. The HARP Program became the Space Research Corporation (SRC) with the intention of resurrecting the HARP orbital program. Over the years a much improved and considerably more sophisticated Martlet 4 was developed and given the name of GLO-1B.

GMD boost vehicle.

  • Library of Congress Designation of OBV anti-ballistic missile.

GMD/BV-Plus.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Three-stage booster for use with the Missile Defense Agency's Ground-based Midcourse Defense System. Built by Lockheed Martin Corp., the booster was one of two slated for use with the GMD system. The system was designed to intercept and destroy long-range ballistic missiles.

Gnom.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Gnom was a unique design which represented the most advanced work ever undertaken on an air-augmented missile capable of intercontinental ranges or orbital flight. Although cancelled in 1965 before flight tests could begin, Gnom was the closest the world aerospace engineering community ever came to fielding an orbital-capable launcher of less than half of the mass of conventional designs.

Goddard.

  • Robert H. Goddard was the father of American rocketry. In a series of rockets flown between World War I and World War II, he solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets.

Goddard 1.

  • American test vehicle. Rocket used by Goddard to achieve the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket.

Goddard 2.

  • American test vehicle. After several tests indicating the model was too small to permit refinements, Goddard decided to build a rocket twenty-fold larger. During 1926 a new tower was built, and flow regulators, multiple liquid injection into large combustion chambers, means for measurement of pressure and lifting force, electrically fired igniter, and turntable for rotation were developed.

Goddard 3.

  • American test vehicle. First instrumented liquid fuel rocket. Length 11 ft 6 in.; maximum diameter 26 in.; weight 32 lb; gasoline 14 lb; liquid oxygen 11 lb; total loaded weight 57 lb.

Goddard 4.

  • American test vehicle. Goddard rocket using pressure-fed Lox/Gasoline propellants, streamline casing, and remote control guidance. Masses varied; typical values indicated.

Goddard A.

  • American test vehicle. The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 4.11 m to 4.65 m.; their weight empty varied from 26 kg to 39 kg.

Goddard K.

  • American test vehicle. This consisted of ten proving-stand tests for the development of a more powerful motor, 10 in. in diameter. Weight of rocket, about 225 lb; weight of fuels, 50-70 lb for the series.

Goddard L-A.

  • American test vehicle. Tests of the Goddard L Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb.

Goddard L-B.

  • American test vehicle. The L-B series were check tests of 5.75-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15). Final results of Section B of L Series showed two proving-stand tests, and six flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 22 days.

Goddard L-C.

  • American test vehicle. Series L Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 109 lb; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec.

Goddard P-C.

  • American test vehicle. Section C tests would run through October 10, 1941 and represent the final Goddard rocket flight tests. The series of twenty-four static and flight tests (P13-P36) was made with rockets of large fuel capacity, with the rocket motor, pumps, and turbines previously developed. These rockets averaged nearly 22 ft in length, and were 18 in, in diameter. They weighed empty from 190 to 240 lb. The liquid-oxygen load averaged about 140 lb, the gasoline 112 lb, making "quarter-ton" loaded rockets.

GoFast.

  • First American civilian sounding rocket to reach outer space.

Gommersall.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Edward Gomersall of NASA's Ames Research Center produced a conservative design for an SSTO in 1970. His vehicle was based on realistic structural technology and used a derivative of the J-2S engine.

Gorgon.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 51T6 anti-ballistic missile.

GR-1.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defences, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O.

Gradicom 2.

Grannos.

  • French test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Emilie + 1 x Melusine

Green Bee.

  • Alternate Designation of Ching Feng short range ballistic missile.

Griffon.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of Dal surface-to-air missile.

Grom.

  • Complex of P-750 intermediate range cruise missile.

Grom.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x R-39 St 1 + 1 x R-39 St 2 + 1 x R-39 St 3

Groza.

  • Variant of the Energia launch vehicle with two strap-on boosters instead of four. This would have fullfilled the 50 tonne payload requirement had the third generation booster plan been fully implemented.

Grumble.

Gryphon.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Winged, horizontal-takeoff/horizontal concept space booster concept using an Air Collection and Enrichment System to generate liquid oxygen oxidiser from the atmosphere after takeoff. An upper rocket stage would deliver a crewed orbiter or payload to orbit.

GSLV.

  • Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a Lox/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology.

GTD-21B.

  • Popular Name of D-21 air-launched drone.

Guideline.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of V-753 surface-to-air missile.

Guideline Mod 0,1.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of S-75 surface-to-air missile.

Guideline Mod 2, 3,4,5.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of S-75M surface-to-air missile.

Guild.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of S-25 missile.

Gun Projectile 5-inch.

  • Gun Projectile 5-inch

Gun Projectile 7-inch.

  • Gun Projectile 7-inch

H-1.

  • Japanese license-built version of Delta launch vehicle, with Japanese-developed upper stages.

H-1 (2).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor N + 1 x LE-5

H-1 6R.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 6 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor N + 1 x LE-5 + 1 x UM129A

H-2.

  • Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A.

H-2 HIMES.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. Concept of H-2 augmented with Liquid-Air Cycle Engine boosters and advanced HIMES upper stage.

H-2 HTOHL.

  • The H-2 horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Institute 601 of the Air Ministry in 1988. The first stage would used air breathing engines to accelerate the rocket-powered second stage to release velocity. This ambitious design would leapfrog China ahead of other spacefaring nations, but would be available no earlier than 2015. It was decided the concept was beyond Chinese technical capability, and it was not pursued further.

H-2A.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. Low-cost version of H-2 developed for the commercial market. The two SRB-A solid rocket boosters can be supplemented by 4 smaller SSB solid boosters. 0 or 2 SSB's can be fitted for reduced 9,940 kg or 10,740 kg LEO payloads.

H-2A 212.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. This version uses two core stages side-by-side in an asymmetric configuration, supplemented by two SRB-A solid rocket boosters.

HAD.

  • Australian test vehicle. The HAD vehicle was, like HAT, a two stage rocket, based on British Gosling and LAPStar motors. First launched in 1961, it had two test flights before becoming operational.

Hades.

  • French short range ballistic missile. Single stage vehicle

HAEC.

  • HAEC

HAT.

  • Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x HAT + 1 x LAPSTAR

Hatf 1.

  • Pakistani single-stage solid propellant tactical ballistic missile Developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) based on French Stromboli engine technology. The unguided IA version went into service in 1992; the improved, inertiallty guided IB version in 2001.

Hatf 2.

  • Alternate designation for Abdali missile.

Hatf 3.

  • Alternate designation for Ghaznavi tactical ballistic missile.

Hatf 4.

  • Alternate designation for Shaheen 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Hatf 5.

  • Alternate designation for Shaheen 2 and Ghauri intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Hatf 6.

  • Alternate designation for Shaheen 3 intermediate range ballistic missile.

HATV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Significant Navy program begun in 1946 to develop a single-stage-to-orbit satellite launch vehicle. The Air Force blocked Navy efforts to develop it on a joint basis, while at the same time having no interest in the project itself. Work was abandoned at the end of 1948.

Hawk.

  • Popular Name of MIM-23A surface-to-air missile.

Hawk.

  • American surface-to-air missile. The Hawk was the first mobile medium-range guided anti-aircraft missile deployed by the U.S. Army, and was the oldest SAM system still in use by U.S. armed forces in the late 1990s.

Hawk Rockoon.

  • American sounding rocket. Balloon-launched Loki with larger fins for stability at high altitudes. The larger Loki II motor was used from 5 August 1957 as part of the IGY. This variant could reach 122 km and was called the 'Hawk Rockoon'.

HDP.

  • Manufacturer's designation for V-3 gun-launched missile.

He-112.

  • The Heinkel He-112 was an unsuccessful pre-war German monoplane fighter, competing for orders with the Bf 109. However it entered rocketry history when tests were conducted with rocket engines.

Heavy Lift Carrier 2008.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. ATK Thiokol concept corresponding to earlier Shuttle-C proposals. The shuttle orbiter is replaced by a 6.5 m diameter x 25 m long cargo container, powered by two Space Shuttle main engines. Availability would be three to four years after go-ahead.

Heavy Lift Carrier 2011.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. ATK Thiokol concept for a shuttle-derived heavy lift vehicle. The shuttle orbiter would be replaced by a 6.5 m diameter x 35 m long cargo container, powered by three Space Shuttle main engines. The shuttle RSRM motors would have a fifth segment added, and the External Tank would be stretched to 56 m long. Availability would be six years after go-ahead.

Heavy Lift Carrier 2015.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. ATK Thiokol concept for a shuttle-derived heavy lift vehicle with a lift equivalent to the Saturn V. The radical reconfiguration would put all elements in-line. Four SSME engines would be at the base of a stretched external tank, flanked by two shuttle RSRM motors with a fifth segment added. Atop this would be an 8.7 m diameter Lox/LH2 stage, followed by a 10-m diameter payload fairing. Availability would be ten years after go-ahead.

Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle.

HEDI.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x X-265 + 1 x X-271

Helios.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Study by Kraft Ehricke of a vehicle where the booster stage contains liquid oxygen tanks only and takes the nuclear second stage to the stratosphere. The nuclear sustainer then takes the payload to orbit or escape trajectory.

Helios A.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle.

Helios B.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle.

Helios C.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle.

Hera.

  • American target missile. Two stage vehicle used as a target for test of anti-ballistic missile systems. The vehicle consisted of surplus Minuteman 2 second and third stages (SR19AJ1 + M57A1).

Herakles.

  • Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle design by NPO Molniya / TsAGI that would utilize air launch from a giant cargo aircraft capable of lifting 900 tonne payloads. The single stage to orbit spaceplane would be released at subsonic velocity.

Hermes.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. Hermes was a major US Army project to implement German rocket technology after World War II. Development started in 1944 with award to General Electric as the prime contractor. The program was cancelled in 1954 after $ 96.4 million had been spent. Most of this was for nought since the Air Force received the long-range missile assignment in the end.

    The designs ran the gamut from short range solid propellant rockets through Mach 3 ramjets to intercontinental boost-glide vehicles. General Electric was also responsible for firing captured German V-2 rockets, training Army personnel in their use, and the Bumper project which created a two-stage vehicle using a V-2 and a WAC-Corporal. See individual entries for the Hermes A-1, Hermes A-3, Hermes B-1, and Hermes C.

Hermes A-1.

  • The Army Hermes A-1 single stage test rocket was an American version of the German Wasserfall anti-aircraft rocket.

Hermes A-2.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. The Army Hermes A-2 single stage test rocket proved the technology of large solid rocket motors as developed by H L Thackwell at Thiokol. But the Army preferred to have further development done in-house and JPL was selected to develop the Sergeant rocket. In addition to the flight tests, a total of 22 motors were static fired, including one after seven years of storage.

Hermes A-3.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. Prototype of a single-stage liquid propellant tactical Army missile. Two versions test flown but abandoned in favour of the Redstone in-house design.

Hermes A-3A.

  • American tactical ballistic missile.

Hermes A-3B.

  • American tactical ballistic missile.

Hermes B-1.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. Test vehicle for Hermes II Mach 3 ramjet cruise missile. The modified V-2 merely acted as a booster for the 'Ram' second stage.

Hermes C.

  • Alternate designation for Redstone short range ballistic missile.

Hermes C-1.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. The Hermes C1 was a clustered-engine intercontinental ballistic missile proposed by General Electric in June 1946. It was eventually down-scoped to a single-engine tactical missile, which flew as the Redstone in 1953.

Hermes II.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Hermes B-1 tactical ballistic missile.

HGM-16F.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version. Also CGM-16F

HIBEX.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Hibex was a 5.2 m long test vehicle used by the Army in a series of research experiments investigating high performance missile boosters. During mid-1960's experimental flights at White Sands, Hibex was fired successfully from underground cells and above-ground launch sites.

High Virgo.

  • American air-launched test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x B-58 Hustler + 1 x TX-20 Sergeant

H-II.

  • Alternate designation for H-2 orbital launch vehicle.

H-II.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB boosters + core vehicle.

H-II (2S).

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 2 x H-II SSB boosters + 2 x H-II SRB boosters + core vehicle.

H-IIA 202.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version of H-IIA consisting of 2 x H-II SRB-A + two-stage core vehicle.

H-IIA 2022.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle.

H-IIA 2024.

  • Alternate designation for H-2A orbital launch vehicle.

H-IIA 2024.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Castor 4XL + 2 x H-II SRB-A boosters + two-stage core vehicle.

H-IIA 204.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle.

H-IIA 212.

  • Alternate designation for H-2A 212 orbital launch vehicle.

H-IIB.

  • Japanese orbital launch vehicle, utilizing H-IIA engines, but with larger-diameter all-new stages. Designed to place Japanese ISS HTV logistics vehicle into orbit.

HIMES Rockoon.

  • American sounding rocket.

Hiroc.

  • American test vehicle, built and flown by Convair in 1945-1947 to test technologies applied to the later Atlas ICBM.

HJ.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket.

HJ Hydac.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Hydac

HJ Javelin.

  • American sounding rocket. NASA/Canadian four-stage sounding rocket could reach altitudes of 850 km.

HJ Nike.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike

HJ Nike Gosling.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Gosling

HJ Nike Hydac.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Hydac

HJ Nike Javelin.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Javelin 3

HJ Nike Nike.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike

HJ Nike Nike 20-inch SM.

  • Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Cygnus 20

HJ Nike Nike Recruit.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit

HJ Nike Nike Recruit T55.

  • American test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit + 1 x T-55

HJ Nike T40.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40

HJ Nike T40 T55.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55

HJ Nike Tri-Deacon T40.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 3 x Deacon + 1 x T-40

HJ Orion.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Orion

HJ PRV.

  • American sounding rocket.

HJ Taurus.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket.

HM-16.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

HOE.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle used to test the Homing Overlay Experiment anti-ballistic missile kill vehicle.

Holy Moses.

  • Popular Name of HVAR air-to-air rocket.

Honest John.

  • Popular Name of MGR-1A and MGR-1B tactical ballistic rockets.

Honest John.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. Unguided single-stage solid-propellant US Army missile developed by Douglas Aircraft. It was later used as the booster stage for a range of sounding rockets, test vehicles, and targets.

Hopi.

  • American sounding rocket. The Hopi-Dart vehicle consisted of a Hopi III booster as first stage, and an unpowered dart as second stage. A boosted version of the configuration used a Kiva motor as the first stage.

Hopi Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting of a Hopi III and an unpowered dart.

HOTOL.

  • This single-stage-to-orbit winged horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing launch vehicle concept was powered by the unique Rolls-Royce RB545 air / liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen rocket engine. HOTOL development was conducted from 1982 to 1986 before the British government withdrew funding. It was superseded by the Interim HOTOL design which sought to reduce development cost through use of existing Lox/LH2 engines.

Hound Dog.

  • Popular Name of AGM-28A and AGM-28B intermediate range air-launched cruise missiles.

Hound Dog.

  • First American air-launched cruise missile to become operational. Based on Navaho technology.

HP2.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. Two-stage solid propellant sounding rocket. Evidently used two of the first stage motors developed for the T-7A in tandem. Replaced the T-7 from 1970 on. Used for routine measurement of the upper atmosphere.

HP6.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. Lightweight single stage solid propellant sounding rocket. Used for routine measurement of the upper atmosphere.

HPAG.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

HPAG Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicles consisting of HPAG boosters + 1 x Deacon

HPB.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x M56A1

Hs-117.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Schmetterling surface-to-air missile.

HSM-80A.

  • Alternate Designation of Minuteman 1B intercontinental ballistic missile.

HSM-80B.

  • Alternate Designation of Minuteman 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

HTV.

  • HTV

Hugo III.

  • Hugo III

HVAR.

  • American air-to-air rocket. High-Velocity Air Rocket. An unguided fighter weapon, it was later adapted for use by NACA in the early 1950's to boost subscale aerodynamic models to supersonic speed.

HVAR FFAR.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x HVAR + 1 x Mk7

HW-1.

  • Johannes Winkler was a founding member and president of the VfR. On 14 March 1931, his HW-1 lifted off from a field outside of Dessau, Germany, becoming the first liquid fuel rocket in Europe to be successfully launched.

HW-2.

  • German sounding rocket. Johannes Winkler followed up his experimental HW-1 by the much larger and ambitious HW-2, which had an aerodynamic teardrop-shaped outer shell and a very respectful fuel mass fraction of 72% using an aluminium-magnesium structure.

Hwasong 5.

  • North Korean mobile liquid propellant single stage tactical ballistic missile. Reverse-engineered from Russian R-17's provided by Egypt around 1980. Often referred to as 'Scud-B'. 340 km range compared to 300 km for the original R-17 design.

Hwasong 6.

  • North Korean mobile liquid propellant single stage tactical ballistic missile. Derived from Russian R-17, often referred to as 'Scud-C'. The Hwasong had a 500 km range, achieved by halving the payload.

Hwasong 7.

  • North Korean mobile liquid propellant single stage tactical ballistic missile. Derived from Russian R-17, often referred to as 'Scud-D'. The Hwasong had a 700 km range with a 500 kg payload and went into service in 1994.

Hybrid Test Rocket.

  • American sounding rocket.

Hydra Sandhawk.

  • American sounding rocket.

Hydra-Iris.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage underwater-launched vehicle consisting of 3 x Sparrow motors in the booster stage and an Iris upper stage.

Hyper X.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x NB-52 + 1 x Orion 50S

Hyperion.

  • American sounding rocket. Series of single-stage sounding rockets using eAc hybrid propulsion.

Hyperion 1958.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Hyperion was considered in 1958 as a ca. 1970 Saturn follow-on. It used a small jettisonable chemical booster stage that contained chemical engines and the LOX oxidizer for the conventional engines.

Hyperion SSTO.

  • American sled-launched SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Yet another of Philip Bono's single-stage-to-orbit designs of the 1960's, using a plug-nozzle engine for ascent and as a re-entry heat shield. Hyperion would have taken 18,100 kg of payload or 110 passengers to orbit or on 45 minute flights to any point on earth. Hyperion used a sled for launch, which would have seriously hurt its utility. The sled gave a 300 m/s boost to the vehicle before it ascended to orbit. The sled would have 3 km of straight course, followed by 1 km up a mountainside, with a 3 G acceleration.

HYSR.

  • American sounding rocket. Hybrid single stage rocket intended to replace multiple-stage sounding rockets.

HySTP.

  • Alternate Designation of X-30 ssto winged orbital launch vehicle.

Hytex.

  • Following the cancellation of Saenger II, Germany briefly considered a manned X-15/NASP type flight test vehicle (HYTEX) capable of Mach 6 flight. This too was cancelled for cost reasons.

IATV.

  • Indian Advanced Technology Vehicle consisting of a solid propellant booster first stage and a scramjet second stage. The booster burned for 120 seconds to take the scramjet to an altitude of 46km and a speed of Mach 6, at which point the scramjet would ignite.

Icarus.

  • American sounding rocket.

I-Hawk.

  • Popular Name of MIM-23B surface-to-air missile.

IHLLV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Same concept as Shuttle C. Shuttle orbiter replaced by recoverable pod with shuttle main engines and payload cannister. Quick way for US to obtain heavy payload capability and reduce shuttle cost per kg to orbit by 3 X.

IIAE Orion.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket.

Ikar.

  • Popular Name of Dnepr intercontinental ballistic missile.

Ikar.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Ikar was Yuzhnoye's design for a heavy ICBM, a next-generation replacement for the R-36M2. Design was begun at the beginning of the 1990's under Stanislav Us. It may have used all-solid propellants, and nested rocket stages. Work was quickly dropped after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

IM-70.

  • Alternate designation for Talos missile.

IM-99A.

  • Alternate Designation of CIM-10A surface-to-air missile.

IM-99B.

  • Alternate Designation of CIM-10B surface-to-air missile.

Improved Orion.

  • American sounding rocket. Unguided solid propellant single stage rocket using a military surplus M112 Hawk rocket motor. The motor was a dual thrust burner with a boost phase of 5 seconds and a sustainer phase of approximately 21 seconds. The rocket accelerated the payload then for 26 seconds with peak acceleration during the boost phase of 21g. A payload mass of 100 kg could be carried to an apogee of approximately 110 km.

Industrial Launch Vehicle.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Low-cost hybrid launch vehicle proposed by AMROC in the 1980's.

Industrial Sounding System.

  • Canadian gun-launched sounding rocket. Columbiad Launch Services announced itself publicly in August 2003. They were then developing a high-volume Industrial Sounding System based on gun propulsion technology, which was scheduled to be fully operational by late 2004. This would also serve as a prototype for a follow-on orbital gun-based launch system.

Initial UR-500.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. While Chelomei's OKB was still preparing the UR-200 draft project, it was proposed to use this as the basis for the UR-500 heavy universal rocket, with five times the payload capacity. These initial 1961 studies consisted of 4 two-stage UR-200 rockets lashed together, the first and second stages working in parallel in clusters. A third stage would be modified from the UR-200 second stage. However analysis indicated that the payload capacity could not meet the military's requirements.

INTA.

  • The Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial was tasked in 1967 to develop Spain's first sounding rocket. INTA contracted with British Aerojet to provide the necessary technical expertise and designed a rocket built from existing British solid motors. This was followed by versions using Spanish-manufactured versions of British motors. The stop-and-go program extended over nearly 30 years.

INTA-255.

  • Spanish sounding rocket. Vehicle consisting of 4 x Chick + 1 x Goose. All motors ignited simultaneously at lift-off, the Chicks burning for 0.2 seconds, while the Goose continued for 17 seconds.

INTA-300.

  • Spanish sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Heron + 1 x Snipe

INTA-300B.

  • Spanish sounding rocket. Later version for heavier payloads fired in 1993-1994.

Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for IHLLV orbital launch vehicle.

Interim HOTOL.

  • Initiated by a British Aerospace team led by Dr Bob Parkinson in 1991, this was a less ambitious, scaled-back version of the original HOTOL. The single-stage to orbit winged launch vehicle using four Russian rocket engines. It was to have been air-launched from a Ukrainian An-225 Mriya (Dream) aircraft. Interim HOTOL would separate from the carrier aircraft at subsonic speeds, and would then pull up for the ascent to orbit. It would return via a gliding re-entry and landing on gear on a conventional runway. Interim HOTOL suffered from the same aerodynamic design challenges as HOTOL and went through many, many design iterations in the quest for a practical design.

Interstate BQ-4-TDR.htm.

  • Alternate designation for BQ-4-TDR intermediate range cruise missile.

Iran-130.

  • Iranian short range ballistic missile.

Iris.

  • American sounding rocket. Sounding rocket developed by Navy, then handed over to NASA. Flown only four times, but then used in unique Hydra-Iris test series.

I-Scud.

  • Russian short-range ballistic missile.

Isinglass.

  • American winged rocketplane. CIA air-launched, rocket-powered high speed manned vehicle project of 1965-1968 that developed basic technologies used in later shuttle and reusable launch vehicle programmes.

Iskander.

  • New Russian tactical ballistic missile, conceived as a follow-on to the Scud. First fired on 25 October 1995.

Ithacus.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. An adaptation of Phillip Bono's enormous ROMBUS plug-nozzle semi-single-stage-orbit launch vehicle as a 1,200 soldier intercontinental troop transport!! The recoverable vehicle would re-enter, using its actively-cooled plug nozzle as a heat shield.

Ithacus Senior.

  • Alternate designation for Ithacus ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

J.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Energia orbital launch vehicle.

J.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. All-solid rocket motor launch vehicle. Because of the high cost, the original J-1 design was superseded by an alternate J-1 F2 with a different booster stage.

J-1.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Zenit-2 orbital launch vehicle.

J-1.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Original version.

J-1 F2.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Lower cost alternate to the original J-1 design. Uses the SRB-A of the H-2A vehicle as the first stage, the second and third stages of the J-1, with updated avionics.

Jabiru 2.

  • The Rook motor was 0.43 m in diameter and 5.28 m long. It contained a case-bonded charge of 846 kg of non-aluminized plastic propellant giving a total impulse of 1760 kN-seconds in 5.6 seconds; with a maximum thrust of 323 kN and a specific impulse of 213 seconds. The motor was capable of withstanding the 40g acceleration it provided during firing. It was employed as the first propulsion stage of the Leopard and Jaguar (Jabiru) supersonic test vehicles, and by itself in single-stage test applications.

Jabiru 3.

  • Two stage version consisting of 1 x Rook IIIA + 1 x Rook IIIB

Jaguar.

  • The Jaguar was designed by the RAE Supersonics Department as part of the HRV (Hypersonic Research Vehicle) program. This was a joint project with the Australian Weapons Research Establishment for testing of re-entry vehicles at high speeds. Regardless of the variant, the Rook first stage would propel the upper stages and subscale RV to a high altitude. The upper stages would then fire downward to push the RV into the atmosphere at speeds of up to 5 km/s. After the conclusion of the HRV project in April 1970, tests continued using the Jabiru 3 with other aerothermal experiments until November 1974.

Jaguar 1.

  • Three stage version consisting of 1 x Rook II + 1 x Gosling IIN + 1 x Lobster I

Jaguar 2.

  • Three stage version consisting of 1 x Rook IIIA + 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Gosling IV

Jaguar B-57.

  • American air-launched test vehicle. Three stage vehicle air launched from a B-57A Canberra. The rocket consisted of consisting of 3 x Recruit + 1 x Recruit + 1 x Baby Sergeant

Japanese Space Plane.

  • Japanese winged orbital launch vehicle. NAL / Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. design for a single stage to orbit spaceplane. Crew of ten, empty mass 110 tonnes. LACE / Scramjet engines, 29 m wingspan.

Jarvis.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle planned for Pacific launch based on Saturn V engines, tooling. Masses, payload estimated.

Jason.

  • American sounding rocket. The five-stage Jason rocket was developed by the US Air Force for monitoring of radiation in near-earth space (700-800 km) after high altitude nuclear explosions. Originally known as the Argo E-5, it consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus Recruit plus T-55. First used in 1958.

JATO.

  • American sounding rocket. JATO (Jet Assisted Take-Off) rockets came in many types and were used to shorten the takeoff of aircraft in short field or overload conditions. They were among the first practical applications of rocketry, and much early development of rocket technology by JPL, Aerojet, Goddard, and others was devoted to JATO applications.

Javelin.

  • American sounding rocket. The four-stage Javelin rocket was originally known as the Argo D-4 and was developed by the Air Force to replace its Jason rocket with the mission of measuring radiation in space after high-altitude nuclear explosions. It was subsequently used by NASA for a variety of high-altitude near-space scientific experiments.

Javelin 3.

  • American sounding rocket.

JCR.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Jericho.

  • First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Dassualt in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions were said to have differed.

Jericho 1.

  • Israeli short range ballistic missile. Follow-on version differed from original French-derived Jericho. Probably used a single 4500 kg solid-propellant motor.

Jericho 2.

  • Israeli intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. Probably corresponds to first two stages of Shavit launch vehicle.

Jericho II.

  • Alternate designation for Jericho 2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Jericho-1.

  • Alternate designation for Jericho 1 short range ballistic missile.

JL-1.

  • Chinese submarine-launched ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x DF-21 + 1 x DF-21 St2

JL-2.

  • Chinese intercontinental ballistic missile. DF-23, DF-31 are land based versions.

Journeyman.

  • American sounding rocket. Five stage vehicle of the Argo series consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Altair

Judi-Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Julang-1.

  • Popular Name of JL-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Julang-2.

  • Popular Name of JL-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Jules Verne Launcher.

  • American gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Following the failure of the US government to fund further development of the SHARP light gas gun, John Hunter founded the Jules Verne Launcher Company in 1996 in an attempt to fund commercial development of the concept.

Jules Verne Moon Gun.

  • French gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Jules Verne's moon gun, as described in his 1865 novel From the Earth to the Moon, was located in Florida. Although some errors were made, Verne used real engineering analysis to arrive at the design of his cannon and manned moon projectile. As a result, at the time of Apollo 8 and 11 missions it was noted that Verne had made an astonishing number of correct predictions about the actual missions....

Juno.

Juno I.

  • Alternate designation for Jupiter C orbital launch vehicle.

Juno II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jupiter IRBM. Basic 4 stage vehicle consisted of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor

Juno II (3).

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile. Three stage version consisting of 1 x Jupiter + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3

Juno V.

  • Alternate designation for Saturn I orbital launch vehicle.

Juno V-A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. By 1958 the Super-Jupiter was called Juno V and the 4 E-1 engines were abandoned in favor of clustering 8 Jupiter IRBM engines below existing Redstone/Jupiter tankage. The A version had a Titan I ICBM as the upper stages. Masses, payload estimated.

Juno V-B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. A proposed version of the Juno V for lunar and planetary missions used a Titan I ICBM first stage and a Centaur high-energy third stage atop the basic Juno V cluster. Masses, payload estimated.

Jupiter.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile. The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle.

Jupiter A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Jupiter A was a modified Redstone missile fitted with Jupiter inertial navigation and control system elements. It also tested Hydyne fuel and other engine modifications for the Jupiter C re-entry vehicle test booster.

Jupiter C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Re-entry vehicle test booster and satellite launcher derived from Redstone missile. The Jupiter A version of the Redstone missile was modified with upper stages to test Jupiter re-entry vehicle configurations. Von Braun's team was ordered to ballast the upper stage with sand to prevent any 'inadvertent' artificial satellites from stealing thunder from the official Vanguard program. Korolev's R-7 orbited the first earth satellite instead. The Jupiter C was retroactively named the 'Juno I' by Von Braun's team.

Jupiter C Juno I.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Four stage orbital launch version consisting of 1 x Redstone + 1 x Cluster stage 2 + 1 x Cluster stage 3 + 1 x RTV Motor. The fourth stage allowed the Explorer payload to be placed into orbit.

Jupiter Mercury.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile. Version of Jupiter IRBM designed for launch of Mercury manned capsules on long suborbital flights. Cancelled early in the programme, with the decision being to proceed from Mercury Redstone suborbital flights directly to Mercury Atlas orbital missions.

K-1.

  • Alternate Designation of R-21 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

K-15.

  • K-15

K150.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. 1/1.6 subscale test rocket used in development of the Kappa 9L sounding rockets.

K245.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Subscale test rocket used in development of the Kappa series of sounding rockets.

K65M-R.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M.

K65M-RB.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M.

K65UP.

  • Article Number of Vertikal-4 orbital launch vehicle.

Kaiser Wilhelm Geschuetz.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Paris Gun gun-launched missile.

Kaituozhe-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KT-1 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Kaituozhe-2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KT-2 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Kaituozhe-2A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KT-2A all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Kangaroo.

  • American sounding rocket.

Kankoh Maru.

  • Japanese SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Kawasaki design for single stage to orbit reusable booster. Would carry 50 passengers to orbiting hotels or fast intercontinental flights.

Kappa.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. The Kappa series represented Japan's first large post-war indigenously-developed sounding rockets. They led eventually to the Lambda and Mu solid rocket satellite launchers.

Kappa 1.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Kappa 10.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. 2-3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K420(1/3)

Kappa 10C.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K420(1/3)

Kappa 10S.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K420(1/3) + 1 x K10S

Kappa 2.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 3 Booster + 1 x Kappa 1

Kappa 3.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 3 Booster + 1 x Kappa 1

Kappa 4.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 4 Booster + 1 x Kappa 4

Kappa 5.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 4 Booster + 1 x Kappa 4

Kappa 6.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 6 + 1 x Kappa 6 St2

Kappa 6H.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 6H + 1 x Kappa 6 St2

Kappa 7.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Kappa 8.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 8

Kappa 8L.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kappa 6H + 1 x Kappa 8L

Kappa 9.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. 2-3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K250 + optional upper stage.

Kappa 9L.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 6 + 1 x Kappa 6 St2

Kappa 9M.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x K420H + 1 x K250

Katyusha.

  • Russian surface-to-surface missile. Unguided rocket built in a variety of calibres and used by the Red Army from 1941 onward.

Kavoshgar.

  • Alternate designation for Safir-2 orbital launch vehicle.

KD2U-1.

  • Alternate designation for Regulus 2 intermediate range cruise missile.

KDU-1.

  • Alternate Designation of BQM-6C intermediate range cruise drone.

Keldysh Bomber.

  • Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Soviet version of the Saenger antipodal bomber intensely studied on Stalin's direct orders in 1946-1947. The final study concluded that, given the fuel consumption of foreseeable rocket engines, the design would only be feasible using ramjet engines and greatly advanced materials. This meant that development could only begin in the late 1950's, when such technologies were available. By that time the design had been superseded by more advanced concepts.

Kh-101.

  • Russian air-to-surface missile. Chelomei mobile-launched version of V-1

Kh-102.

  • Russian air-to-surface missile. Chelomei mobile-launched version of V-1

Kisha Judi.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kisha + 1 x Judi III

Kistler K-1.

  • American low-cost orbital launch vehicle. The Kistler K-1 was a reusable two-stage launch vehicle developed by a prestigious team of ex-Apollo managers, designed originally for launch of Iridium-class communications satellites to medium altitude earth orbit. Kistler began development but had to file for Chapter 11 protection before detailed hardware fabrication was completed. It emerged from bankruptcy in 2005, and merged with suborbital startup Rocketplane to form Rocketplane Kistler. On 8 November 2006, it was announced that Alliant Techsystems, as lead contractor, would complete the K-1 launch vehicle, with Rocketplane Kistler as a subcontractor, under NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program.

Kitty.

  • American sounding rocket developed to measure winds aloft in support of nuclear tests.

Kiva/Hopi.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Kiva + 1 x Hopi

Koltso.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Koltso was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of decrees of 29 September 1976 and 31 May 1984. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM.

Kookaburra.

  • Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Lupus + 1 x Musca

Kopye-R.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Kopye-R was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of a draft project completed in February 1986. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM.

Korea Sounding Rocket-I.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KSR-I sounding rocket.

Korea Sounding Rocket-II.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KSR-II sounding rocket.

Korea Sounding Rocket-III.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KSR-III sounding rocket.

Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I.

Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KSLV-II orbital launch vehicle.

Korea Space Launch Vehicle-III.

  • Manufacturer's designation for KSLV-III orbital launch vehicle.

Korean modification.

  • American surface-to-air missile. South Korea displayed a modification of the Nike Hercules with a new monolithic single-engine solid propellant stage of South Korean manufacture. The modification was believed to also have guidance changes allowing it to serve as a surface-to-surface missile.

Kosmos 1.

  • Alternate designation for Kosmos 65S3 orbital launch vehicle.

Kosmos 11K63.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Series production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-12 IRBM. Succeeded 63S1M prototype from 1965, using same 'Dvina' launch complex. From March 16, 1967 orbital launches from Plesetsk were from the purpose-built 'Raduga' launch complex LC133. Total of 123 launches, of which 8 were failures.

Kosmos 11K65.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Initial serial production version was the Kosmos-3, built at the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. Flew only four times, with two failures, before being succeeded by the modernized production version under the responsibility of NPO Polyot.

Kosmos 11K65M.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage

Kosmos 2.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. In 1960 the Soviet government decreed development of a lightweight launch vehicle for launch of payloads not requiring R-7 family of boosters. A modification of the R-12 IRBM was selected as the first stage; a new high-performance second stage was developed using a unique Lox/UDMH propellant combination. After two failures, the first successful flight was on March 16, 1962.

Kosmos 2I.

Kosmos 2M.

  • Alternate designation for Kosmos 63S1M orbital launch vehicle.

Kosmos 3.

  • Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65 orbital launch vehicle.

Kosmos 3.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41.

Kosmos 3M.

  • Alternate designation for Kosmos 11K65M orbital launch vehicle.

Kosmos 3MP.

  • Alternate designation for Kosmos 65MP orbital launch vehicle.

Kosmos 63S1.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The 63S1 initial production version was used through May 1966 for a total of 40 launches, of which 12 were failures. It was succeeded by the 63S1M prototype for the 11K63 production space launcher.

Kosmos 63S1M.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Modernized version of 63S1 initial configuration of the first Kosmos launcher and the prototype for the production 11K63 launch vehicle. Suborbital launches from Plesetsk from 1965 at from the modified R-12 silo 'Dvina'. Flown only a few times in 1965-1967. Succeeded by the 11K63 production model launched from the 'Raduga' complex.

Kosmos 65MP.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Adaptation of 11K65M launcher for suborbital and single orbit test of subscale prototypes of Spiral and Buran manned spaceplanes (BOR-4 and BOR-5).

Kosmos 65S3.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Prototype of light satellite launcher using as a first stage the Yangel R-14 (8K65) IRBM. The protoype system was launched eight times before production was handed over to the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory.

KR.

  • Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. The KR (winged rocket) was a three-stage unmanned boost-glide missile developed at the Tupolev's OKB-156. Work began in 1957. Two alternates were considered for the first stage: a conventional liquid rocket or a special manned aircraft launcher. The second stage was a conventional rocket. The final winged stage included a propulsion section and nuclear warhead. The glider would cut-off at an altitude of 50 km and a velocity of 20,000 km/hr. Planned-over target speed was 7,000 km/hr at 30 km altitude. Work on the project continued only about a year before it was abandoned in favour of the more conventional Tu-123 supersonic cruise missile. The KR would have had a gross weight of 240 tonnes, and delivered a payload of 3 to 5 tonnes over a range of 9,000 to 12,000 km.

KR-500.

  • Manufacturer's designation for R-500 surface-to-air missile.

Krug.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Ramjet-powered long-range surface-to-air missile, deployed by the Soviet Union and its allies.

KSLV.

  • South Korean launch vehicle family. Originally they were to be of completely indigenous design; but in 2005 it was announced that they would use the (in-development, unflown) Russian Angara booster module as the basis. The program, like that of the Angara, was subject to continuous funding shortages and schedule delays. In 2008 the Angara alternate was cancelled after Russia refused to transfer essential technologies and the total cost had increased from US$ 240 million to US$ 350 million. The Korean government went 'back to the drawing board'.

KSLV-I.

  • In 2005 it was announced that the KSLV-I would not fly until 2007. It was now a completely different vehicle, consisting of a first stage derived from the Russian Angara launch vehicle, and a solid propellant second stage of South Korean manufacture. First launch 2009.08.25.

KSLV-I 2002.

  • South Korean orbital launch vehicle. In 2002 South Korea announced it was planning to develop a small satellite launch vehicle by 2005, based on technology flown on the KSR-III test vehicle. By 2005 this was replaced by a completely different design, based on the Russian Angara space booster.

KSLV-II.

  • South Korean launch vehicle, originally scheduled for first flight by 2010. Evidently it would have consisted of a Russian Angara first stage and a South Korean liquid-propellant second stage. In August 2006 it was reported in the Korean press that this launcher configuration was cancelled.

KSLV-III.

  • South Korean launch vehicle, to consist of a Russian Angara first stage, a South Korean liquid propellant second stage, and a South Korean solid propellant apogee kick motor. Scheduled for first flight by 2015. In August 2006 the Korean press reported that the first and second stages would both be Angara-UM modules... how this configuration would work (stacked versus parallel) was unclear.

KSR.

  • South Korean indigenous sounding and test rocket family, using solid rocket motors and a test vehicle with a liquid oxygen/kerosene motor. Further development of the latter into the KSLV satellite launch vehicle was abandoned in 2005 in favor of licensed Russian technology.

KSR-I.

  • First South Korean sounding rocket, an unguided single solid propellant stage vehicle. Development began in 1990 and the rocket was flown two times in 1993.

KSR-II.

  • Two-stage South Korean sounding rocket, using two of the solid rocket motors developed for the KSR-I in tandem. Flown twice in 1997-1998.

KSR-III.

  • South Korean sounding rocket. Test bed for development of an orbital launch vehicle, powered by the liquid oxygen/kerosene engine planned for the KSLV-I. However flown only once in 2002.

KT.

  • Family of all solid-propellant Chinese launch vehicles, using the DF-31 ICBM as the basis with new upper or lower stages to achieve a range of payload performances. Following two unsuccessful launches in 2002-2003, the project may have been abandoned.

KT-1.

  • Chinese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. China's first solid propellant orbital launch vehicle was derived from the first and second stages of the DF-31 ICBM with a new solid third stage. The vehicle was named Kaituozhe-1 (Explorer-1) and was capable of putting 100 kg into polar orbits.

KT-2.

  • Intermediate all-solid propellant Chinese launch vehicle. Model first displayed at Wuzhai in the fall of 2002. Evidently consists of new large diameter first stage motor, topped by the first two stages of the basic KT-1 vehicle. All figures are rough estimates.

KT-2A.

  • Heavy all-solid propellant Chinese launch vehicle. Model first displayed at Wuzhai in the fall of 2002. Consists of two parallel first-stage booster motors derived new the first stage motor of the KT-1, a larger-diameter core second stage motor like that of the KT-2, a new larger-diameter third stage motor, and an enormous new fairing. All figures are rough estimates.

Kub.

  • Mid-range integral rocket-ramjet Russian surface-to-air missile, widely deployed with Soviet forces and exported to 22 countries. The missile provided one of the great technological surprises in warfare in the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War.

Kumulus.

  • Kumulus was a single-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. It could carry meteorological, postal, or biological payloads up to a speed of 750 m/s and an altitude of 20 km. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964. The propellant was developed by the DRG and fabricated at Liebenau Company for Production of Chemical Materials (GmbH zur Verwertung chemischer Erzeugnisse Liebenau).

Kvant.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Kvant was the Soviet third generation light launch vehicle planned to replace the Kosmos and Tsyklon series. Unlike the vehicles it was to replace, the booster used non-toxic 'environmentally friendly' liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. Although such a light launch vehicle was on Space Forces wish lists since 1972, full scale development was again deferred due to the crash effort on Soviet 'star wars' in the second half of the 1980's. RKK Energia marketed the vehicle design from 1994 to 2001, but could find no source for development funds.

Kvant-1.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. From 1996-2001 RSC Energia carried out design studies on the Kvant-1 light launch vehicle with a low earth orbit payload capability of 1.8 to 3.0 metric tons. Market surveys seemed to indicate a need for a new launch vehicle of this class but development funding was not forthcoming.

L-1.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Start and Start-1 orbital launch vehicles.

L3S.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Ariane 1 orbital launch vehicle.

La-205.

  • Missile article number for 205 missile.

La-206.

  • Missile of 206 surface-to-air missile.

La-207.

  • Missile of 207 surface-to-air missile.

La-207A.

  • Missile of 207A surface-to-air missile.

La-207T.

  • Missile of 207T surface-to-air missile.

La-208.

  • Missile of 208 surface-to-air missile.

La-215.

  • Missile of 215 surface-to-air missile.

La-217.

  • Missile of 217 surface-to-air missile.

La-217M.

  • Missile of 217M surface-to-air missile.

La-218.

  • Missile of 218 surface-to-air missile.

La-350.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Burya intercontinental cruise missile.

Lacrosse.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. Nuclear-armed short-range ballistic missile briefly deployed by the U.S. Army in the late 1950s. Its rocket motor was the basis for the Doorknob sounding rocket.

Lambda.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. All solid-propellant vehicle, Japan's first satellite launcher. The L-4S project simulated the procedures and demonstrated the capabilities required for orbital satellite launch essential to the follow-on Mu project.

Lambda 2.

  • Japanese test vehicle. 3-4 stage vehicle series.

Lambda 3.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x K420 + 1 x Kappa 8

Lambda 3H.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500

Lambda 4.

  • First Japanese orbital launch vehicle.

Lambda 4S.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 + 1 x L480S

Lambda 4SC.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 + 1 x L480S

Lambda 4T.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-310 + 1 x L735 + 1 x L735(1/3) + 1 x L500 + 1 x L480S

Lance.

Lance.

  • American short range ballistic missile, which replaced the Little John, Sergeant and Honest John rockets in US Army service in the 1970's. Retired in 1992.

Land-Based Version.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Land based-version of Terrier surface-to-air missile. Development begun in 1951. Project cancelled in 1956.

LAPAN.

  • Indonesian sounding rocket.

Lark.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Lark missile.

LART.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. MBB/ERNO airbreathing horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit proposal from the mid-1980s. Largely similar to the BAe HOTOL.

LASM.

  • Land Attack Standard Missile, a derivative of the Standard Missile SM-2MR naval air-defense designed to provide surface-to-surface fire support for the US Marine Corps.

La-X.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Burya intercontinental cruise missile.

Layner.

LCLV.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. As a result of TRW's review of the Truax/Aerojet Sea Dragon, TRW became so interested in the concept that they undertook studies of their own, which resulted in a design that became known as the 'Big Dumb Booster'. They proposed structural approaches that were even more conservative than Aerojet's, e.g., the use of T-180 steel instead of maraging steel, which would result in even heavier and cheaper tankage. TRW finally obtained USAF funding for fabrication of stage sections and demonstration of scaled-up versions of the TRW pump-fed Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine. The design promised low cost access to space using low technology (steel stages built to low tolerances in shipyards, pressure-fed engines, and low cost storable propellants). But yet again neither NASA or USAF showed interest in true cheap access to space.

LEAP.

LEAP.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Lightweight Exo- Atmospheric Projectile. SDIO/BMDO project

LEM-70.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Minuteman ERCS strategic communications missile.

LeoLink LK-1.

  • Satellite launcher derived from planned Israeli Shavit-2 launch vehicle, but with rocket motors and major components built in USA to qualify for US contracts.

LeoLink LK-2.

  • Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. As Leolink LK-1, but with a Castor-120 motor as the first stage.

Leopard.

  • British test vehicle. Two stage aerodynamic test vehicle consisting of 1 x Rook + 1 x Gosling. Developed from the basic Rook vehicle for tests requiring higher velocities.

Lex.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

LGM-118A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-134.

  • Department of Defence Designation of SICBM intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-25A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-25C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-30A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Minuteman 1A intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-30B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Minuteman 1B intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-30C.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mobile version of Minuteman. Development begun in 1955. Cancelled in 1962.

LGM-30F.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Minuteman 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

LGM-30G.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Minuteman 3 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Liberty.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Private commercial launch vehicle.

LII Spaceplane.

  • Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukoskiy) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts.

LIM-100.

  • Unidentified American expermental silo-launched interceptor missile, probably the Sprint II concept.

LIM-49A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Spartan anti-ballistic missile.

LIM-99.

  • Unidentified American expermental silo-launched interceptor missile, possibly the Sprint ABM.

Little Joe.

  • Little Joe was used to test the Mercury capsule launch escape system. The booster was designed by NASA Langley using existing components. Six to eight solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing built by North American.

Little Joe 1 2C.

  • American test vehicle.

Little Joe 1 2P.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 2 x Pollux

Little Joe 1 4C.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 4 x Castor

Little Joe 1 4P.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 4 x Pollux

Little Joe II.

  • American test vehicle. Little Joe II was an enlarged version of the Little Joe concept used in the Mercury program, used to test the Apollo capsule launch escape system. The vehicle was designed by General Dynamics. Six to nine solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing.

Little Joe II 0-3-3.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Algol 1D motors.

Little Joe II 4-2-0.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 2 x Algol 1D fired in sequence.

Little Joe II 5-2-2.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 5 x Recruit + 4 x Algol 1D fired in sequence.

Little Joe II 6-1-0.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 6 x Recruit + 1 x Algol 1D fired in sequence.

Little John.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. The Little John was the smallest nuclear-capable rocket the U.S. Army ever deployed. Studies to develop a lightweight rocket based on the M31/MGR-1 Honest John to give airborne Army units a nuclear capability began in 1953 under the name Honest John Junior. After preliminary studies by Douglas during 1954, the development program - renamed as Little John - was officially started at Redstone Arsenal in June 1955.

Livermore Light Gas Gun.

  • Manufacturer's designation for SHARP gun-launched test vehicle.

LLV.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Athena-1 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

LLV 2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Athena-2 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

LLV 3.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Athena-3 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

LMLV.

  • Alternate designation for Athena-1 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

LMLV 2.

  • Alternate designation for Athena-2 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

LMLV 3.

  • Alternate designation for Athena-3 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

LoADS.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Low-Altitude Defense System, BTDS, SDIO/BMDO project

Lobber.

  • American surface-to-surface missile. In 1955 Convair undertook a small R&D program to develop a resupply missile that would deliver supplies and communications equipment to surrounded or isolated Army field units.

Lockheed RTTOCV.

  • American sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed's HTHL TSTO spaceplane concept from 1963, an outgrowth of an earlier USAF study with Hughes. The fully reusable orbiter would have been carried by a sled-launched booster rocket rocketplane.

Loki.

  • American unguided solid-propellant barrage anti-aircraft rocket adapted to use as a meteorological sounding rocket.

Loki Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Loki Rockoon.

  • American sounding rocket. Balloon-launched Loki with larger fins for stability at high altitudes. The basic Loki was used in this manner on 23 September 1955, measuring cosmic rays.

Long March 1.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-1 orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 1C.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-1C orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 1D.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-1D orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 1M.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-1M orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 2A.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2A orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 2C.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2C orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 2D.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2D orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 2E.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2E orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 2E(A).

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2E(A) orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 2F.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-2F orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 3.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3 orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 3A.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3A orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 3B.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3B orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 3B(E).

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3B(A) orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 3C.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-3C orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 4A.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-4A orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 4B.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-4B orbital launch vehicle.

Long March 4C.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-4C orbital launch vehicle.

Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type A.

Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type B.

Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type C.

Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type D.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-504 orbital launch vehicle.

Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type E.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-522 orbital launch vehicle.

Long March Next Generation Launch Vehicle Type F.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-540 orbital launch vehicle.

Long March Next Generation Light Launch Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for CZ-NGLV-200 orbital launch vehicle.

Long Tank Augmented Thrust Thor.

Long Tank Thor.

Long Tom.

  • Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Long Tom + 1 x Mayfly

Loon.

  • American short range cruise missile, a copy of the German V-1 (Fieseler Fi 103).

Lorikeet.

  • Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Dorado + 1 x Lupus

Low Cost Cargo Vehicle.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. This variant of the Shuttle C was envisioned for delivery of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to orbit.

Low Cost Launch Vehicle.

  • Full name of LCLV low cost orbital launch vehicle.

LRALT.

  • American air-launched target rocket. Air-launched anti-ballistic missile target composed of two surplus SR19 states in tandem.

LS-A.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Early suborbital test version of the Lambda rocket series.

LS-C.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x LS-C Booster + 1 x LS-C

LSC-3.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Early suborbital test version of the Lambda rocket series.

LTV-N-4.

  • American Naval Ordnance Test Station solid-propellant test vehicle to support development of ramjet-powered missiles. Flew in 1949 and was 4.5 m long.

Luna.

  • Launch System of 3R9, 3R10, and Frog 5 tactical ballistic rocket.

Luna.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

Luna 8K72.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine upper stage used for early Soviet unmanned lunar shots.

Luna-M.

  • Launch System of R-65, R-70, and R-75 tactical ballistic rockets.

Luna-M.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

Lutin.

  • French tactical ballistic missile.

LV-109.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Millenium Express ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

LV-2.

  • LV-2

LV-3A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Atlas Agena D orbital launch vehicle.

LV-3B.

LV-3B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. First operational version of Atlas ICBM and used as launch vehicle for Project Mercury.

LV-3C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Atlas Centaur orbital launch vehicle.

M-1.

  • Alternate designation of S-25 missile.

M-100.

  • Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28.

M-100 (A-1).

  • Russian sounding rocket.

M-100A.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Special modification, only fired twice on 1976-11-10 and 1976-12-22.

M-100B.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Model calibrated with Western sounding rockets and part of the World Meteorological Network. 1,730 launched from 1976-01-07 to 1990-12-.

M-11.

  • Alternate designation for DF-11 short range ballistic missile.

M14.

  • Alternate designation for Pershing 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

M19.

  • Alternate designation for Pershing 1A intermediate range ballistic missile.

M-2.

  • Launch System of V-753 surface-to-air missile.

M-20.

  • Alternate designation for Sergeant missile.

M26.

  • Department of Defence Designation of MLRS tactical ballistic rocket.

M-28.

M-29.

M-40.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Buran intercontinental cruise missile.

M47 + M32, M51 + M34, M15 motors.

  • Alternate designation for Little John tactical ballistic rocket.

M50.

  • Alternate designation for MGR-1B tactical ballistic rocket.

M-51.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Intercontinental cruise missile based on M-50 manned bomber. Subsonic cruise with Mach 2 dash into the target area.

M55E1.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M55E1 + 1 x SR19AJ1

M6, M30, M31.

  • Alternate designation for MGR-1A tactical ballistic rocket.

M-7.

  • Chinese short range ballistic missile. Surface-to-surface derivative of the HQ-2 air defense missile. US designation is CSS-8. Exported to Iran as Tamdar & Tondar in Iran.

M-9.

  • Export version of the DF-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Mace.

  • Popular Name of CGM-13A intermediate range cruise missile.

Mace.

  • Alternate Designation of Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mace.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. Intermediate range cruise missile. Only Cape Canaveral launches are listed here, but over 30 launches were also conducted from Launch Area Able-51 by Det 1, 4504th CCTW at Holloman AFB, New Mexico from October 1959 throurgh 1963.

Mace-B.

  • Popular Name of CGM-13B intermediate range cruise missile.

Magdeburg.

  • Rudolf Nebel's subscale prototype for a man-carrying rocket was flown eight times in 1933. Further tests were prohibited by the Nazi government. This would be the largest German rocket launched until the A3 in 1937.

Magnum.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Notional NASA/MSFC heavy lift booster design, using no shuttle components but instead new technologies from the EELV and RLV programs that supposedly would reduce launch cost by a large factor. A composite core vehicle powered by RS-68 engines was flanked by two shuttle liquid rocket boosters. Baseline launch vehicle used in most NASA manned lunar and Mars mssion studies 1996-2004.

MAKS.

  • Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988 and consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled in 1991. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. A 9,000 kgf experimental engine with 19 injectors was tested. There were 50 test burns proving the separate modes and a smooth switch between them. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise. MAKS was to have flown by 1998.

MAKS-D.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines. An unmanned prototype of the MAKS would be fitted out with RD-120 Lox/Kerosene engines. Launched from atop the An-225, the MAKS-D would reach an altitude of 80 to 90 km and a speed of Mach 14 to 15.

MAKS-M.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable unpiloted verion of MAKS, similar to Interim HOTOL. Air launched from An-225. MAKS was found to have superior payload, lower non-recurring cost and technical risk. MAKS-M would require new materials. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 7.0 m long x 4.6 m diameter.

MAKS-T.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. All cargo version of MAKS. Air-launched heavy-lift launcher would use an expendable second stage with a payload container. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 13.0 m long x 5.0 m diameter.

Malaface.

  • French tactical ballistic missile.

Malemute.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Mars.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

Martin Astrorocket.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter and booster.

Martin HATV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin HATV 1946 design used a single Aerojet engine of unconventional design to achieve single-stage-to-orbit performance.

Martin Marietta SDV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin Marietta Class I SDV would lead to the Shuttle-C, using the shuttle aft fuselage with SSME engines to power a cargo canister into orbit.

Martin Plan C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Titan C orbital launch vehicle.

Martlet.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. In 1962-1967 Canada's Gerard Bull led development of the Martlet system for gun-launched access to space. The program was cancelled before the objective of gun launch to orbit was attained.

Martlet 1.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet One Flight Vehicle was designed in mid-1962 as a first generation test vehicle for the HARP project. The primary role of the Martlet One was to test the fundamental technologies that were to be used in the Martlet Two vehicle. These included the internal ballistics of the 16" L45 smooth-bored gun system, the pusher plate/ laminated plywood sabot system and the ability to receive radio telemetry from a gun launched vehicle in flight.

Martlet 2.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 2 series were the primary 16" gun-launched sub-orbital flight vehicles used during the High Altitude Research Program (HARP). Martlet 2's were used to conduct extensive research at altitudes of up to 180 km with some 200 flights being conducted between 1963 and 1967. The very low cost per flight, about $3,000, made it ideal for a wide variety of applications.. Typical mission payloads included chemical ejection to produce an observable atmospheric trail and assorted sensors with multi-channel telemetry.

Martlet 2G.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. This derivative of the Martlet 2 gun-fired suborbital space probe achieved a higher scientific payload through use of a lighter sabot. 12 were flown before the program was ended.

Martlet 2G-1.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Martlet 2G-1 was the absolute minimum gun-launched satellite vehicle. Conceived when the HARP project was under threat, it was a seven-inch diameter, two-stage solid propellnat vehicle that would be sabot-launched from the HARP 16 inch gun. Its total payload in orbit would have been just two kilogrammes - ideal for today's planned nano-satellites. Unfortunately even this minimum orbital launch vehicle could not be demonstrated before the program was shut down.

Martlet 3.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage, gun-launched vehicle.

Martlet 3A.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3A was the first serious attempt to produce a sub-calibre, gun-launched, rocket-assisted, vehicle for the 16 inch gun system. The basic design criteria for the Martlet 3A was to gun launch a vehicle containing a rocket motor that could provide a velocity boost equal to or greater then the initial gun-launch velocity.

    The theoretical performance of the Martlet 3A was for an 18 kg payload to be carried to an altitude of some 500 km at gun-launch accelerations of 12-14,000 g's and gun launch velocities in the range of 2100 m/sec (similar to the Martlet 2 series maximum launch parameters).

Martlet 3B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Once the fundamental design flaws of the Martlet 3A vehicle were identified the system was redesigned and a new vehicle, the Martlet 3B, was created.

    The Martlet 3B vehicle was similar in design to the 3A vehicle but sported several design changes intended to improve the system performance. The first major change was to replace the aluminium airframe with a alloy steel airframe in the hopes the stronger material would lead to higher mass fractions. Other improvements included the use of a larger diameter rocket motor (increasing the outer diameter to 8 inches / 20 cm) and the use of six fixed fins instead of the 3A's four fins.

Martlet 3D.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3D concept was intended to serve as a sub-orbital vehicle capable of lifting heavy payloads to satellite altitudes. The Martlet 3D was simply the first stage of the Martlet 4 vehicle ( Martlet 4A) with the two upper stages and the satellite payload being replaced with a single large payload.

Martlet 3E.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3E vehicle was designed to take advantage of the portability of the HARP 7 inch guns. Unlike the big fixed 16 inch guns the 7 inch HARP guns, were portable and could be relocated to conduct launches from a wide variety of sites. It was soon determined that a gun-launched rocket vehicle for the 7 inch gun would have a similar performance to the Martlet 2 glide probe launched from the fixed 16 inch guns. Launch costs would also be about the same.

Martlet 4.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Martlet 4 was ultimate goal of the HARP program - a gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Two versions were considered: a preliminary version with two solid propellant upper stages, and a later model with two liquid propellant upper stages. Payload of the liquid propellant version would have reached 90 kg. The initial version was in an advanced stage of suborbital flight test when the HARP program was cancelled in 1967.

Matador.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. Glenn L. Martin Co. surface-to-surface cruise missile (Matador / Project MX-771).

Maul Camera Rocket.

  • German sounding rocket. Maul conceived of using powder rockets to launch film cameras for military reconnaissance in 1901, beginning an 11 year development process.

Maxus.

  • The MAXUS micrograviy program was a collaboration between Sweden and Germany. The single-stage vehicle developed for the program used a Castor 4B motor, the largest fired from Western Europe.

Mayak.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. New family of modular medium-sized launch vehicles proposed by the Ukraine in 2005. No known development or production funding was forthcoming.

MB.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket.

MB/EE-150.

  • Brazilian short range ballistic missile.

MB/EE-350.

  • Brazilian short range ballistic missile.

MB/EE-600.

  • Brazilian intermediate range ballistic missile.

MBR.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. 'Sealed unit' liquid propellant ICBM proposed by Reshetnev in 1960.

McDonnell-Douglas ILRV.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The McDonnell-Douglas ILRV design featured fold-out wings for improved low-speed lift-to-drag ratio during final descent and landing. All of the vehicle's propellants were moved outside the orbiter into two large hydrogen tanks and two smaller oxygen tanks. The original concept was sized for an 11,340kg, 9.44m x 4.57m payload.

Me-163.

  • German winged rocketplane. The rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me-163 was the world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter and represented the culmination of Alexander Lippisch's years of research in rocketplanes, tail-less aircraft, and delta wings. As a weapon, the Me-163 had tremendous speed but very limited range. However the concepts developed by Lippisch contributed to the Space Shuttle and Buran orbiters of a quarter century later.

Medium Range Target Vehicle.

  • Popular Name of ait-2 target missile.

Menaka II.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Related to RH-125.

MER-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Blue Scout ERCS strategic communications missile.

MERA.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Two-stage small meteorological sounding rocket, consisting of two identical solid rocket motors in tandem, stabilised by fins, topped by a payload dart with instrumentation.

Mesquito.

  • Single stage solid propellant sounding rocket capable of reaching 95 km altitude.

Meteo.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Meteo-MD.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Meteor.

  • Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962.

Meteor-1.

  • Polish sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Meteor-2H.

  • Polish sounding rocket. Larger version of Meteor, capable of taking twice the payload to twice the altitude. Single stage vehicle.

Meteor-2K.

  • The most powerful Polish rocket ever flown. 2 stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Meteor 1 + 1 x Meteor-2.

Meteor-3.

  • Polish sounding rocket. Development of the Meteor-3 began in 1967. The two stage vehicle consisted of two modified Meteor-1 stages in tandem. It was launched from a 12-m rail launcher and could take the 4.5 kg dart payload to 65 km.

Meteorit.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of three variants of this cruise missile was authorised on 9 December 1976. The Meteorit-M strategic version would be deployed from 667M submarines with 12 launchers per boat. The air-launched Meteorit-A would be launched from Tu-95 bombers. The land-based version was designated Meteorit-N. The missile was also sometimes referred to by the code-name Grom. The first test launch, on 20 May 1980, was unsuccessful, as were the next three attempts. The first successful flight did not come until 16 December 1981. The first launch from a 667M submarine took place on 26 December 1983 from the Barents Sea. However all variants were cancelled in 1988 as a result of the INF Treaty.

Meteorit-M.

  • Launch System of P-750 intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Matador intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-140.

  • Department of Defence Designation of ATACMS short range ballistic missile.

MGM-140 Block 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Block 1 short range ballistic missile.

MGM-140 Block 1A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Block 1A short range ballistic missile.

MGM-140 Block 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Block 2 short range ballistic missile.

MGM-164.

  • Department of Defence Designation of ATACMS II short range ballistic missile.

MGM-18A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Lacrosse tactical ballistic missile.

MGM-1A.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-1B.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-1C.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-29A.

  • Department of Defence designation of Sergeant missile.

MGM-31.

  • Department of Defence designation of Pershing missile.

MGM-31A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Pershing 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

MGM-31B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Pershing 1A intermediate range ballistic missile.

MGM-31C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Pershing 2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

MGM-31D.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile. Cancelled. Pershing II RR Reduced Range

MGM-5.

  • Department of Defence designation of Corporal missile.

MGM-52.

  • Department of Defence designation of Lance missile.

MGM-52A.

  • American short range ballistic missile.

MGM-52C.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Simplified inertial guided, nuclear or conventional warhead

MGM-5A.

  • American short range ballistic missile. First production version.

MGM-5B.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Second production version.

MGR-1.

  • Department of Defence designation of Honest John missile.

MGR-1A.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket.

MGR-1B.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. Three different warhead sections were possible: M27, M47 and M-48 with yields 2-20-40 kt. M72 training warhead also used.

MGR-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Little John tactical ballistic rocket.

Micon.

  • Swiss surface-to-air missile. The dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec.

Micon Zenit.

  • Swiss sounding rocket. Sounding rocket using the motor developed for the Micon surface-to-air missile. The Cuckoo was used as a booster on the final two tests.

Microstar.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Midgetman.

  • Popular Name of SICBM intercontinental ballistic missile.

Midgetman.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Early 1960's two-stage version of Minuteman.

MiG-2000.

  • Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched single stage to orbit vehicle with air-breathing propulsion to Mach 5 (subsonic combustion). The sled would accelerate the launch vehicle to Mach 0.8. Propellants wer slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have a 3000 km cross-range on re-entry.

MiG-31NS.

  • Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle air-launched from a MiG-31 fighter.

MIGAKS.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Turbojet/ramjet-powered two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Mach 6 stage separation. The orbiter had a 2000 km cross-range capability with landing on airfields with runways of 3500 m length or more.

Mighty Mouse.

  • Popular Name of FFAR air-to-air rocket.

Mikoyan 301.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. The 301 was designed as a military bomber, with a Mach 4 / 4,250 km/hr cruise capability at 25,000 to 27,000 m altitude. It was equipped with two turboramjets, had a gross takeoff mass of 80 tonnes, of which half was fuel. It may be related to the first stage of the MIGAKS two-stage vehicle.

Millenium Express.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Space Systems Division proposal for the 1990 SDIO competition was a VTOL SSTO named Millennium Express. The final vehicle was a 15 degree cone with a 20%-length Rocketdyne aerospike engine. Payload was specified as 4500 kg into a polar low earth orbit. The Express could carry on its nose a payload module, a small Apollo-type two-crew seperable manned capsule, or a six-crew module that remained attached to the vehicle for recovery. The similar Douglas Delta Clipper was selected by the USAF for further development.

MIM-104.

  • Department of Defence designation of Patriot missile.

MIM-104A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of PAC-3 anti-ballistic missile.

MIM-104A.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Command-guided / semi-active radar-homing. Range 160 km in PAC-1 with software changes. PAC-2 modification with bigger warhead.

MIM-14.

MIM-14A.

  • American surface-to-air missile. W31 Mod 2 warhead. Two different warhead sections were possible: M22 and M97, with yields of 1-20-40 kt.

MIM-14B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

MIM-23.

  • Department of Defence designation of Hawk missile.

MIM-23A.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

MIM-23B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

MIM-3A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Nike Ajax surface-to-air missile.

Minotaur.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Minotaur was developed for the US Air Force's Orbital/Suborbital Program (OSP) as a low-cost, four-stage Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) using a combination of government-supplied surplus Minuteman II ICBM motors and proven Orbital space launch technologies. The Minotaur 4 version used surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages.

Minotaur 1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle consisting of a surplus Minuteman M55A1 first stage, Minuteman SR19 second stage, and new Orion 50XL third stage, Orion 38 fourth stage, and optional HAPS fifth stage for velocity trim and multiple payload deployment. Payload 580 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 310 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg.

Minotaur 2.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Suborbital target vehicle consisting of an M55A1 first stage, SR19 second stage, and M57 third stage - essentially a Minuteman II with Orbital guidance and control systems. 440 kg payload on a 6700 km suborbital trajectory.

Minotaur 4.

  • Orbital launch vehicle using surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages: an SR-118 first stage, SR-119 second stage, SR-120 third stage, new Orion 38 fourth stage and optional HAPS fifth stage. Payload 1720 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 1000 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg.

Minuteman.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mainstay of the US deterrent. 1,000 Minuteman silos were built in the early 1960's, and the missile was to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. As versions were retired and updated, they provided a plentiful source of surplus rocket motors for other projects.

Minuteman 1.

  • Popular Name of LGM-30C intercontinental ballistic missile.

Minuteman 1A.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial production version, 3 stage vehicle. The Minuteman IA used exclusively the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT) warhead.

Minuteman 1A T.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Single stage test vehicle.

Minuteman 1B.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Full production version. Minuteman IB used the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT), the Mk.11 with the W56 (1.2 MT) and the Mk.11A with the W56 as well.

Minuteman 2.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. US ICBM. 3 stage vehicle. The LGM-30F Minuteman II used the W56 warhead exclusively with either the Mk. 11B or Mk. 11C re-entry vehicle.

Minuteman 3.

  • American four-stage solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile. In the 21st Century, the sole remaining US ICBM.

Minuteman ERCS.

  • American strategic communications missile.

Minuteman II.

  • Alternate designation of Midgetman missile.

Mirak.

  • Mirak - a 'Minimum Rocket' - was conceived by Rudolf Nebel to demonstrate the practicality of the liquid rocket, using the thrust chamber developed for the abandoned Oberth rocket. Mirak was realised not by Nebel, but talented engineer Riedel. It flew over 100 times in 1931-1932 and convinced the German Army of the practicality of the rocket as a weapon of war.

Mk. 1.

  • Standard RV of Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile.

Mk. 11B or Mk. 11C.

  • Standard RV of Minuteman 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 12A.

Mk. 2.

  • Standard RV of Thor intermediate range ballistic missile.

Mk. 2/3.

  • Standard RV of Atlas C test vehicle.

Mk. 20A.

Mk. 20B.

Mk. 3.

  • Standard RV of Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 4.

  • Standard RV of CGM-16E and HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Mk. 400.

  • Standard RV of Trident C-4 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 5.

  • Standard RV of Minuteman 1A intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 5, Mk.11, or Mk.11A.

  • Standard RV of Minuteman 1B intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 500.

  • Standard RV of Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 6.

  • Standard RV of Titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk.100.

Mk.300.

  • Standard RV of Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missile.

MKR.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A wide range of MKR (intercontinental winged missiles) were studied in 1957-1960 in accordance with a decree of the General Staff. The trade-off studies encompassed long-range air-breathing aircraft, winged rockets, and aircraft launchers for air-breathing missiles.

MLLV.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1969, for Saturn follow-on. Plug nozzle, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle could itself put 1 million pounds payload into orbit. By addition of up to 12 260 inch solid motors up to 3.5 million pounds payload into orbit with a single launch.

MLRS.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. Multiple Launch Rocket System. US Army assault weapon.

MLRS ER.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. In production.

MLRS Extended Range.

  • Alternate Designation of MLRS ER tactical ballistic rocket.

MMR-06.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Soviet solid propellant sounding rocket, capable of lofting 5 to 11 kg to 60 km altitude. Launch mass 130 kg, 9 seconds burn time. Nose ejects at apogee. Flown in both conical nose and boosted dart configurations.

MMRBM.

  • American surface-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1962. Program cancelled in 1964.

Mohr Rocket.

  • Engineer Ernst Mohr of Wuppertal, under the auspices of the German Rocket Society, developed a sounding rocket that was designed to reach altitudes of 50 km. A solid rocket motor with 7800 kgf would take the separable payload section to a speed of 1200 m/s. The booster had a diameter of 0.30 m, a length of 1.7 m, a total mass of 135 kg including 75 kg of solid propellant. The payload dart was 56 mm in diameter, 1.25 m long, and had a total mass of 15 kg.

Molniya 8K78.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits.

Molniya 8K78/E6.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Molniya adaptation for launch of E-6 lunar probes.

Molniya 8K78L.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used Lox/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages. Preliminary design was completed on 8 July 1962, but such technology was years away in the Soviet Union and the project was not pursued further.

Molniya 8K78M.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload.

Molniya 8K78M 2BL.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-2BL upper stage for placement of Oko early-warning satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,000 km.

Molniya 8K78M ML.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-ML upper stage for placement of communications satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,500 km.

Molniya 8K78M SOL.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok SO-L upper stage for placement of Prognoz-class satellites in orbits with apogees of 200,000 km.

Molniya-M.

  • Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78M orbital launch vehicle.

Molodets.

Monica.

  • French low-cost, three-stage, solid-propellant sounding rocket developed in France in the 1950's in support of the International Geophysical Year.

Monica I.

  • French sounding rocket.

Monica IV.

  • French sounding rocket.

Monoblock UR-500.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. During UR-500 design studies, two variants of the first stage were considered: polyblock and monoblock. The monoblock approach was that the first stage be assembled from two separate modules with the same diameter: an upper oxidiser module and a lower fuel and engine block. In assembly trials of this design it proved difficult, because of the height of the first stage, to obtain access to the upper stages and payload atop the rocket. Although there was a payload advantage compared to the more compact polyblock design, this was relatively small and outweighed by the operational difficulties.

MQM-8G.

  • American surface-to-air drone. Drone version.

MR.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev studied this Multimodular Rocket (MR), based on stages already designed for the 8K74 and 8K77 (R-7 and R-9) missiles. As was the case of the 8K74, work on the design was stopped in September 1961.

MR-12.

  • Russian sounding rocket. The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter.

MR-20.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Upper atmosphere Soviet sounding rocket, improved version of MR-12, but capable of lofting 135 kg to 250 km altitude.

MR-25.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Version of the MR-20.

MRTV.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ait-2 target missile.

MR-UR-100.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other.

MR-UR-100U.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

MR-UR-100U 15A16.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the MR-UR-100U loaded into the super-hardened 15P715U universal silo, with a modernised guidance system with better reliability and accuracy.

MR-UR-100UTTKh.

MRV.

  • Standard RV of UR-100K and UR-100U intercontinental ballistic missile.

MSBS.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M011.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M012.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M013.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M1.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 901 + 1 x Rita I

MSBS M112.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M2.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 904 + 1 x Rita II

MSBS M20.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M4.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Submarine launched; MRV. Operational. 3 stage vehicle.

MSBS M45.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Improved M-4.

MSBS M5.

  • French intercontinental ballistic missile.

MSBS M51.

  • French intercontinental ballistic missile.

MT-135.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. The MT-135 was a small single-stage sounding rocket designed to collect data on the middle atmosphere, such as ozone layer depletion.

MT-135JA.

  • Japanese sounding rocket.

MT-135P.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. In 1969 the MT-135P was developed; featuring a parachute-equipped recoverable motor case for maritime safety.

Mu.

  • The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space. It was the first Japanese launch vehicle designed from the start as an orbital launch vehicle.

Mu-1.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40

Mu-3.

  • The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space.

Mu-3C.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A

Mu-3D.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40

Mu-3H.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A + 1 x KM-H

Mu-3S.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13TVC + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A

Mu-3S-II.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-735 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-23 + 1 x M-3B

Mu-4S.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40

Mustard.

  • The British Aircraft Corporation "Multi-Unit Space Transport And Recovery Device" design of 1964-1965 was a winged two-stage-to-orbit reuseable space shuttle using the 'triamese' concept. The three components of the design were lifting bodies with a configuration similar to the American HL-10 vehicle. BAC sought to reduce development cost by use of two boosters nearly identical to the orbiter vehicle.

M-V.

  • All-solid Japanese satellite launch vehicle.

M-V KM.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x M-14 + 1 x M-24 + 1 x M-34 + 1 x KM-V1

MVKS.

  • Alternate designation for VKS ssto winged orbital launch vehicle.

MX.

  • Alternate designation for Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile.

MX-1593.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The September 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was 1850 m.

MX-770.

  • Alternate designation for Navaho SSM-A-2 intermediate range cruise missile.

MX-771.

  • Alternate designation for Matador intermediate range cruise missile.

MX-774.

  • American test vehicle. Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective. Limited funds permitted a few test launches. These rockets demonstrated technologies that woud later be applied to the Atlas.

MX-775.

  • American intercontinental cruise missile.

MX-776.

  • Alternate designation for Rascal air-to-surface missile.

N.

  • N

N1.

  • The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed.

N-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for N1 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

N-1 11A52.

  • Alternate designation for N1 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

N1 1962.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of the N1 at the time of development go-ahead in 1962. The 75 tonne payload was to consist of the Raskat dispenser, which would have delivered 17 multi-megaton nuclear warheads, essentially destroying the United States in a single launch. The design also supported the OS-1 heavy space station and TMK manned Mars flyby requirements - as opposed to any manned lunar landing project.

N1 1964.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle for the N1-L3 lunar landing mission as described in the draft project of 1964. Design requirement for the single-launch lunar-orbit-rendezvous lunar landing was 2750 tonnes liftoff mass and 95 tonnes low earth orbit payload. The actual N1 that flew in 1969 to 1972 had lighter first and third stages, but never demonstrated a full fuel load using superchilled propellants as planned in the draft project..

N1 1969.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed.

N-1 Delta.

  • Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle.

N1 Nuclear A.

  • Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. A version of the N1 with a nuclear upper stage was studied by Korolev in 1963. It was concluded that the optimum design would allow a single N1 to launch a direct manned lunar landing and return. However for manned Mars missions, a nuclear electric engine was found to be much more efficient. This essentially killed further consideration of thermal nuclear upper stages within the bureau.

N1 Nuclear AF.

  • Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. A variant of the first alternative considered in the 1963 nuclear N1 study. This was a 'high thrust' version of the Type A engine - apparently with higher propellant rate, lower specific impulse, and lower engine weight. Due to the very low density of the enormous liquid hydrogen upper stages, these immense vehicles would have been very ungainly (and had interesting stress problems during ascent!)

N1 Nuclear V.

  • Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Second primary alternative considered for the 1963 nuclear N1 study. The immense liquid hydrogen tank of the second nuclear stage would have dwarfed the N1 first stage mounted below it in the shadows. The extremely poor thrust to weight ratio of the Type V engine design compared to that of the Type A remains unexplained.

N1 Nuclear V-B.

  • Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. N1 with nuclear upper stage. This variant of the Type V nuclear engine used a very heavy radiation shield to protect the crew of any manned spacecraft payload.

N11.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N11 would use the second, third, and fourth stages of the N1. This would give it a lift-off mass of 700 tonnes and a 20 tonne payload into low earth orbit. It could replace Chelomei's Proton launch vehicle in the medium-lift role.

N11 1963.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. A military variant of the N-11 which would use a powerful third stage, probably derived from the first stage of the 8K713 GR-1, to put up to 24 tonnes in low earth orbit. This was a competitor with Chelomei's UR-500K, which was selected instead for the heavy military payload mission.

N111.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N111 would use the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of Korolev's R-9 ICBM. This would result in a lift-off mass of 200 tonnes and a five tonne payload. It could replace the R-7 derived boosters (Vostok and Soyuz) in this payload category.

N11GR.

  • Russian orbital missile. This 1962 project was designed by Korolev's OKB as a competitor to Chelomei's UR-500 against the military GR-2 (Global Rocket 2) requirement. The N-11GR was an adaptation of the basic N-11, derived from the second and third stages of the N1 heavy booster. The GR-2 was to be a kind of enormous multiple-warhead FOBS (fractional orbit bombing system). Surrounding the top of the second stage of the rocket, like bullets in an enormous revolver, were six final stages derived from the 8K713 GR-1 last stage. Each stage had a 1,500 kg nuclear warhead.

N1F.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1F would have been the definitive flight version of the N1, incorporating all changes resulting from the four flight tests of the vehicle, including the new Kuznetsov engines and 10% greater liftoff mass by using superchilled propellants in all stages. N1 8L would have been the first N1F configuration flight, with launch planned in the third quarter of 1975 at the time the project was cancelled.

N1F Sr.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The final more modest version of the N1F replaced the fourth and fifth stages of the N1 with the single liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen Block Sr stage. Development of the Sr stage was from May 1971 until cancellation of the N1 project in May 1974.

N1F-L3M.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1M was found to be too ambitious. The N1F of 1968 was instead pencilled in to be the first Soviet launch vehicle to use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen high energy cyrogenic propellants. The N1F would have only used the Block S and Block R fourth and fifth stages in place of the N1's Block G and Block D.

N1M.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1M was to be the first Soviet launch vehicle to use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen high energy cyrogenic propellants. It was designed to launch payloads in support of the LEK lunar expeditions (two cosmonauts on the surface), the DLB (long-duration lunar base), and heavy unmanned satellites into geosynchronous and interplanetary trajectories. As originally conceived, the advanced propellants would be used in all upper stages. However due to delays in Kuznetsov development of a 200 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engine, the final version used an N1 first stage, with a Block V-III second stage, and Blocks S and R third and fourth stages.

N1-MOK.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Ultimate derivative of N1. Single-stage-to-orbit vehicle based on N1 Block A. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 450 km / 97.5 degree MKBS orbit. Briefly described in RKK Energia official history and in some detail in Peter James'

      1974
    book Soviet Conquest from Space!

N-2.

  • Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle.

N-2 (2).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor N + 1 x AJ10-118FJ

NA-704.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Navaho SSM-A-2 intermediate range cruise missile.

NAA HATV.

  • North American's HATV proposal was an ogival single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with tanks made from 18-8 stainless steel. In common with other HATV designs, the tanks had to be pressurized to maintain rigidity.

NAA RTTOCV.

  • NASA awarded a "Reusable Ten Ton Orbital Carrier Vehicle" contract worth $342,000 to North American Aviation. The final concept from 1963 was quite similar to Lockheed's System III design. The launch capability was 11,340 kg (25,000 lb) and the standard payload would have consisted of a small lenticular 12-man orbital transfer vehicle spaceplane for space station logistics and crew transfer.

NAL.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicles.

NAL-16.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

NAL-25.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

NAL-7.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

NAL-735.

  • Japanese test vehicle.

Nanosat Launch Vehicle.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage, reusable, liquid oxygen/ethane propellant launch vehicle using aerospike engine technology and capable of delivering 10 kilograms to a 250-kilometer polar orbit. The NLV would provide low-cost, dedicated launch services to universities and other research organizations that traditionally depend on secondary payload opportunities to access space

National Aerospace Plane.

  • Popular Name of X-30 ssto winged orbital launch vehicle.

National Launch System.

  • Alternate designation for NLS and NLS HLV heavy-lift orbital launch vehicles.

Nativ.

  • As part of its effort to develop what started out as an American version of the A9 boost-glide rocket, North American Aviation built seven Nativ subscale technology demonstrators.

Navaho.

  • The Navaho intercontinental cruise missile project was begun just after World War II, at a time when the US Army Air Force considered ballistic missiles to be technically impractical. The Navaho required a large liquid propellant rocket engine to get its Mach 3 ramjet up to ignition speed. This engine, derived with German assistance from that of the V-2, provided the basis for the rockets that would later take Americans into space.

    It turned out that mastering the guidance and materials technology needed for a Mach 3 cruise air vehicle was actually more difficult than for a Mach 22 ballistic missile. In the end, the Redstone, Thor, Jupiter, and Atlas rockets were flying before their equivalent-range Navaho counterparts. However the Navaho program provided the engine technology that allowed the US to develop these ballistic missiles rapidly and catch up with the Russians. Navaho also developed chem-milling fuel tank fabrication techniques, inertial and stellar navigation, and a host of other technologies used in later space vehicles. It put North American Aviation, and its Rocketdyne Division, in a leading position that allowed them to capture the prime contracts for the X-15, Apollo, and Space Shuttle projects, thereby dominating American manned spaceflight for the next seventy years.

Navaho G-26.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. The Navaho G-26 was a 2/3 scale test version of the operational Navaho G-38. The Navaho program was cancelled on 13 July 1957, but already-built G-26 test missiles were flown to the end of 1958.

Navaho G-38.

  • American intercontinental cruise missile. The intercontinental-range Navaho G-38 was the ultimate development of the German A-9/A-10 concept. At the time the Navaho program was cancelled on 13 July 1957 missiles were in fabrication with first flight test planned by the end of 1958.

Navaho I.

Navaho II.

  • Popular Name of Navaho G-26 intermediate range cruise missile.

Navaho II SM-64.

  • Alternate designation for Navaho G-26 intermediate range cruise missile.

Navaho III.

  • Popular Name of Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile.

Navaho SSM-A-2.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. The first version of the Navaho developed in 1946-1950 was a Mach-3 ramjet vehicle with an integral rocket booster. Completion of the vehicle was cancelled in 1950 but the engine was used to power the Redstone ballistic missile.

Navaho X-10.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. Reusable, conventional airfield takeoff-and-landing aerodynamic test vehicle for Navaho missile.

Navaho/X-15.

  • North American proposed several methods of taking the X-15 spaceplane to higher velocities and altitudes. One of these involved the use of one to three Navaho booster rockets, which could even place the X-15 into orbit. This incremental approach to manned spaceflight was not pursued - the Mercury and X-20 Dynasoar programs were favored instead.

Neptune.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Sea-launched stage-and-a-half liquid oxygen / liquid natural gas orbital launch vehicle for passengers or payloads of up to 4.5 tonnes.

Nerva 2.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Version of 1960's nuclear fission engine proposed in 1990's.

New Launch System.

  • Alternate designation for NLS and NLS HLV heavy-lift orbital launch vehicles.

New Shepard.

  • American VTOVL test vehicle.

Newton's Orbital Cannon.

  • British gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Isaac Newton discussed the use of a cannon to attain orbit in 1687 in his Principia Mathematica - the very book that defined classical physics and provided the theoretical basis for space travel and rocketry. Newton used the following 'thought experiment' to explain the principle of orbits around the earth (see illustration):

    Imagine a mountain so high that its peak is above the atmosphere of the earth. Imagine on top of that mountain a cannon, that fires horizontally. As more and more charge is used with each shot, the speed of the cannonball will be grater, and the projectile will impact the ground farther and farther from the mountain. Finally, at a certain speed, the cannonball will not hit the ground at all. It will fall toward the circular earth just as fast as the earth curves away from it. In the absence of drag from the atmosphere, it will continue forever in an orbit around the earth.

NEXT.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Shavit and Shavit 1 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Next Genertion Delta 100 t.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Conceptual next generation Delta booster beyond Delta IV Heavy, equalling Saturn V of the 1960's in payload capability. The booster would use two parallel 7-m-diameter booster stages, a notional RS-XXX Lox/LH2 rocket motor, and a 7 m diameter upper stage and fairing. Payload fairings of 7 m diameter could be accomodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure, and a new factory to handle the larger-diameter tooling.

Nexus.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Early 1960's recoverable launch vehicle proposed by Krafft Ehricke at General Dynamics. Perhaps the largest conventionally-powered launch vehicle ever conceived, it was designed to deliver 900 tonnes to low earth orbit.

N-IF 1965.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IF would be the first follow-on version with increased performance. The first stage engines would be increased in thrust from an average of 150 tonnes to 175 tonnes, and those in the second stage from 150 tonnes to 200 tonnes. The second and third stages would be substantially enlarged.

N-IFV-III.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Then N-IFV-III would add the Block V-III cryogenic third stage to the first and second stages of the N-IF.

N-IFV-II-III.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. N-IFV-II, III would use only the first stage from the N-1F, and use new cryogenic second and third stages. This cryogenic second stage seems not to have been pursued beyond the study phase.

NII-111 MSM.

  • Standard warhead of Variant S submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Nike.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicles consisting first of just the Nike booster were initially fired in the course of development of the Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile. Later it was used occasionally as a sounding rocket, but much more often as the boost stage of a multi-stage sounding rocket.

Nike Ajax.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Ajax

Nike Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. The most popular sounding rocket introduced during the early 1960's was this two-stage, solid-propellant vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Apache upper stage.

Nike Asp.

  • American sounding rocket. Rail-launched vehicle consisting of an Asp plus a Nike booster. This product of the Cooper Development Corporation was designed to lift 27 kg to 260 km. An improved version, the Aspan 300, was also developed.The Nike-Asp was sometimes ship-launched.

Nike Cajun.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle sounding rocket consisting of a Nike booster together with a Cajun upper stage. Aside from the Soviet MMR-06, the Nike-Cajun was the most often launched sounding rocket. The Cajun motor was developed for NASA in the 1950's by Thiokol, providing a more modern but still affordable replacement for the World War II-era Deacon.

Nike Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Two-stage rocket using surplus Nike boosters and Deacon sounding rocket upper stage. The combination was much cheaper than Aerobee, and unlike Rockoon could be launched from fixed launchers in two and a half hours. It was used for 'falling sphere' air density studies, atmospheric soundings, and for heat transfer studies launched from NACA Wallops Island.

Nike Hawk.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Hawk

Nike Hercules.

  • Popular Name of MIM-14A surface-to-air missile.

Nike Hercules.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x TX-30

Nike Hydac.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Hydac

Nike Iroquois.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerojet developed the Nike-Iroquois (also called Niro) to fulfill a US Air Force requirement for a low-cost sounding rocket with roll control and high structural strength.

Nike Javelin.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Javelin

Nike Javelin 3.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Javelin 3

Nike Malemute.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Malemute

Nike Nike.

  • American sounding rocket. 2-4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + upper stages.

Nike Nike Cajun 2.

  • American sounding rocket.

Nike Nike Deacon 2.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Deacon

Nike Nike HPAG.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x HPAG

Nike Nike T40.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40

Nike Nike Tri-Deacon T40.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 3 x Deacon + 1 x T-40

Nike Orion.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle. Payload 68 kg to 190 km or 204 kg to 90 km. The Nike motor had three equally spaced unmodified Ajax fins, and the Orion motor had four fins on the aft end arranged in a cruciform configuration to provide stability. The first stage Nike booster had an action time of 3.2 seconds. The second stage ignited 9 seconds after liftoff and had an action time of 32 seconds. Capability 68 kg payload to 190 kilometers or a 204 kg payload to 90 kilometers when launched from sea level at an 85 degree launch angle.

Nike Orion Improved.

  • American sounding rocket.

Nike Recruit.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit

Nike Recruit Nike.

  • American sounding rocket.

Nike T40 T55.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55

Nike T40 T55 Nike.

  • Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55

Nike Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Tomahawk upper stage. Payload 45 kg to 370 km or 115 kg to 215 km.

Nike Viper I.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Viper I

Nike Yardbird.

  • American sounding rocket.

Nike Zeus.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. First anti-ballistic missile tested by US. Protoypes were deployed operationally from the mid-Pacific test base as nuclear-tipped ASAT missiles. Cancelled 1966; replaced by the Spartan missile.

Nike Zeus 3.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x TX-238 + 1 x TX-239

Nike Zeus A.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x Zeus A

Nike-Black Brant.

Nike-Zeus.

  • Popular Name of Nike Zeus anti-ballistic missile.

N-IM 1965.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IM would mark an tremendous increase in vehicle size and was the ultimate pure liquid oxygen/kerosene version considered. The first stage engines would be increased to 250 tonnes thrust, without reducing reliability, through use of higher engine chamber pressure. Propellant load in the first stage would be almost doubled. Second stage engine thrust would increase to 280 tonnes each and the second and third stages again enlarged.

N-IMV-III.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Then N-IMV-III would add the Block V-III cryogenic third stage to the first and second stages of the N-IM. This provided the second-highest performance of the variations considered and would certainly have been cheaper than the N-IFV-II, III.

N-IMV-II-III.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. N-IMV-II, III was the ultimate conventionally-powered N1 ever considered. It paired the monster N-1M first stage with new cryogenic second and third stages. Both liftoff thrust and payload of this vehicle would have been double that of the American Saturn V.

N-IU.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IU would be the initial production version of the N1 following the mad rush to make the lunar landings. It would have essentially the same payload but would be substantially re-engineered for sharply improved reliability, most notably with autonomously operating engines. It is interesting to note that four years before the disastorous first flight Korolev already foresaw the potential engine problems that would be the downfall of the project.

N-IUV-III.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IUV-III would replace the N-IU's conventional third stage with a LOX/LH2 cryogenic third stage. This was seen at the time as the first step in exploitation of cryogenic technology in Russia. Although pursued for some time, this large stage never went into development. The more modestly-sized Block R, Block S, and Block SR instead were put into development in the early 1970's.

NLS.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. New (or National) Launch System (NLS) joint NASA/USAF studies began in 1989, following the demise of the ALS. They proposed development of a family of launch vehicles using a new STME engine to replace the existing ‘high cost' boosters derived from 1950's missile designs. The $12 billion nonrecurring cost was nearly that estimated for ALS, and this cost could not be recouped at projected launch rates. NLS was terminated in 1991.

NLS HLV.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NLS Heavy Lift Version. Lower cost expendable launch vehicle studied by NASA/USAF in late 1980's.

Nodong.

  • North Korean intermediate range ballistic missile. Single stage vehicle, basis for Iranian Shahab 3 and Pakistani Ghauri.

Norma.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion.

North American Air Augmented VTOVL.

  • North American Aviation's air-augmented vertical takeoff & landing single-stage-to-orbit RLV from 1963 would have used external burning ramjets which, according to preliminary studies would reduce the gross liftoff mass of a VTVL SSTO by up to 30%.

NOTS 401A Sandhawk.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x NOTS 401A + 1 x Sandhawk

Nova.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova was NASA's ultimate launch vehicle, studied intently from 1959 to 1962. Originally conceived to allow a direct manned landing on the moon, in its final iteration it was to put a million-pound payload into low earth orbit to support manned Mars expeditions. It was abandoned in NASA advanced mission planning thereafter in favor of growth versions of the Saturn V.

Nova 4L.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Earliest NASA Nova design, using only 4 F-1's, capability less than later Saturn designs.

Nova 4S.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using a cluster of 4 x 240 inch solid motors used as first stage; upper stages as Nova 7S and 8L.

Nova 5S.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using segmented solid motors in first and second stages. Five six segment motors in first stage; four four segment motors in second stage, equivalent to 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage.

Nova 7S.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using a cluster of 7 x 160 inch solid motors used as first stage; upper stages as Nova 4S and 8L.

Nova 8L.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Most capable NASA Nova design, studied in June 1960 just prior to selection of Saturn for moon landing. Used a three stage configuration of eight F-1 engines in stage 1, two M-1 engines in stage 2, and one J-2 engine in stage 3. Similar to the Saturn C-8 except in the use of M-1 engines. Unlike other modular Nova designs of the time, this one had the unitary stage construction of Saturn.

Nova 8L Mod.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova concept where first two stages use short Nova building blocks with 2 F-1's in each block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. Typical of early Nova designs with F-1's in both first and second stages.

Nova 9L.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using clustered small diameter tanks; 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage; compared with solid Nova using five six segment solid motors in first stage and four four segment motors in second stage.

Nova A.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 4 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 4 J-2 engine/modules in second stage.

Nova B.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 6 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 6 J-2 engine/modules in second stage.

Nova C.

  • American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova A as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage.

Nova D.

  • American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova B as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage.

Nova DAC ISI.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono design for Nova using LH2/Lox in both stages. Improved Specific Impulse chemical stage uses many engines feeding into single large nozzle.

Nova GD-B.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using existing engines. Recoverable engine package; separation at 3,398 m/s at 76,200 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 30 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Nova GD-E.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using 325 inch solid motors as first stage, M-1 engines in second stage. Recoverable solid motors, separation at 1,972 m/s at 53,000 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 3 61 m diameter parachutes 610 km downrange. Recovery of solid motors forshadowed same approach on shuttle 15 years later. Masses estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Nova GD-F.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using new 3.5 million kgf Lox/Kerosene engines in first stage. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Nova GD-H.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using 1 1/2 stage arrangement and new 2.4 million kgf Lox/LH2 engines. Recoverable booster 4 engine package would separate at 2,980 m/s at 87,800 m altitude; splashdown under 4 46 m diameter parachutes 1,000 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Nova GD-J.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using recoverable Lox/RP-1 stage of ballistic shape with 3 million kgf engines; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Nova MM 14A.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using 4 300 inch solids as first stage, 5 M-1 in second stage. Operational date would have been April 1973

Nova MM 14B.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using 4 280 inch solids as first stage, 4 M-1 in second stage. Operational date would have been February 1973

Nova MM 1B.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using existing engines; 14 F-1A in the first stage, 2 M-1 in the second. Operational date would have been December 1972

Nova MM 1C.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using existing engines; 18 F-1A in the first stage, 3 M-1 in the second. Operational date would have been February 1973

Nova MM 24G.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using new high pressure LH2/Lox engines; 18 in the first stage in a plug nozzle arrangement, 2 in the second. Operational date would have been December 1974.

Nova MM 33.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova single stage to orbit design with 24 new high pressure LH2/Lox engines in the first stage in a plug nozzle arrangement. Operational date would have been April 1975.

Nova MM 34.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova 1 1/2 stage design with 4 new 3 million kgf LH2/Lox engines in the jettisonable booster section and a single 3 million kgf sustainer. Operational date would have been June 1976.

Nova MM R10E-2.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable version of most exotic Martin Nova vairant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980.

Nova MM R10R-2.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable version of most exotic Martin Nova vairant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980.

Nova MM S10E-1.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been October 1977.

Nova MM S10E-2.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been November 1977.

Nova MM S10R-1.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been June 1978.

Nova MM S10R-2.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been July 1978.

Nova MM T10EE-1.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; expendable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been November 1976.

Nova MM T10RE-1.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been January 1977.

Nova MM T10RR-2.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 24 modules exhausting to a zero length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with a toroidal plug nozzle engine. Operational date would have been December 1976.

Nova MM T10RR-3.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been July 1977.

Nova NASA.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Nova vehicle most often illustrated in the popular press and histories. As in other early concepts, this NASA design of 1959/1960 used F-1 engine in both first and second stages. Resulting performance and total liftoff mass was equivalent to later Saturn V.

Nova-1 DAC.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono design for Nova using Lox/RP-1 in first stage, existing engines.

Nova-2 DAC.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono design for Nova using LH2/Lox in both stages.

NS20.

  • Alternate Designation of Pluton short range ballistic missile.

Oberth.

  • German sounding rocket. Rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth agreed to build and fly a liquid propellant rocket to publicise the Fritz Lang film Frau im Mond. Oberth's design was too ambitious and the rocket was never completed in time for the film's premiere. But the engine developed for it would be further refined and used in the Mirak rocket, flown in 1931-1933.

Object 350.

  • Article Number of Burya intercontinental cruise missile.

OBV.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Suborbital booster for the US Missile Defense Agency's Ground-based Midcourse Defense system's EKV ballistic missile kill vehicle. The basic OBV consisted of the upper three stages and guidance system from the Taurus orbital launch vehicle (essentially a wingless Pegasus-XL). The OBV was launched from an open pad; the operational version was to be silo-launched.

Oghab.

  • Iranian unguided solid propellant artillery rocket, licensed production of Chinese Type 83. Entered service in 1986.

Oka.

  • Popular Name of 9K79 and 9K714B intermediate range ballistic missile.

OKB-456.

  • Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Glushko nuclear engine heating ammonia as a propellant.

OKB-670.

  • Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Bondaryuk nuclear engine heating mixed alcohol and ammonia as a propellant.

One stage Orbital Space Truck.

  • Alternate designation for OOST and OOST ISI SSTO orbital launch vehicles.

Onega.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle proposed for the 'Kliper' manned spaceplane in 2004. The 'Onega' was a hitherto-unrevealed massive improvement of the reliable Soyuz. It would deliver double the payload to a space station orbit, and could be available by 2010 if funding was made available.

OOST.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono's earliest design for an expendable single-stage-to-orbit LH2/Lox booster. The baseline version used conventional engines.

OOST ISI.

  • American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Alternate version of OOST using Improved Specific Impulse approach: many engines feeding into single large nozzle.

OPd-56-39-22D.

  • French test vehicle. Original designation of the Antares test vehicle.

Opel.

  • Fritz von Opel sponsored early tests of rocket-powered automobiles and aircraft, popularizing the idea of rocket propulsion in Germany.

Orbital Boost Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for OBV anti-ballistic missile.

Orbus.

  • American target missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x GEM-40 + 1 x Orbus 1 + 1 x Orbus 1

Orel.

  • In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel programme to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation.

Orel V2.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This preferred near-term configuration was a semi-reusable vertical takeoff/horizontal landing two stage launch vehicle. It would use a flyback booster, expendable second stage, and a small manned spaceplane. This was preferred to the Orel V3, which was essentially the earlier MMKS/OK-M1 system with a flyback booster, expendable core tank, and small spaceplane with recoverable main engines.

Orel V4.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff, horizontal landing two stage to orbit concept. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6.

Orel V5.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertically launched two stage to orbit concept consisting of horizontal landing booster, vertical landing orbiter. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6.

Orel V6.

  • Fully reusable vertical takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit launch vehicle. The preferred long-term alternative of the Russian Orel launch vehicle study of the 1990's.

Orel V7 RSSLV-2.

  • Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Version with Lox/LH2 propellants.

Orel V7 RSSLV-3.

  • Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Tripropellant Lox/Kerosene (RG-1)/LH2 version.

Orient Express.

  • Manufacturer's designation for X-30 ssto winged orbital launch vehicle.

Oriflamme.

  • French design for a scramjet-powered horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single stage to orbit vehicle.

Orion Hot Rod.

  • American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The modified test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 105 kg. The outer shell and upper shock absorber of the original design were deleted and a parachute recovery system added.

Orion OLV.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space.

Orion Planetary.

  • American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The baseline planetary version of Orion would have launched from the earth's surface. It would have been bullet-shaped, 41 m in diameter and about 50 m high.

Orion Saturn V.

  • American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The final iteration of the Orion design was a nuclear pulse propulsion module launched into earth orbit by a Saturn V. The 100 tonne unit would have had a diameter of 10 m to match that of the booster. This would limit specific impulse to 1800 to 2500 seconds, still two to three times that of a nuclear thermal system.

Orion Sounding Rocket.

  • American sounding rocket. The Orion was a single stage, unguided, fin stabilized rocket system which used a surplus US Army Hawk surface-to-air-missile rocket motor having a dual thrust propellant grain. Three fins on the aft end of the motor were canted to roll the vehicle at four revolutions per second at burnout for stability. Improved performance could be obtained by using a Nike booster stage. Payload 38 kg to 88 km or 68 kg to 71 km.

Orion Starship - Ablative.

  • American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The ablative version of Dyson's starship would be smaller and faster then the heat sink version. It would have a mass of 100,000 tons unloaded and be equipped with 300,000 one megaton bombs.

Orion Starship - Heat Sink.

  • American nuclear pulse orbital launch vehicle. The heat sink version of Dyson's starship would have a pusher plate made of copper. This would require 5 million tonnes of exposed surface to absorb and then reradiate 1 megaton of bomb energy. The plate would have to be 20 km in diameter.

Orion Test Article.

  • American nuclear pulse test vehicle. The original test article for Project Orion had a total mass of 133 kg including its bullet-shaped outer shell.

Orion-1.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Technology test vehicle, used to verify rocket motor and technologies for Orion-2 sounding rocket.

Orion-2.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Single-stage solid-propellant sounding rocket first launched in 1965. The rocket could reach a top speed of 548 m/s.

OTR-22.

  • Alternate designation for 9K76 and 9K76B intermediate range ballistic missiles.

OTR-23.

  • Alternate designation for 9K79 and 9K714B intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Otrag.

  • $200 million was spent from 1975-1987 by Lutz Kayer in a serious attempt to develop a low-cost satellite launcher using clusters of mass-produced pressure-fed liquid propellant modules. The project was finally squelched by the German government under pressure from the Soviet and French.

P-100.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Family of sea- or silo- launched Mach 3.5 cruise missiles with ranges up to intercontinental distances.

P-205.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of a family of long-range cruise missiles was begun in 1956 by Ilyushin. The P-205 was a land-based strategic cruise missile based on the P-20 antiship missile. The land-launch version was developed for the VVS in 1958-1960. There were two submarine projects for the missile, 627A and 653, both designed by OKB-143. Construction of the 627A submarine began at Severodvinsk, but the work on the submarine was cancelled in November 1961.

P-6.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile.

P-750.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. IOC in 1988 est 1992+. SS-C-5 GLCM banned in INF.

PAC-3.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. In EMD. PAC-3 version has limited Theater Ballistic Missile Defense capability.

Paiute Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Paiute + 1 x Apache

Paiute Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Paiute + 1 x Tomahawk

Pantera.

  • Norwegian hybrid single stage sounding rocket based on Lockheed Martin's HYSR technology.

Paris Gun.

  • German gun-launched missile. The Paris Gun of World War I could hurl a 120 kg shell with 7 kg of explosive to a range of 131 km and an altitude of 40 km.

Pathfinder.

  • American air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Pioneer Rocketplane planned in the late 1990's to produce the Pathfinder aerial-refueled spaceplane. The two-seat fighter-bomber-sized aircraft was to be powered by two turbofan engines and one kerosene/oxygen-burning RD-120 rocket engine. After takeoff from a conventional airfield, it would rendezvous with a tanker, top off its liquid oxygen tanks, and then rocket to Mach 15 and 110 km altitude. There it would release an upper rocket stage that would boost a 2100 kg payload to orbit. Pathfinder itself would return to the airfield for refueling and reuse.

Patriot.

Patriot.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Standard Army surface-to-air missile. Later versions had anti-tactical missile capability.

Payload Launch Vehicle.

  • American target missile. Launch vehicle using surplus missile motors. PLV was part of the Boeing Lead System Integration (LSI) effort on the National Missile Defense (NMD) program. Lockheed Martin was the manufacturer and prime integrator. PLV used elements first seen on the ERIS program.

PC-2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Babylon Gun gun-launched orbital launch vehicle.

Peace-1.

  • Alternate designation for T-7A sounding rocket.

Peacekeeper.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. 10 nuclear MIRV warheads. In service 1986-2004.

Pedro Recruit.

  • American sounding rocket. Air Launch Probe System (ALPS) and Fighter Launched Advanced Materials Experiment (FLAME) were both vehicles that used a Pedro first stage and a Recruit second stage. They were launched from an F-4 fighter aircraft.

Pegase.

  • French sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle with larger booster and Belier upper stage. Evidently not flown.

Pegasus.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher.

Pegasus H.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Orion 50S + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38

Pegasus VTOVL.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono design for semi-single-stage-to-orbit ballistic VTOVL launch vehicle. Drop tanks were shed on the way to orbit. Pegasus could deliver either a Satun V-size payload to LEO or 172 passengers and their luggage the 12,000 km from Vandenberg to Singapore in 39 minutes.

Pegasus XL.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Uprated version of Pegasus air-launched winged light satellite launcher. 4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38.

Pegasus XL/HAPS.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Five stage version consisting of 1 x L-1011 + 1 x Pegasus XL stage 1 + 1 x Orion 50XL + 1 x Orion 38 + 1 x HAPS

Pegasus/HAPS.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Five stage version consisting of 1 x NB-52 + 1 x Orion 50S + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38 + 1 x HAPS

Pekdosan-1.

  • Alternate designation for Taepodong 1 orbital launch vehicle.

Percheron.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Low cost commercial test vehicle. First test failed and satellite launch project sank for lack of further investors and customers.

Perimeter.

  • Alternate Designation of Perimetr 15A11 strategic communications missile.

Perimetr 15A11.

  • Ukrainian strategic communications missile. Perimetr was developed for launch of a highly secret communications payload. This would be be put in orbit or on a long high-altitude trajectory to provide back-up command and control of the strategic forces in the event of nuclear war.

Pershing.

  • Popular Name of Pershing 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pershing.

  • American US Army intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pershing 1.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pershing 1A.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pershing 1B.

  • Popular Name of MGM-31D intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pershing 2.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile. Cancelled

Pershing IA.

  • Popular Name of Pershing 1A intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pershing II.

  • Popular Name of Pershing 2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Petrel.

  • Alternate designation for Petrel 1 sounding rocket.

Petrel.

  • British sounding rocket. Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same tube-launch technique as Skua. A total of 240 Petrels were launched from 1967-1982 from many sites around the world.

Petrel 1.

  • British sounding rocket. Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same launch technique as Skua. Three Chick rockets blasted the upper stage and payload out of a 10-m long launch tube. The 4.5 kN Lapwing second stage burned for 30 seconds. A unique aspect was that the Chick boosters could be recovered and reloaded with propellant.

Petrel 2.

  • British sounding rocket. Improved Petrel using four Chick boosters and a lengthened Lapwing second stage which provide 4.5 kN thrust for 40 seconds. Petrel 2's were also fired as targets for missile tests at Woomera.

PGM-11A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Redstone short range ballistic missile.

PGM-16A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Atlas A test vehicle.

PGM-16B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Atlas B test vehicle.

PGM-17A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Thor intermediate range ballistic missile.

PGM-19A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile.

Phoenix.

  • Popular Name of SLS A-388 orbital launch vehicle.

Phoenix C.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The larger 180 tonne Phoenix design of the 1980's was envisioned in two versions -- the Phoenix C (Cargo, unmanned) and Phoenix E (Excursion -- for use as a lunar or Mars lander and personnel transport to earth orbit). The earlier versions used liquid oxygen oxidiser and two fuels (hydrogen and propane) but later iterations used only oxygen and hydrogen (varying the oxidiser to fuel ration during ascent). The designs used an 'aeroplug' in place of the 'aerospike' of earlier SSTO designs. Gary Hudson and Maxwell Hunter spent several years trying to interest investors in the designs before the company folded.

Phoenix L.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The small Phoenix design of the 1980's was envisioned in two versions -- the Phoenix L (Light, cargo only) and Phoenix LP (Light-Prime, crewed). The earlier versions used liquid oxygen oxidiser and two fuels (hydrogen and propane) but later iterations used only oxygen and hydrogen (varying the oxidiser to fuel ratio during ascent). The designs used an 'aeroplug' in place of the 'aerospike' of earlier SSTO designs.

Phoenix M.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Intermediate versions of the Phoenix concept were sketched out in the mid-1980's. These more conservative vehicles used individual altitude-compensating bell nozzles rather than the aeroplug baseline. Composite materials were to be used in the aeroshell and, possibly, in the propellant tankage.

Pioner.

  • Launch System of 15Zh45 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pioner.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Mobile solid propellant intermediate range multiple warhead ballistic missile. Seen as an enormous threat to NATO. 405 launchers deployed by 1987 when the missile was banned by the INF Treaty.

Pioner UTTKh.

  • Launch System of 15Zh45UTTKh intermediate range ballistic missile.

Pioner-3.

  • Launch System of 15Zh53 intermediate range ballistic missile.

PL-04.

Plato.

  • US Army anti-ballistic missile, development started in 1951. Program cancelled in 1959.

Pluto.

  • Popular Name of SLAM intercontinental cruise missile.

Pluton.

  • French short range ballistic missile.

PLV.

Pobeda.

  • Launch System of R-5 and R-5M intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Poggensee.

  • German sounding rocket.

Pogo Hi.

  • American test vehicle.

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

  • Full name of PSLV all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Polaris.

  • American submarine-launched ballistic missile. Probably the most technically innovative program in history, Polaris integrated solid-propellant, inertially-guided intermediate range ballistic missiles with nuclear submarines that could remain submerged for months at a time. All of these were new technologies, but the first ship was underway only three years after go-ahead.

Polaris A1.

  • American missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x A1P + 1 x A1P stage 2

Polaris A-1.

Polaris A2.

  • American missile. In comparison to the A-1, the Polaris A-2 had a slightly longer first stage and a lighter second-stage motor casing. These features increased range to 2800 km (1500 nm), the performance originally envisioned by the Navy.

Polaris A-2.

Polaris A2E.

  • American missile.

Polaris A3.

  • American missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x A3P + 1 x X-260

Polaris A-3.

Polaris A3 A3T.

  • American missile. Two stage test vehicle consisting of 1 x A3P + 1 x X-260

Polaris A3 A3TK.

  • American missile. British version of Polaris A3.

Polaris AX.

  • American missile. 2 stage experimental vehicle

Polaris TV.

  • American missile. Single stage test vehicle to test thrust-vectoring system.

Polyblock UR-500.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. UR-500 design studies considered two variants of the first stage: polyblock and monoblock. The polyblock variant consisted of a centre large diameter oxidizer tank surrounded by several smaller diameter fuel tanks. This version could be assembled in a special rig with the lateral blocks being sequentially mounted on the centre. In January 1962 this design was chosen as most advantageous, following studies that indicated improved wind loads and bending moment characteristics compared to the monoblock design. The developed version of the design would become known as the Proton.

Polyot.

  • Alternate designation for Sputnik 11A59 orbital launch vehicle.

Polypheme.

  • French tactical ballistic missile. Operational and technical evaluation 1998-2002.

Poseidon.

  • American submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM, 2 stages, inertial guided, nuclear MIRV warhead, range that of twice Polaris A-3.

Poseidon C-3.

  • Popular Name of Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Poseidon C-4.

  • Alternate designation for Trident C-4 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Poseidon D-5.

  • Alternate designation for Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

PR-90.

  • Russian short range ballistic missile. Short-range air-augmented ballistic missile. Tested concepts for Gnom ICBM.

Priboy/Surf.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle using the 1st stage of the SS-N-20 SLBM topped by an SS-N-23 SLBM (RSM-52+RSM-54). Liftoff mass 104 tonnes. Can be launched from stationary or mobile platforms.

Prithvi.

  • Indian single-stage short range ballistic missile. First units deployed in 1995.

Private.

  • American test vehicle. At request of Army Ordnance, Cal Tech's rocket laboratory developed the first US long-range missiles. Project ORDCIT resulted in development of the Private A and Corporal missiles. At Camp Irwin, Calif., 24 Private A rockets were launched by JPL, only 11 months after the start of Project ORDCIT. This rocket technology that led to later operational Corporal and Sergeant missiles.

Project 1059.

  • Alternate designation for DF-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Project 4211.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Eole test vehicle.

Project 4212.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Super V-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Project 4213.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Veronique sounding rocket.

Project 621.

  • German sounding rocket. Dornier project of the early 1960's for a recoverable, reusable sounding rocket. The liquid fueled rocket would use a paraglider for recovery, and could be reused up to six times. Drop tests were made of the paraglider system in Sardinia in 1965 but no flights of the rocket itself ever took place.

Project 921.

  • In 1992 Xiandong Bao of the Shanghai Astronautics Bureau revealed plans for a modular family of modern rockets to support future Chinese manned space activities. The entire family would be based on a Lox/Kerosene booster stage of 306 tonnes mass, and a Lox/LH2 upper stage of 57 tonnes mass.

Project Pilot.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The US Navy's satellite launcher project competed with the Army's Jupiter-C, the Air Force Atlas, and the civilian Vanguard. Air-launched satellite launch vehicle, and anti-satellite versions, tested by the US Navy shortly after Sputnik. One may have achieved orbit.

Project Pilot 1.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Ground-launched, 5 stage vehicle for Project Pilot.

Project Pilot 2.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Six stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4D-1 Skyray + 2 x HOTROC + 2 x HOTROC + 1 x X-241 + 1 x NOTS 8in + 1 x NOTS 3in Sph.

Proposed Atlas.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The April 1953 design for the Atlas at the time of Convair's proposal used five main engines to power a 200 metric tone rocket able to send a 1400 kg nuclear warhead over a 10,200 km range. CEP was 1850 m.

Prospector.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Proton.

  • The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes.

Proton / Block D-1.

  • Alternate designation for Proton-K-D-1 orbital launch vehicle.

Proton / Block D-2.

  • Alternate designation for Proton-K-D-2 orbital launch vehicle.

Proton / Block DM.

  • Alternate designation for Proton-K-DM orbital launch vehicle.

Proton / Block DM-2M.

Proton / Block DM-5.

Proton 2.

  • Alternate designation for UR-500 launch vehicle.

Proton 3.

  • Alternate designation for Proton-K orbital launch vehicle.

Proton 8K82K / Block DM-2.

  • Alternate designation for Proton-K-DM-2 orbital launch vehicle.

Proton KM.

Proton M.

Proton/Briz K/M.

  • Earlier 8K82K model Proton, but Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaced the Block D cyrogenic stage.

Proton/Briz M.

  • Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage.

Proton-K.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Proton-K/17S40.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier paylods launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaisance satellite.

Proton-K/17S40 DM2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 17S40 with payload adapter for deployment of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit.

Proton-K/D.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program led to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Proton-K/D-1.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. This derivative of the original four stage Block D / 11S824 version of the Proton was used from 1978 to launch Lavochkin OKB planetary probes (Mars, Venera) and high earth orbit astronomical observatories (Astron, Granat). Guidance to the Block D-1 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in high orbits or planetary trajectories.

Proton-K/D-2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft.

Proton-K/DM.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernised version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of gesynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous comsats, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher.

Proton-K/DM-2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'.

Proton-K/DM-2 DM1.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861 with adapter for Lockheed Martin AS 4000 bus spacecraft.

Proton-K/DM-2M.

  • This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on.

Proton-K/DM-2M DM3.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for insertion of Hughes HS-601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.

Proton-K/DM-2M DM4.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.

Proton-M/DM-2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Proton-M stages, mated to the older 11S861 upper stage for certain payloads.

Proton-M/DM-3.

  • Proton-M/DM-3

PSLV.

  • Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites.

PSLV C.

  • Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 6 x PSOM + 1 x S139 + 1 x PS2 + 1 x PS3 + 1 x PS4

PSLV CA.

  • Core alone four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S139 + 1 x PS2 + 1 x PS3 + 1 x PS4

PSLV XL.

  • Five stage vehicle consisting of 6 x PSOM-XL + 1 x S139 + 1 x PS2 + 1 x PS3 + 1 x PS4

PTV-N-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Cobra-BTV test vehicle.

Puellenberg.

  • Albert Puellenberg began construction of a series of increasingly sophisticated rockets in 1928. After further private rocketry development was prohibited in 1934, Puellenberg continued his work in secret, culminating with the extremely sophisticated VR12 rocket in 1938. This was the end of the line and the last privately-developed rocket built in Germany until 1956.

PWN-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Loki Dart sounding rocket.

PWN-10.

  • American sounding rocket, equipping the Loki-Dart payload with a radar transponder, in turn requiring the larger Super Loki motor to reach the same altitude.

PWN-11.

  • American sounding rocket. Version of the PWN-10 with a smaller payload dart without the transponder.

PWN-12.

  • American sounding rocket. The was another sounding rocket using the Super Loki booster. It used a dart with a ROBIN (Rocket Balloon Instrument) Inflatable Falling Sphere payload.

PWN-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Aerobee 150 sounding rocket.

PWN-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Nike Cajun sounding rocket.

PWN-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Exos sounding rocket.

PWN-5.

  • American sounding rocket. Produced by Marquardt for the Army, Roksonde meteorological sounding rockets first completed a series of tests at White Sands Missile Range and Pacific Missile Range. They were later successfully fired from Cape Canaveral, telemetered measurements of winds and temperatures at altitudes above 600,000 m.

PWN-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Kitty sounding rocket.

PWN-7.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Rooster sounding rocket.

PWN-8.

  • American sounding rocket. In the early 1960s, the low-cost Loki-Dart sounding rockets could only carry a passive chaff payload to high altitude. For more sophisticated payloads like temperature transmitters, the USAF had to use the significantly more expensive Arcas. The Space Data Corporation (SDC) was founded in 1963 with the goal to develop a meteorological instrument package small enough to fit into the 3.5 cm (1.38 in) diameter darts of the Loki-Dart systems.

PWN-9.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Kangaroo sounding rocket.

Quad Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of 4 Deacons fired in parallel.

Quick Reach.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Family of low-cost space boosters under development by AirLaunch LLC under DARPA and NASA contracts in 2007-2008.

Quick Reach 1.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Low-cost air-launched pressure-fed liqud oxygen/propane launch vehicle developed under DARPA's Falcon program.

Quick Reach 2.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Enlarged version of the Quick Reach launch vehicle proposed to launch the t/Space CXV manned spacecraft. The concept built on both Quick Reach and SpaceShipOne to produce a low-cost air-launched man-rated pressure-fed liqud oxygen/propane launch vehicle.

r.

R.04.

  • French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Wasserfall.

R-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for GIRD-09 sounding rocket.

R-1.

  • Russian short range ballistic missile. Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions.

R-1 8A11.

  • Russian short range ballistic missile. Initial production version.

R-10.

  • Alternate designation for G-4 intermediate range ballistic missile.

R-10.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Glushko booster - 1500t, Korolev I evo delo p. 307

R-101.

  • Post-war Russian version of German Wasserfall surface-to-air missile. Never put into production, but technology used for further surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile developments in Russia.

R-102.

  • Post-war Russian version of German Schmetterling surface-to-air missile. 16 test flights made at Kapustin Yar between 18 October and 19 December 1949. Not put into production, cancelled in favour of the R-112.

R-103.

  • Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favour of the R-110.

R-103A.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

R-108.

  • All-Russian second generation version of the R-101, itself a derivative of the German Wasserfall. Development began in May 1949 but the missile did not reach flight test stage before its cancellation in 1951.

R-109.

  • Russian derivative of the German Wasserfall, an interim design between the R-101 and R-108. The missile did not reach flight test stage before it was cancellation in 1951.

R-11.

  • First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives.

R-110.

  • Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role.

R-112.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1951. Propulsion and guidance based on that of the R-102 (copy of German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1951 when decision was made to proceed with a new generation of SAM designs.

R-117.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1950. Developed in competition with the R-112 (derrived from the German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1950 in favour of further development of the R-112.

R-11A.

  • Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Version of the R-11 'Scud' missile used as a sounding rocket. First launched in 1957, and capable of taking 250 to 400 kg of payload to 100 to 160 km altitude. The payloads were enclosed in a spherical re-entry capsule, which was gyro-stabilised to ensure instruments could be pointed precisely at the sun or other astronomical target.

R-11A-MV.

  • Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Sounding rocket version of R-11 with increased payload.

R-11FM.

  • First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service.

R-11M.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved production version of R-11, not retired until 1977.

R-12.

  • Manufacturer's designation for G-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

R-12.

  • Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-12 was the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile, the first Soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead, and the first mass-produced missile in history. 2,300 of the storable propellant rockets were built and deployed in both mobile and silo-based versions for thirty years, from March 1959 to June 1989. It was a primary element in the Soviet deterrent threatening Western Europe and China throughout the Cold War. Deployment of R-12's to Cuba in 1962 precipitated the Cuba Missile Crisis.

R-12U.

  • Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version of the R-12U, for pad-launch or from the 'Dvina' silo complex.

R-13.

  • Manufacturer's designation for G-3 intermediate range cruise missile.

R-13.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Developed from 1956-1960. First nuclear-armed SLBM.

R-14.

  • Manufacturer's designation for G-4 intermediate range ballistic missile.

R-14.

  • Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-14, with a range of 3600 km, was the only missile of that range class to be fielded. A key element in the Cuba missile crisis, it thereafter was part of the nuclear deterrent targeted at NATO and China. Built in relatively limited numbers by Soviet standards, it was perhaps more important as the basis for the first stage of the R-16 ICBM and the Kosmos-3 launch vehicle. The latter continued in use into the 21st Century.

R-14U.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version, for pad-launch or from silo complex 'Chusovaya'.

R-15.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye 1000-km range submarine-launched ballistic missile. According to Przybilski, it was related to the light ICBM later designated R-26/8K66.

R-16.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations.

R-16U.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Standardised version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch.

R-17.

  • Russian short-range ballistic missile. The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. The original design was by Makeyev but the missile itself was produced by the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant.

R-1A.

  • Russian short range ballistic test vehicle. Experimental missile for testing warhead separation.

R-1B.

  • Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches.

R-1D.

  • Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, the ionosphere, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals.

R-1E.

  • Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1E version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, air composition, solar radiation, the ionosphere, ozone layer characteristics, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals.

R-1E (A-1).

  • Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle.

R-1V.

  • Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1V version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches.

R-2.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry.

R-20.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Glushko booster - 2000t, Korolev I evo delo p. 307

R-21.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1962. NATO code Serb may apply to SS-N-6 instead. First subsurface launched SLBM (development began at OKB- 586 and transferred to SKB-385).

R-21A.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version of R-21 SLBM on Yankee submarines.

R-26.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled so that Yangel could concentrate his efforts on the R-36. After project cancellation, a mock-up of this missile was shown in Moscow parades and misidentified for years by Western analysts as the 'SS-8'.

R-27.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1967. Correct NATO code may be Serb; Sawfly was competitor. Development completed 1968.

R-27K.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight October 1972.

R-27U.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Development completed 1973.

R-29.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile (range 7800 km). First flight 1969. Development completed 1973. The variants of this missile were given three different DoD designations over the years (SS-N-8, SS-N-18, and SS-N-23).

R-29D.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1976. Development completed 1974 according to Makeyev.

R-29K.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1977.

R-29R.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1975; Nov 1978 first sub launch. Developed 1973-1977. 3 MIRV

R-29R-2S.

  • Alternate Designation of R-29R submarine-launched ballistic missile.

R-29RL.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1981. SLBM on Delta 2 subs. 7 MIRV

R-29RM.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM on Delta 4 subs. First flight June 1983. Developed 1973-1986.

R-2A.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2A was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 200 km, including properties of the atmosphere from 150-200 km; ultraviolet observations of the sun; recovery of animals from flights to 200 km altitude; and study of the ionosphere at altitudes of 150-200 km.

R-2E.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2E prototype tested technological innovations planned for the production R-2 missile. These included use of an integral fuel tank and a seperable warhead.

R-2R.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile.

R-3.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the long-range R-3 missile was authorised at the same time as the V-2-derived R-1 and R-2 rockets in April 1947. Supplemental authorisation was contained in a government decree of 14 April 1948.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km. To achieve this objective innovative technology was needed in every area of the missile design. Korolev was again in direct competition with the design to the same specification of the captured Germans (Groettrup's G-4).

R-31.

  • Russian submarine launched ballistic missile. First Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missile to reach production using solid propellants. Deployed from 1980, but withdrawn in 1990 under the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty.

R-36 8K67.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial ICBM version.

R-36 8K67M.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36 8K67MA.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36 8K67P.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36P was a version of the R-36 which could deploy three separate (but not independently-targeted) warheads instead of one. The concept was to ensure a wider zone of destruction and overpressure then a single warhead detonation would create.

R-36 8K67PM.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36M.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos.

R-36M2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for R-36M2 15A18M intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36M2 15A18M.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War.

R-36MU 15A18.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range.

R-36MUTTKh.

  • Manufacturer's designation for R-36MU 15A18 intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-36-O.

  • Ukrainian orbital missile. The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise attack' component of the concept, 18 missiles were operational from 1969 to 1983.

R-36O 8K69.

  • Alternate designation for R-36-O orbital missile.

R-36O 8K69M.

  • Ukrainian orbital missile.

R-38.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Small, economical ICBM studied by Yangel as an alternative to Chelomei's UR-100. Both one and two stage variants were considered. Work ended when Yangel was ordered to concentrate on R-36.

R-39.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM developed for use on Typhoon subs.

R-39M.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved version.

R-39UTTKh.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile.

R-3A.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. So much new technology was involved for the R-3 that it was deemed necessary to build an R-3A intermediate experimental rocket, based on the R-2. This would be flown to test new construction methods, guidance systems, and high energy propellants. The R-3A was specified in 1949 to have a 900 to 1000 km range with a payload of 1530 kg; an unfuelled mass of 4100 kg; 20,500 kg of propellants; and a lift-off thrust of 40 tonnes. The R-3A could also serve as a prototype for a more modest IRBM. Flight tests of the R-3A were scheduled for October 1951.

R-4.

  • Alternate designation for G-1 missile.

R-46.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Super-heavy ICBM designed by Yangel in 1963-1966. The original R-56 super-booster concept consisted of clustered R-46's.

R-5.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs.

R-5 VAO.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments using the High-Altitude Automatic Geophysical Station nose cone originally flown on the R-11, equipped with a parachute recovery system. . Experiments carried in the gyro-stabilised payload included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes and x-ray pinhole cameras.

R-500.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. MiG design for an equivalent to the US Bomarc extremely long-range surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage.

R-56.

  • Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The R-56 was Yangel's ultimate superbooster design. Trade studies begun in 1962 resulted in a conventional tandem stage design capable of being transported on the Soviet canal system from the factory to the launch site, while still placing 40 metric tons into low earth orbit. However various Soviet government factions favored the much larger (and less practical) Korolev N1 or Chelomei UR-700 designs. Yangel made one last attempt to convince the government to sponsor a common approach to the lunar program, with different design bureaus concentrating on just one part of the mission, as the American's were doing. But his practical solutions obtained no traction, and further work on the R-56 was abandoned.

R-56 Polyblock.

  • Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. One design approach considered for Yangel's R-56 superbooster of the 1960's was a polyblock design limited to rail transport restrictions (4 x 3.8 m diameter stages clustered together). Although a dynamic test model was built and tested at Tsniimash, Yangel finally reached the conclusion that a monoblock design was clearly superior to polyblock versions. Further work on the polyblock design was abandoned. Tsniimash exhibits in its small museum the 1:10 structural simulation model of the 3.8 m diameter polyblock design.

R-56 Polyblock ICBM.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutive first and parallel second stages. Range indicated on placard; possibly considered as monster ICBM in competition with UR-500. Work began in 1961.

R-5A.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments retaining the nose cone of the IRBM, but equipped with a parachute recovery system. Experiments carried included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes, mass spectrometers for atmospheric composition studies, and capsules carrying dogs for zero-gravity biologically research.

R-5B.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile.

R-5M.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5M was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first to launch a live nuclear warhead in test. The technical characteristics were virtually the same as those of the R-5 basic model, except for an increase in the propellant load. 48 launchers were deployed from 1956 to 1968, tipped with nuclear warheads of 80 kiloton, 300 kiloton, or 1 megaton.

R-5V.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments under the Vertikal international program, equipped with a spherical re-entry capsule and a parachute recovery system. A wide range of international astrophysics and geophysics instruments were carried.

R-6.

  • Alternate designation for G-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

R-65.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

R-7.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The world's first ICBM and first orbital launch vehicle. The 8K71 version was never actually put into military service, being succeeded by the R-7A 8K74.

R-70.

  • Standard Russian tactical artillery rocket.

R-75.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

R-7A.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7A was an improved version of the R-7 first ICBM, and the one actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk. The missile saw service from 1960 to 1968. Four pads at Plesetsk, and one reserve pad at Baikonur, were operational at the peak of deployment in 1962. These were the Soviet Union's only strategic missile deterrent during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

R-8.

  • Alternate designation for G-3 intermediate range cruise missile.

R-8.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Glushko project 1956 for multistage 650t ICBM powered by Lox/UDMH.

R-9.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974.

R-9A-N.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Desna intercontinental ballistic missile.

R-9M.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version with Kuznetsov engines in first and second stages. Development undertaken, but cancelled in favour of basic version with RD-111/RD-0106 engines.

Radiance.

  • French winged orbital launch vehicle. Two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Booster would be powered by scramjets to Mach 12 separation before second stage separated.

RAE Orbital Fighter.

  • British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Royal Aircraft Establishment Orbital Fighter proposal of the 1960's envisioned a two stage vehicle. A ramjet powered first stage would release a second stage orbiter similar to, but smaller than the U.S. X-20 Dyna-Soar. The spaceplane would utilise a gliding re-entry to return to earth.

RAE TSTO.

  • British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Royal Aircraft Establishment Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Concept of the 1960's consisted of a hypersonic air-breathing first stage and rocket powered second stage.

RAM.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

RAM A.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Employed by NACA-Langley for accelerating aerodynamic models. Could lift 34 kg to 1271 km. 5 stage vehicle.

RAM B.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Alcor

Rascal.

  • American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1958. Project originated as Bell Aircraft Corp / AAF / Project MX-776. Requirement for a 160 km range air-launched guided missile was overcome by other technology during its protracted development.

Rascal SLV.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Expendable rocket air-launched from a supersonic aircraft with engines modified using a technology called Mass Injected Pre-Compressor Cooling (MIPCC), where a coolant such as water or liquid oxygen was added to the air at the engine inlet, allowing the engine to operate at higher altitudes than normally possible.

Raven.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

RBSS.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The Recoverable Booster Space System was a plan circulated in the early 1960's to use the XB-70 as a recoverable supersonic first stage for a range of systems. The XB-70 would be capable of orbiting a 6800 kg payload, or an X-20 manned space glider.

RDD.

  • Russian tactical ballistic missile. The RDD - Long range rocket - was assigned to Korolev in November 1944 in response to the German V-2. Korolev was given charge of a team of 60 engineers and required to provide a draft project in three days. The resulting two-stage design used Lox/Alcohol propellants and an autopilot for guidance. It was proposed that a 5 tonne thrust rocket, 110 mm in diameter, would be available by 1945. A 250 tonne thrust, solid fuelled, 280 mm diameter, 4 m long rocket would be ready by 1949. These designs evolved into the more refined D-1 and D-2 before being overtaken by the post-war availability of V-2 technology.

RDS-37.

  • Standard RV of R-7A missile.

Recoverable Booster Space System.

  • Alternate designation for RBSS winged orbital launch vehicle.

Recoverable Booster Systems for Orbital Logistics.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed investigated the economics of reusable launch vehicles for crews and light space station cargo during the early 1960s. Anticipated manned space activities in the 1970s included a two-phase Earth-orbital space station program, a lunar base, an early Mars mission, plus later Mars/Venus missions. Lockheed proposed four possible launch systems to support the scenario, ranging from System I, a 6-man Apollo CSM/Saturn-IB vehicle, to a fully reusable System IV with a ramjet-rocket booster.

Recruit.

  • American sounding rocket. The Recruit motor was usually used as an upper stage, but in this air-launched vehicle was used for re-entry vehicle heat transfer and aerodynamic stability tests.

Recruit T55.

  • American sounding rocket. The Recruit motor was the first stage of this larger booster, dropped from a B-57 for re-entry vehicle heat transfer tests.

Red Duster.

Redstone.

  • Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space.

Redstone MRLV.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Greatly modified Redstone rocket used to launch the Mercury manned spacecraft on a suborbital trajectory, typically 380 km downrange, 220 km altitude, and a speed of 6800 kph.

Regulus 1.

  • American intermediate range subsonic cruise missile. The Regulus was the first strategic long-range nuclear-armed guided missile deployed by the US Navy.

Regulus 2.

  • American supersonic sub-to-surface intermediate-range cruise missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1958 in deference to Polaris project.

Regulus I.

  • Popular Name of RGM-6A and RGM-6B intermediate range cruise missile.

Renova.

  • Alternate designation for Nova MM R10R-2 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

Reusable One stage Orbital Space Truck.

  • Alternate designation for ROOST and ROOST ISI SSTO orbital launch vehicles.

Reusable Orbital Carrier.

  • American sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The Reusable Orbital Carrier (ROC) was a 1964 Lockheed study of a sled-launched HTHL TSTO. The booster's rocket engines would burn liquid oxygen and jet fuel while small turbojets would be used for landing approach. The 2nd stage orbiter rocketplane would make an unpowered glide return and landing. LOX, LH2 rocket propulsion would be used on the second stage. The gross liftoff weight would be about 453t and the vehicle could deliver ten passengers+3000kg to a space station. Alternatively, an unmanned 11,340kg payload could be carried.

Reusable Orbital Module-Booster & Utility Shuttle.

  • Alternate designation for Rombus ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

RGM-15.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Regulus 2 intermediate range cruise missile.

RGM-165.

  • Department of Defence Designation of LASM short range ballistic missile.

RGM-59.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Taurus RGM-59 tactical ballistic missile.

RGM-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Regulus 1 intermediate range cruise missile.

RGM-6A.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

RGM-6B.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

RGM-8H.

  • American tactical cruise missile.

RGM-8J.

  • American tactical cruise missile.

RH.

  • Indian solid propellant sounding rocket family using indigenous rocket motors derived from French Belier / Jericho rocket engine technology.

RH-125.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle

RH-200.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x RH-200 + 1 x RH-125

RH-200SV.

  • Indian sounding rocket.

RH-300.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Sounding rocket derived from French Belier rocket engine technology.

RH-300 Mk II.

  • Indian single stage sounding rocket.

RH-300/RH-200/RH-200.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x RH-300 + 1 x RH-200 + 1 x RH-200

RH-560.

  • Indian sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle derived from French Stromboli engine technology.

RH-560/300 Mk II.

  • Indian two-stage sounding rocket derived from French Stromboli engine technology.

RH-75.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle

Rheinbote.

  • German surface-to-surface missile. Director Klein and Doctor Vuellers at Rheinmetall in Leba had developed this unguided bombardment weapon. It was a four-stage powder rocket of minimum weight but a range of 120 km.

Rheintochter.

  • German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never completed development. The name translates as 'Rhine Maiden'.

Rif.

  • Launch System of S-300F surface-to-air missile.

Rif.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-39 SLBM adapted for use as suborbital test vehicle or orbital launch vehicle.

Rif-M.

  • Launch System of S-300FM surface-to-air missile.

Rif-Ma.

  • Popular Name of 3M20 and 3M65 submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Rif-MA.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle derived from R-39 SLBM. Air-launched from An-124. Ignition mass 79 tonnes.

Rigel.

  • Argentinan sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle.

Rigel SSM-N-6.

  • American Navy pioneering cruise missile project. Development started in 1943. Program cancelled in 1953.

Riksha.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. New design launch vehicle based on SLBM technology.

RIM-156.

RIM-161A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Standard SM-3 anti-ballistic missile.

RIM-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Terrier surface-to-air missile.

RIM-2A.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-2B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-2C.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-2D.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Nuclear warhead.

RIM-2F.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-67.

  • Department of Defence designation of Standard-ER missile.

RIM-67A.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-67B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-67C.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Standard SM-2 ER

RIM-67D.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Command/inertial, semi-active RF terminal guided. 2 stage vehicle.

RIM-8.

  • Department of Defence designation of Talos missile.

RIM-8A.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-8B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-8C.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-8D.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-8E.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-8F.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RIM-8G.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

RITA C.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Nuclear single-stage-to-orbit booster.

RLA.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The RLA (Rocket Flight Apparatus) family of modular, lox/kerosene powered vehicles were designed by Glushko in 1974 to meet the Soviet military's third-generation space launch requirements. The approach was rejected by 1976 in favor of the Zenit/Energia family using both lox/kerosene amd lox/hydrogen stages.

RLA-120.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Medium booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 30 metric tons using the RLA-120 core and a 150 metric ton upper stage. Glushko proposed that the RLA-120 would boost reconnaissance satellites and modules of his POS Permanent Orbital Station into a sun synchronous orbit beginning in 1979. The government rejected the RLA concept, but this design led directly to the successful Zenit-2 booster.

RLA-135.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Heavyweight booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 100 metric tons using two modules as the first stage and the RLA-120 core. Glushko proposed that the booster could launch a Soviet manned lunar landing by 1981. The government rejected the RLA concept, but it did lead to the Zenit-2 and Energia boosters of the 1980's.

RLA-150.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Super-booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 250 metric tons using six modules as the first stage and the RLA-120 core. Glushko proposed that the booster could launch a Soviet manned Mars landing by 1983. The government rejected the RLA concept, but it did lead to the Energia booster of the 1980's.

RM-10.

  • American test vehicle. Two-stage test vehicle to make heat transfer studies at high speed in free flight, launched from NACA's Pilotless Aircraft Reserach Station at Wallops Island, Va. Vehicle was developed by PARD of Langley Laboratory.

RM-205.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Drone version.

RM-207.

  • Russian target drone. Retired 207A missiles converted to use as target drones were given this designation and the code name Belka.

RM-217.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Drone version.

RM-217M.

  • Russian target drone. Retired 217M missiles converted to use as target drones were given this designation and used in a large number of versions (code named Zvezda-1, -2, -3, -4, -4MV, -5, -5F).

RNII Sounding Rocket.

  • Russian sounding rocket. P I Ivanov at RNII (Reaction Scientific Research Institute) developed a four-stage solid rocket capable of reaching 40 km altitude in 1944-1946. Two launches were made, but the project was considered generally unsuccessful and not followed up.

Rockair.

  • American sounding rocket. The Rockair technique (research rocket launched from aircraft) was developed by the Office of Naval Research and the University of Maryland. A 2.75-inch FFAR rocket was fired from a Navy F2H-2 Banshee aircraft to an altitude of approximately 60,000 m.

Rockaire.

  • American air-launched sounding rocket. This USAF version of the Navy Rockair (research rocket launched from aircraft) vehicle consisted of a Deacon rocket launched from an F-86D Sabrejet fighter.

Rocket belt.

  • American test vehicle. In the 1960's Bell Aerosystems caught the public imagination with a series of rocket and jet-powered rocket belts. Rocket belt-equipped fliers became a symbol of the future and a fixture at World Fairs, football games, etc. But the technology was too expensive and limited to ever be adopted for military or civilian terrestrial purposes.

Rocketsonde.

  • American sounding rocket. Meteorological sounding rockets that could use Loki Datasonde, Arcas, or Deacon rockets as the booster.

Rockoon.

  • American air-launched sounding rocket. The Rockoon (balloon-launched rocket) consisted of a small high-performance sounding rocket launched from a balloon above most of the atmosphere. The Rockoon low-cost technique was conceived during an Aerobee firing cruse of the Norton Sound in March 1949. Rockoons were first launched from icebreaker Eastwind off Greenland by an ONR group under James A. Van Allen. They were later used by ONR and University of Iowa research groups in 1953-55 and 1957, from ships in sea between Boston and Thule, Greenland. A variety of upper stage rocket stages were used.

Rocksonde.

  • Alternate designation for PWN-5 sounding rocket.

Rokot.

  • Popular Name of UR-100N missile and launch vehicle.

Rokot.

  • Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle, consisting of decommissioned UR-100N ICBMs with a Briz-KM upper stage.

Rokot K.

  • Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Version with Briz-K upper stage.

Roksonde.

  • Alternate Designation of PWN-5 sounding rocket.

Romashka.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Pad-launched version.

Rombus.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono original design for ballistic single-stage-to-orbit (not quite - it dropped liquid hydrogen tanks on the way up) heavy lift launch vehicle. The recoverable vehicle would re-enter, using its actively-cooled plug nozzle as a heat shield.

Rook.

  • British test vehicle. Single stage vehicle consisting of a Rook solid rocket motor. Used initially for supersonic tests of aircraft models.

Rook IIIA.

  • British test vehicle.

ROOST.

  • American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Bono's first design for a reusable single stage to orbit LH2/Lox booster, using conventional engines.

ROOST ISI.

  • American SSTO orbital launch vehicle. Bono's first design for a reusable single stage to orbit LH2/Lox booster, using Improved Specific Impulse approach: many engines feeding into single large nozzle.

Rooster.

  • American sounding rocket. Rooster was a variant of the Arcas sounding rocket. Instead of a temperature transmitter, it used a ROBIN (Rocket Balloon Instrument) inflatable falling sphere as its payload.

Roton.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The Roton was a fully reusable, single-stage-to-orbit, vertical take-off and landing piloted space vehicle designed to transport two crew members and 3200 kg of payload to and from a 300 km / 50 degree inclination earth orbit. It used a unique rotor system for recovery. Although a subscale landing test vehicle was built and received enormous media attention, the concept never made much technical sense.

RS.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Soviet Mach 3 manned air-launched ramjet aircraft, developed in 1954-1961, but cancelled before the first full-scale test article could be flown.

RS-10.

RS-10M.

  • Alternate designation for UR-100K intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-10MUTTKh.

  • Alternate designation for UR-100U intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-12.

  • Alternate designation for RT-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-12M.

  • Alternate designation for Topol missile.

RS-12M1 / RS-12M2.

  • Alternate designation for Topol M intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-12UTTKh.

  • Alternate designation for RT-2P intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-14.

  • Treaty designation for Temp-2S intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-16.

  • Alternate designation for MR-UR-100 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-16B.

  • Alternate designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-18.

  • Treaty designation for Rokot and Strela intercontinental ballistic missiles.

RS-18A.

  • Alternate designation for UR-100N missile.

RS-18B.

  • Alternate designation for UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-20A.

  • Alternate designation for R-36M intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-20B.

  • Alternate designation for R-36MU 15A18 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-20K.

  • Alternate designation for Dnepr intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-20V.

  • Alternate designation for R-36M2 15A18M intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-22.

  • Treaty designation for RT-23 15Zh52 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-22A.

  • Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh60 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-22B.

  • Alternate designation for RT-23U 15Zh61 intercontinental ballistic missile.

RS-24.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. New mobile, solid-propellant ICBM, heavier than the Topol-M, designed to carry up to ten MIRV warheads and to replace the R-36M2 and UR-100N liquid propellant missiles.

RSA.

  • South African orbital launch vehicle. Israel and South Africa collaborated closely in rocket technology in the 1970's and 1980's. South Africa provided Israel with the uranium and test facilities it needed for its strategic weapons programmes. In exchange Israel provided aerospace technology. This included the capability of building the ten-tonne solid propellant rocket motors designed for the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. These motors were the basis of two space launchers for an indigenous 'R5b' space programme. It seems that South Africa also planned to use these motors in a series of missiles to provide a nuclear deterrent.

RSA-1.

  • It is conjectured that this designation was assigned to an intermediate range single-stage ballistic missile consisting of the first stage of the RSA-3. Purported mission was to strike Cuban military concentrations from mobile launchers on South African territory. The rocket motor closely followed the design of the Israeli Jericho-2 first stage.

RSA-2.

  • South African intermediate range ballistic missile. It is conjectured that this designation was assigned to an intermediate range ballistic missile consisting of the first and second stages of the RSA-3. Probably very similar to, or a licensed copy of the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. A third stage apogee kick motor was added to produce the RSA-3 space launcher.

RSA-3.

  • The RSA-3 satellite launcher began development as an IRBM in the 1980's because of the perceived Soviet threat and isolation of South Africa. It was developed with the assistance of Israel and was believed to be essentially identical to the Israeli Jericho missile/Shavit launch vehicle. The objective of the satellite launcher was to place a small surveillance satellite of 330 kg mass into a 41 degree, 212 x 460 km orbit around the earth. Development continued even after South African renunciation of its nuclear weapons. However the launcher was found not to be viable commercially and so was cancelled in mid-1994.

RSA-4.

  • South African all-solid orbital launch vehicle. The RSA-4 ICBM / satellite launcher was a planned follow-on to the RSA-3. A large new first stage optimised the vehicle and more than doubled the payload in comparison to the RSA-3. It is not known if the project reached the point of testing of the large motor, which was equivalent to the US Peacekeeper first stage.

RSD-10.

  • Treaty designation for 15Zh45 and 15Zh45UTTKh intermediate range ballistic missiles.

RSM-25.

  • Alternate designation for R-27 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

RSM-40.

  • Treaty designation for R-29 and R-29D submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

RSM-45.

  • Alternate designation for R-31 submarine launched ballistic missile.

RSM-50.

  • Treaty designation for R-29R, R-29K, and R-29RL submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

RSM-52.

  • Treaty designation for 3M20 and 3M65 submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

RSM-52.

  • Alternate designation for Rif-MA missile.

RSM-52M.

  • Alternate designation for R-39UTTKh submarine-launched ballistic missile.

RSM-52V.

  • Alternate designation for R-39M submarine-launched ballistic missile.

RSM-54.

  • Treaty designation for R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

RSM-56.

  • Alternate designation for Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile.

RSS-40.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. SS-18 Replacement. The designation SS-X-26 was originally assigned to the RSS-40, but the number was reused for another missile after its cancellation.

RSS-52.

  • Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity.

RT-1.

  • The RT-1 (RT = rocket, solid in Russian) was the first large Soviet solid propellant ballistic missile. It was developed and tested in 1959-1963, but no production was undertaken due to its poor performance.

RT-15.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The RT-15 IRBM used the second and third stages if the RT-2 ICBM. After protracted development in 1961-1970 with a range of alternative self-propelled mobile launchers, limited numbers ('few' to 19) of two types of launchers were deployed in 1970. The various transporters tested created confusion in the West (with designations SS-14 Scapegoat and Scamp being applied).

RT-15M.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Under the original resolution in 1961 starting the RT-2 programme, Makeyev was to develop a submarine-launched version of the RT-15, consisting of the first and second stages of the RT-2. It did not proceed beyond the study stage.

RT-2.

  • Development of the RT-2, the Soviet Union's first solid propellant ICBM, was undertaken by Sergei Korolev and his successor from 1961-1968. It was a huge technical challenge, involving technology in which the Russians had no prior experience. The high-priority RT-2 preoccupied Korolev and his team throughout the period of the moon race, and could be considered a factor in the loss of that race to the Americans. In the end only sixty were deployed, but these provided the technical basis for Russian ballistic missiles of the 1980's and beyond.

RT-20.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. First and third stages of SS-13. Cancelled after 8 test firings. Claims to have been deployed briefly.

RT-20P.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Following the protracted development of Shavyrin's Gnom air-augmented ICBM, it was decided to let Yangel tackle the problem of developing a 30 tonne gross mass ICBM using more conventional technology. At first a three-stage solid propellant design was considered. But it was found impossible to achieve the launch weight with such an approach. Yangel's solution was to propose the only mixed propulsion ICBM ever developed - a solid propellant first stage, and high performance ampulised storable liquid propellant second stage. The draft project for the missile was completed in December 1964 and a decree to proceed with development was issued on 24 August 1965. Shortly thereafter Shavyrin died and Gnom was cancelled, leaving Yangel's RT-20P the lead project for the mobile ICBM requirement. Designs for silo-launched and submarine-launched versions of the missile were to be developed as well.

RT-21.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Project work began in 1963 on this three-stage solid propellant ICBM. Five train-launched variants were studied, as well as a silo-launched version. Studies were completed in 1966 but it was decided not to proceed with the concept.

RT-22.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-22 was a follow-on study to the RT-21 for a train-launched solid-propellant ICBM. It reached the stage of an advanced project in 1969. The three stage rocket would have a total mass of 80 tonnes including its transport container. A train would have a total of 22 cars, six of which would be missile launchers.

RT-23.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The only rail-based ICBM ever deployed. Developed by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine was protracted, but understandable given the huge technical challenges. Twelve years of design and testing was followed by deployment from 1988. All were retired by 2003.

RT-23 15Zh44.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The draft project for the silo-based RT-23 with the 15F143 warhead was completed in December 1979. Trials of this basic version began at Plesetsk on 26 October 1982. The basic RT-23 was accepted for military service on 10 February 1983, but the decision was taken not to put it into production. All resources were to be devoted to an improved RT-23UTTKh.

RT-23 15Zh52.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A draft project of the 15Zh52 MIRV train-based version of the RT-23 was completed in June 1980. The system was designed to allow the mobile launchers to conduct long-duration deployments up to 200 km from base.

RT-23U 15Zh60.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Design began of the silo-based version of the RT-23UTTKh on 9 August 1983.

RT-23U 15Zh61.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A decree of 9 August 1982 ordered development of an improved RT-23UTTKh, dubbed 'Molodets'. Three basing modes were to be possible using a single containerised missile: train-launched, a 'Tselina-2' road-mobile transport, or silo-based. This would be able to deploy up to ten nuclear warheads from a layered circular dispenser. Retired in 2003.

RT-25.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Decree 316-157 of 4 April 1961 authorised development of a family of solid propellant launch vehicles utilising various combinations of three stages (the RT-2, RT-15, and RT-25). The RT-25 IRBM used the first and third stages of the RT-2 ICBM. M Yu Tsirulnikov at SKB-172 in Perm was responsible for development of the RT-25. However there was little interest in this variant and in 1963 further development was dropped.

RT-2M.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-2M was a modernised RT-2, developed under Savodskiy at Korolev's bureau beginning in the late 1960's in parallel with the RT-2P and using alternate new engines. This increased both range and payload compared to the RT-20. However the RT-2P was selected for further development.

RT-2M2.

  • Alternate Designation of Topol M intercontinental ballistic missile.

RT-2P.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the improved RT-2P version of the basic missile was authorised by decree 1004-365 of 18 December 1968. The overriding concern was imminent deployment by the Americans of the Safeguard anti-ballistic missile system, and the need for the missile to have the necessary countermeasures to defeat those defences.

RT-2PM.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Topol missile.

RT-2PM2.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Universal and Topol M intercontinental ballistic missiles.

RTV-A-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Hiroc test vehicle.

RTV-A-3.

  • Alternate designation for Nativ test vehicle.

RTV-A-5.

  • Alternate designation for Navaho X-10 intermediate range cruise missile.

RTV-G-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Wac sounding rocket.

RTV-G-10.

RTV-G-3.

  • Alternate designation for Hermes B-1 tactical ballistic missile.

RTV-G-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Bumper-WAC short range ballistic test vehicle.

RTV-G-6.

  • Alternate Designation of Hermes B-1 tactical ballistic missile.

RTV-N-12.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Viking sounding rocket.

RTV-N-12a.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Viking Type 9 sounding rocket.

Rubis.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage test vehicle consisting of 1 x Agate + 1 x P064. It was designed to test the upper stage and payload elements of the Diamant orbital launcher. These included fairing jettison, spin-up, release, and ignition of the P064 final stage. Six launches were used to validate the design and led to the success of the Diamant on its first flight. The last four launches were made on behalf of CNES to validate payloads for the D1 satellite and carry scientific instruments for the Paris Observatory and Max Planck Institute.

Rus.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz M orbital launch vehicle.

RV-A-10.

RV-A-5.

  • Alternate designation for Hermes A-1 tactical ballistic missile.

RV-A-8.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Hermes A-3A tactical ballistic missile.

RWDT HTHL.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Horizontal Takeoff / Horizontal Landing Two Stage to Orbit proposal with Mach 4 stage separation. Vehicle consisted of an unpowered 'reusable winged drop tank' and 2-engine expendable Ariane-5 upper stage.

RX-250.

  • Indonesian indigenous sounding rocket design.

RX-250-LPN.

  • Indonesian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

RX-320.

  • RX-320

RX-420.

  • RX-420

S.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-121 intermediate range cruise missile.

S.

  • Series of Japanese single-stage sounding rockets designed for low-cost observations of the ionosphere.

S-125.

  • S-125

S-160.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

S-200.

S-200.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Enormous surface-to-air missile developed by Grushin after the failure of the Dal project. Deployed in limited numbers and exported to countries in the mideast to defend against American high-altitude, high-speed SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft.

S-200D.

  • Complex of V-880M surface-to-air missile.

S-200M.

  • Complex of V-880 surface-to-air missile.

S-200V.

  • Complex of V-860PV surface-to-air missile.

S-210.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage ionospheric sounding rocket used for research from Japan's Antarctic base.

S-225.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile system developed in parallel with the A-35, but not put into production.

S-25.

  • Complex of 207A surface-to-air missile.

S-25.

S-25.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. First surface-to-air missile deployed by the Soviet Union. Under a crash program ordered by Stalin, development began in 1951, first guided launch was in 1953, and by 1956, 2,640 launchers were deployed in defence of Moscow. The system was upgraded with improved missiles and ground systems into the 1960's.

S-250.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

S-25MA.

  • Complex of 217 surface-to-air missile.

S-25MAM.

  • Complex of 217M surface-to-air missile.

S-25Mr.

  • Complex of 218 surface-to-air missile.

S-300.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Third generation family of surface-to-air missiles developed in the 1970's based on new principles. The same launch system could use either 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles, of both mid- and long-range types.

S-300 ISAS.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. The the S-300, was developed for observations in Antarctica, in parallel with the S-210.

S-300F.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 5V55RM missile. Maximum target speed 4680 kph.

S-300FM.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 48N6Ye missile. Maximum target speed 10,000 kph.

S-300P.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Original version of the S-300 system for the PVO Air Defence Force using the 5V55R missile

S-300PMU-1.

S-300PMU-1 48N6E.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for the land forces and export using the advanced 48N6E missile, which doubled the range and greatly increased the effectiveness of the system. Alternatively any of the earlier model 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles could be loaded.

S-300PMU-1 5V55U.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300PMU system for export using the 5V55U missile.

S-300PMU-1 9M96.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. New version of S-300PMU with 9M96E and 9M96E2 rockets. The system could also fire earlier-model 5V55 or 48N6 series rockets.

S-300PMU-1 9M96E.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Shorter range version of 9M96.

S-300PMU-1 9M96E2.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Longer range version of 9M96.

S-300PMU-2.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles.

S-300V.

S-300V.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Mobile, multiple-target, universal integrated surface-to-air missile. The S-300V system can fire either of two versions of the containerised missiles loaded: long range and medium range. These missiles are given different NATO designations. However any mix of the two missiles can be loaded as needed in the vertical launcher cells.

S-310.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. The S-310 was a mid-sized single-stage sounding rocket designed to reach an altitude of 200 km.

S-400.

  • Launch System of 48N6E and 9M96 surface-to-air missiles.

S-400.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Fourth generation surface-to-air missile system that replaced the Army's S-300V (SA-12) and the Air Defence Force's S-300PMU (SA-10). The system would feature twice the engagement area of the S-300PMU. Initial service was by the end of 2007.

S-500.

  • Launch System of R-500 surface-to-air missile.

S-500.

  • New anti-aircraft, anti-missile system design in competitive development with Antey's S-400 to produce a Russian equivalent to THAAD.

S-520.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. The S-520 was a larger single-stage rocket which could be equipped with a three-axis attitude control and a recovery system. It had the capability of launching a 100 kg payload above 300 km and provided more than five minutes of micro-gravity flight for experiments.

S-75.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Known in the west as the SA-2 Guideline, this weapon was responsible for the downing of more American aircraft than any missile in history. It was deployed worldwide beginning in 1957, and improvements and updates, many by third parties, continued into the 21st Century.

S-75M.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Last production version. Fakel-designed missile; Almaz upgrade offered.

S-A.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

SA-1.

  • Department of Defence designation of S-25 missile.

SA-10.

SA-12.

  • Department of Defence designation of S-300V missile.

SA-12a.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 9M83 and 9M83M surface-to-air missiles.

SA-12b.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 9M82 and 9M82M surface-to-air missiles.

SA-21.

  • Department of Defence designation of S-500 missile.

SA-2A,B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of S-75 surface-to-air missile.

SA-2C,D,E,F.

  • Department of Defence Designation of S-75M surface-to-air missile.

SA-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Krug surface-to-air missile.

SA-5.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Dal and S-200 surface-to-air missiles.

SA-5A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of V-860P and V-870 surface-to-air missiles.

SA-5B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of V-860PV surface-to-air missile.

SA-5C.

SA-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Kub surface-to-air missile.

Saber.

Saddler.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-16 and R-16U intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Saenger.

  • German sled-launched intercontinental boost-glide missile. Saenger-Bredt antipodal bomber - sled launched, boosted to suborbital velocity, 'skips' off upper atmosphere to deliver bombload on target, recovery back at launch site. Fascinated Stalin, led to US Dynasoar project.

Saenger I.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Final version of the Saenger spaceplane, as conceived by Eugen Saenger during his lifetime. A rocket propelled sled would be used for horizontal launch of delta-winged, rocket-propelled first and second stages.

Saenger II.

  • Proposed two stage to orbit vehicle. Air-breathing hypersonic first stage and delta wing second stage. The German Hypersonics Programme and its Saenger II reference vehicle received most of the domestic funding for spaceplane development in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Safeguard.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Safeguard ABM system consisted of Sprint and Spartan missiles

Safir-2.

  • Iran's first orbital launch vehicle, based on the Shahab 3 intermediate range ballistic missile with upper stages.

SA-II.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

SAM-A-18 / M3.

  • Alternate Designation of MIM-23A surface-to-air missile.

SAM-A-19.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Plato anti-ballistic missile.

SAM-A-25.

SAM-A-7 / M1.

  • Alternate Designation of Nike Ajax surface-to-air missile.

SAM-D.

  • Alternate designation for MIM-104A missile.

SAM-N-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Lark surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-4.

  • Alternate Designation of Lark surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-6.

  • Alternate designation of Talos missile.

SAM-N-6B.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-8A surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-6B1.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-8C surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-6B1-CW.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-8G surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-6BW.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-8B surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-6BW1.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-8D surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-6C1.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-8E surface-to-air missile.

SAM-N-7.

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-2A surface-to-air missile.

SA-N-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of V-753 surface-to-air missile.

SA-N-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of S-300F and S-300FM surface-to-air missile.

Sandal.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-12 and R-12U intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Sandhawk.

  • American sounding rocket. The Sandhawk motor was developed for Sandia primarily for use in multi-stage rockets launched in support of Atomic Energy Agency activities. It was however flown as a single-stage vehicle in initial tests of the motor and some subsequent scientific mission.s

Sandhawk Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sandhawk + 1 x Tomahawk

Saphir.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Saphir was the penultimate step in the 'precious stones' series. The variants of the two-stage vehicle were designed to allow testing of radio-controlled guidance (VE231P), inertial guidance (VE231G), and warhead separation and re-entry of an ablative RV (VE231R). Addition of a third stage would transform Saphir into the Diamant satellite launcher.

Saphir VE231.

  • Alternate designation for Saphir orbital launch vehicle.

Sapwood.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Saqr-80.

  • Egyptian tactical ballistic missile.

Sark.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-13 missile.

Sasin.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-9 missile.

SASSTO.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Bono proposal for first step toward VTOVL SSTO vehicle - heavily modified Saturn IVB with plug nozzle engine.

Satan.

Satellite Launch Vehicle.

  • Full name of SLV all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Satellite Launch Vehicle.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Orbital version. Selected by NASA under the COTS program in January 2008 in place of the cancelled Kistler for post-shuttle ISS resupply missions. Uses half-length shuttle SRB as first stage; proven Castor-120 as second stage; new Castor-30 as third stage; and Oribtal Adjusment Module from Lockheed's cancelled Athena launcher as a fourth stage.

Saturn A-1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Projected first version of Saturn I, to be used if necessary before S-IV liquid hydrogen second stage became available. Titan 1 first stage used as second stage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated.

Saturn A-2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. More powerful version of Saturn I with low energy second stage consisting of cluster of four IRBM motors and tankage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated.

Saturn Application Single Stage to Orbit.

  • Alternate designation for SASSTO ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Saturn B-1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Most powerful version of Saturn I considered. New low energy second stage with four H-1 engines, S-IV third stage, Centaur fourth stage. Masses, payload estimated.

Saturn C-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Saturn I orbital launch vehicle.

Saturn C-1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Original flight version with dummy upper stages, including dummy Saturn S-V/Centaur (never flown).

Saturn C-2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle initially considered for realizing the Apollo lunar landing at the earliest possible date. 15 launches and rendezvous required to assemble direct landing spacecraft in earth orbit.

Saturn C-3.

  • The launch vehicle concept considered for a time as the leading contender for the Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach to an American lunar landing.

Saturn C-3B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Final configurtion of the Saturn C-3 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961.

Saturn C-3BN.

  • American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-3 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage.

Saturn C-4.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The launch vehicle actually planned for the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous approach to lunar landing. The Saturn C-5 was selected instead to have reserve capacity.

Saturn C-4B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Final configurtion of the Saturn C-4 at the time of selection of the Saturn C-5 configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. Only Saturn configuration with common bulkhead propellant tanks in first stage, resulting in shorter vehicle than less powerful Saturn C-3.

Saturn C-5.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of Saturn C-5 at the time of selection of this configuration for the Apollo program in December 1961. The actual Saturn V would be derived from this, but with an increased-diameter third stage (6.61 m vs 5.59 m in C-5) and increased propellant load in S-II second stage.

Saturn C-5N.

  • American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Version of Saturn C-5 considered with small nuclear thermal stage in place of S-IVB oxygen/hydrogen stage.

Saturn C-8.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The largest member of the Saturn family ever contemplated. Designed for direct landing of Apollo command module on moon. Configuration used eight F-1 engines in the first stage, eight J-2 engines in the second stage, and one J-2 engine in the third stage. Distinguishable from Nova 8L in use of J-2 engines instead of M-1 engines in second stage.

Saturn I.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun launch vehicle known as 'Cluster's Last Stand' - 8 Redstone tanks around a Jupiter tank core,powered by eight Jupiter engines. Originally intended as the launch vehicle for Apollo manned circumlunar flights. However it was developed so early, no payloads were available for it.

Saturn I Blk2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Second Block of Saturn I, with substantially redesigned first stage and large fins to accomodate Dynasoar payload.

Saturn I RIFT.

  • American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. In the first half of the 1960's it was planned to make suborbital tests of nuclear propulsion for upper stages using a Saturn IB first stage to boost a Rover-reactor powered second stage on a suborbital trajectory. The second stage would impact the Atlantic Ocean down range from Cape Canaveral.

Saturn IB.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Improved Saturn I, with uprated first stage and Saturn IVB second stage (common with Saturn V) replacing Saturn IV. Used for earth orbit flight tests of Apollo CSM and LM.

Saturn IB-A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IB with 225 k lbf H-1's; S-IVB stretched with 350,000 lbs propellants; Centaur third stage.

Saturn IB-B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IB with 225 k lbf H-1's; S-IVB stretched with 350,000 lbs propellants and HG-3 high performance engine.

Saturn IB-C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: 4 Minuteman strap-ons; standard S-IB, S-IVB stages.

Saturn IB-CE.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: Standard Saturn IB with Centaur upper stage.

Saturn IB-D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Douglas Studies, 1965: Standard Saturn IB with Titan UA1205 5-segment strap-on motors.

Saturn INT-05.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. NASA Study, 1965: Half length 260 inch solid motor with S-IVB upper stage.

Saturn INT-05A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. UA Study, 1965: Full length 260 inch solid motor with S-IVB upper stage.

Saturn INT-11.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 4 Titan UA1205 with standard S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, or 4 Titan UA1207 strap-ons with 20-foot stretche S-IB stage, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at altitude.

Saturn INT-12.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with only 4 H-1 motors, with 4 Titan UA1205 with standard length S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, or 4 Titan UA1207 strap-ons with 20-foot stretche S-IB stage, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons.

Saturn INT-13.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 2 Titan UA1205 with standard length S-IB stage, S-IVB stage, or 2 Titan UA1207 strap-ons with 20-foot stretche S-IB stage, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons.

Saturn INT-14.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 4 Minuteman motors as strap-ons, with no, 10, or 20-foot stretch S-IB stages, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons.

Saturn INT-15.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-IB with 8 Minuteman motors as strap-ons, with no, 10, or 20-foot stretch S-IB stages, S-IVB stage. S-IB ignition at sea level at same time as strap-ons.

Saturn INT-16.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. UA Studies, 1966: S-IVB upper stage with from 2 to 5 Titan UA1205, 1206, or 1207 motors as first stage, clustered around from 1 to 3 of the same motors as a second stage. S-IVB upper stage.

Saturn INT-17.

  • North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with a modified S-II first stage with seven high-performance HG-3 engines; S-IVB second stage. Poor performance and cost-effectiveness and not studied further.

Saturn INT-18.

  • North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with Titan UA1205 or 1207 motors as boosters, Saturn II stage as core, and Saturn IVB upper stage. Various combinations of numbers of strap-ons, propellant loading of the two core stages, and sea-level versus altitude ignition were studied.

Saturn INT-19.

  • North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with 4 to 12 Minuteman motors as boosters, Saturn II stage as core, and Saturn IVB upper stage. Saturn II stage would be fitted with lower expansion ratio engines and would ignite at sea level. Various combinations of numbers of strap-ons, propellant loading of the two core stages were studied.

Saturn INT-20.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Saturn variant consisting of S-IC first stage and S-IVB second stage. Consideration was given to deleting one or more of the F-1 engines in the first stage.

Saturn INT-21.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Saturn variant consisting of S-IC first stage and S-II second stage. This essentially flew once to launch Skylab in 1972, although the IU was located atop the Skylab space station (converted S-IVB stage) rather than atop the S-II as in the INT-21 design.

Saturn INT-27.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. UA study, 1965. Saturn variant using various combinations of 156 inch rocket motors as first and second stages, with S-IVB upper stage.

Saturn LCB-Alumizine-140.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, HY-140 Steel Hull.

Saturn LCB-Alumizine-250.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, Ni-250 Steel Hull.

Saturn LCB-Lox/RP-1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed Lox/RFP-1 engine.

Saturn LCB-SR.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, 260 inch solid motor, full length.

Saturn LCB-Storable-140.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, HY-140 Steel Hull.

Saturn LCB-Storable-250.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, Ni-250 Steel Hull.

Saturn MLV-V-1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Improved Saturn V configuration studied under contract NAS8-11359. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 41 inches with 1.0 million pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB strengthened but with standard 230,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine.

Saturn MLV-V-1/J-2T/200K.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Improved Saturn V configuration studied under contract NAS8-11359. Variant of MLV-V-1 with toroidal J-2T-200K engines replacing standard J-2 engines in upper stages.

Saturn MLV-V-1/J-2T/250K.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Improved Saturn V configuration studied under contract NAS8-11359. Variant of MLV-V-1 with toroidal J-2T-250K engines replacing standard J-2 engines in upper stages.

Saturn MLV-V-1A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 6 F-1 engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 7 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine.

Saturn MLV-V-2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 41 inches with 1.0 million pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 HG-3 engine.

Saturn MLV-V-3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Ultimate core for improved Saturn V configurations studied under contract NAS8-11359. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 5 HG-3 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 HG-3 engine.

Saturn MLV-V-4(S).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. Saturn V core, strengthened but not stretched, with 4 Titan UA1205 strap-on solid rocket boosters.

Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1965. 4 Titan UA1205 solid rocket boosters; Saturn IC stretched 337 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II with 970,000 pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB strengthened but with standard 230,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine.

Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. Configuration of improved Saturn 5 with Titan UA1207 120 inch solid rocket boosters. Saturn IC stretched 336 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; Saturn II and Saturn IVB stages strengthened but not stretched. Empty mass of stages increased by 13.9% (S-IC), 8.6% (S-II) and 11.8% (S-IVB). Studied again by Boeing in 1967 as Saturn V-4(S)B.

Saturn Shuttle.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. A winged recoverable Saturn IC stage was considered instead of solid rocket boosters after the final shuttle design was selected.

Saturn S-IC-TLB.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): S-IC Technology Liquid Booster: 260 inch liquid booster with 2 x F-1 engines, recoverable/reusable

Saturn V.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture.

Saturn V 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Saturn V, consisting of 1 x Saturn S-IC + 1 x Saturn S-II, used to launch Skylab.

Saturn V/4-260.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967-1968. Use of full length 260 inch solid rocket boosters with stretched Saturn IC stages presented problems, since the top of the motors came about half way up the liquid oxygen tank of the stage, making transmission of loads from the motors to the core vehicle complex and adding a great deal of weight to the S-IC. Boeing's solution was to retain the standard length Saturn IC, with the 260 inch motors ending half way up the S-IC/S-II interstage, but to provide additional propellant for the S-IC by putting propellant tanks above the 260 inch boosters. These would be drained first and jettisoned with the boosters. This added to the plumbing complexity but solved the loads problem.

Saturn V-23(L).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. 4 260 inch liquid propellant boosters (each with 2 F-1's!).; Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II strengthened but with standard 930,000 pounds propellant and 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine.

Saturn V-24(L).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. 4 260 inch liquid propellant boosters (each with 2 F-1A).; Saturn IC stretched 336 inches with 6.0 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 156 inches with 1.2 million pounds propellant and 5 HG-3 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 HG-3 engine. Not studied in detail since vehicle height of 600 feet with payload exceeded study limit of 410 feet.

Saturn V-25(S)B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. 4 156 inch solid propellant boosters; Saturn IC stretched 498 inches with 6.64 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II standard length with 5 J-2 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2 engine.

Saturn V-25(S)U.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1968. 4 156 inch solid propellant boosters; Saturn IC stretched 498 inches with 6.64 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; S-II standard length with 5 J-2 engines. This vehicle would place Nerva nuclear third stage into low earth orbit, where five such stages would be assembled together with the spacecraft for a manned Mars expedition.

Saturn V-3B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1967. Variation on MSFC 1965 study Saturn MLV-V-3 but with toroidal engines. Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 5.6 million pounds propellant (but only 4.99 million pounds usable without solid rocket boosters) and 5 F-1A engines; S-II stretched 186 inches with 1.29 million lbs propellant and 5 J-2T-400 engines; S-IVB stretched 198 inches with 350,000 lbs propellant, 1 J-2T-400 engine.

Saturn V-4X(U).

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1968. Four core vehicles from Saturn V-25(S) study lashed together to obtain million-pound payload using existing hardware. First stage consisted of 4 Saturn IC's stretched 498 inches with 6.64 million pounds propellant and 5 F-1 engines; second stage 4 Saturn II standard length stages with 5 J-2 engines

Saturn V-A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. Essentially identical to Saturn INT-20; standard Saturn IC stage together with Saturn IVB second stage, with Centaur third stage for deep space missions.

Saturn V-B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. Intriguing stage-and-a-half to orbit design using Saturn S-ID stage. The S-ID would be the same length and engines as the standard Saturn IC, but the four outer engines and their boost structure would be jettisoned once 70% of the propellant was consumed, as in the Atlas ICBM. This booster engine assembly would be recovered and reused. The center engine would be gimbaled and serve as a sustainer engine to put the rest of the vehicle and its 50,000 pound payload into orbit. At very minimal cost (36 months leadtime and $ 150 million) the United States could have attained a payload capability and level of reusability similar to that of the space shuttle.

Saturn V-C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. S-ID stage-and-a-half first stage and Saturn IVB second stage. Centaur available as third stage for deep space missions. 30% performance improvement over Saturn V-A/Saturn INT-20 with standard Saturn IC first stage.

Saturn V-Centaur.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. S-ID stage-and-a-half first stage and Saturn IVB second stage. Centaur available as third stage for deep space missions. 30% performance improvement over Saturn V-A/Saturn INT-20 with standard Saturn IC first stage.

Saturn V-D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. MSFC study, 1968. Rehashed the Boeing 1967 studies, covering a variety of stage stretches and 120, 156, or 260 inch solid rocket boosters, but with S-ID stage-and-a-half first stage.

Saturn V-ELV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. NASA study, 1966. No-height-limitation stretched Saturn with Titan UA1207 motors for thrust augmentation.

Savage.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of RT-2 and RT-2P intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Sawfly.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-29 and R-29D submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

S-B.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

SB-735.

  • Japanese sounding rocket.

S-C.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

SCAD.

  • Popular Name of AGM-86A air-to-surface missile.

Scaleboard.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 9K76 and 9K76B intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Scalpel.

Scamp.

  • Alternate designation for RT-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Scanner.

  • American sounding rocket. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Lance + 1 x Altair

Scapegoat (Scamp).

  • ASCC Reporting Name of RT-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Scarab-A.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 9K79 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Scarab-B.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 9K79-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Scarp.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-36 8K67P intercontinental ballistic missile.

Schmetterling.

  • German surface-to-air missile which completed development at the beginning of 1945. However it was never produced in appreciable quantities. The name translates as 'Butterfly'.

Schmiedl.

  • Friedrich Schmiedl used powder rockets to make regular rocket mail service between two Austrian towns from 1931 to 1933.

Scorpius.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Family of sounding rockets and launch vehicles based on combining liquid oxygen/kerosene pressure-fed engine modules. Modest government funding and over a decade of development had still not resulted in a production contract as of 2006.

Scout.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions.

Scout 2.

  • Alternate Designation of Advanced Scout all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Scout A.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. All-solid low cost lightweight launch vehicle.

Scout A-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2C + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2

Scout B.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2B + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S

Scout B 2A.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S

Scout B-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2C + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 20

Scout B-1 F.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2C + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S

Scout D.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Scout D-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 20

Scout D-1 F.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S

Scout E-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x FW4S + 1 x BE-3

Scout F.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2B + 1 x Star 20

Scout F-1.

  • Alternate designation for Scout F all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Scout G.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 3A + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 3 + 1 x Star 20

Scout G-1.

  • Alternate designation for Scout G all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Scout II TV.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Scout X.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair

Scout X-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1B + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair

Scout X-1A.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1B + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares + 1 x Altair + 1 x Cetus

Scout X-2.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair

Scout X-2 1C.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1C + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair

Scout X-2B.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2

Scout X-2M.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 1D + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x MG-18

Scout X-3.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair

Scout X-3A.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair + 1 x Cetus

Scout X-3C.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2

Scout X-3M.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x MG-18

Scout X-4.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2

Scout X-4A.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2A + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Altair 2 + 1 x Cetus

Scout X-5.

  • American suborbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Algol 2B + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Antares 2

Scout X-5C.

  • Alternate designation for Scout X-5 suborbital launch vehicle.

Scrag.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of GR-1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Scrooge.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of RT-20 and RT-20P intermediate range ballistic missile.

Scud A.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-11 tactical ballistic missile.

Scud B.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-17 mobile short-range liquid-propellant ballistic missile. Later used to designate North Korean Hwasong 5 copy of the R-17 with a range of 340 km and the Iranian Shahab-1 license-built version of the Korean missile.

Scud C.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of a longer-range version of the R-17 mobile ballistic missile, tested in the 1960's but not put into production in the Soviet Union. Later applied to the North Korean Hwasong 6 development of the R-17 with a range of 500 km and the Iranian Shahab-2 version of the same missile.

Scud D.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of a precision-guidance version of the R-17 mobile short-range liquid-propellant ballistic missile. Tested but not put into production due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Later used to designate North Korean Hwasong 7 copy of the R-17 with a range of 500 km.

Scunner.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-1 missile.

SE.4100.

  • French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Hs.117.

SE.4300.

  • French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Rheintochter.

SE.4350.

  • French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Enzian.

SE.4400.

  • French surface-to-air missile. SNCASE missile design using a Stromboli booster and two ramjet sustainers.

Sea Bee.

  • American sea-launched test vehicle. Seabee was a brief proof of principle program to validate the sea-launch concept for Sea Dragon. A surplus Aerobee rocket was modified so that it could be fired underwater. The rocket worked properly the first time in restrained mode. Later tests were made with various approaches to readying the unit for repeat firings. This proved to be so simple that the cost of turn-around was found to be about 7% of the cost of a new unit.

Sea Dragon.

  • American sea-launched heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Sea Dragon was an immense, sea-launched, two-stage launch vehicle designed by Robert Truax for Aerojet in 1962. It was to be capable of putting 1.2 million pounds (550 tonnes) into low Earth orbit. The concept was to achieve minimum launch costs through lower development and production costs. This meant accepting a larger booster with a lower performance propulsion system and higher stage dead weight then traditional NASA and USAF designs.

Sea Horse.

  • American sea-launched test vehicle. The second phase of Sea Launch was to demonstrate the concept on a larger scale, with a rocket with a complex set of guidance and control systems. Sea Horse used one of 39 surplus Corporal missiles that Truax obtained from the Army and successfully demonstrated ignition in the ocean of a rocket stage.

Sea Lance.

  • Popular Name of XMGM-52B short range ballistic missile.

Sea Slug Mk. 1.

  • British surface-to-air missile.

Sea Slug Mk. 2.

  • British surface-to-air missile.

Sea Star.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Sea-launched microsatellite orbital launch vehicle for payloads up to 13 kilograms and a testbed for the planned larger Neptune orbital launch vehicle.

Seagull.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

SEALAR.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. SEALAR (SEA LAunched Rocket) was yet another attempt by Truax Engineering to get the amphibious-launch concept off the ground. The project received some Navy Research Laboratory funding in the early 1990's, with a planned first launch date of 1996. A production model would have been able to achieve orbit at an estimated cost of $ 10 million per launch. As with the earlier Truax projects, it did not achieve flight test status.

Seaslug.

  • British surface-to-air missile. Ramjet

Sego.

Seijil.

  • Iranian two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, with a range of 2,000 km.

Seliger.

  • German sounding rocket. Berthold Seliger's firm designed a modular series of sounding rockets in 1961-1964. One, two, and three stage versions were built, reaching 52, 80, and 120 km altitude.

Seliger 1.

  • German sounding rocket.

Seliger 2.

  • German sounding rocket.

Seliger 3.

  • German sounding rocket.

Semyorka.

  • Alternate designation for R-7A missile.

Senior Prom.

  • American intermediate range stealth cruise missile. US Air Force program with test flights in 1978-1981.

Sentry.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. ABM, BTDS missile

SEPR 2020.

  • French post-war missile based on the German 109-510A.

Serb.

Sergeant.

  • American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets.

Sergeant 5-stage.

  • American test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Lance + 1 x Lance + 1 x Recruit + 1 x T-55

Sergeant Hydac.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Hydac

Sergeant Sounding Rocket.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle consisting.

SERV.

  • American VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Chrysler ballistic single stage to orbit alternate shuttle proposal of June 1971. This was the most detailed design study ever performed on a VTOVL SSTO launch vehicle. The 2,040 tonne SERV was designed to deliver a 53 tonne payload to orbit in a capacious 7 m x 18 m payload bay.

SH-11.

  • Alternate Designation of 51T6 anti-ballistic missile.

SH-8.

  • Alternate designation for 53T6 anti-ballistic missile.

Shaddock-B.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of P-6 intermediate range cruise missile.

Shahab 1.

  • Iranian designation for their version of the North Korean Hwasong 5 Scud-B short range missile.

Shahab 2.

  • Iranian designation for their version of the North Korean Hwasong 6 Scud-C short range ballistic missie.

Shahab 3.

  • Iranian intermediate range ballistic missile, evolved incrementally with Russian assistance from initial copy of North Korean Nodong 1 into a longer-range missile and the first stage of an orbital launch vehicle. Initial version began flight tests in 1998.

Shahab 4.

  • Iranian missile said to be derived from Soviet-era R-12 intermediate range ballistic missile and having a 1400 kg payload. Was to have been the basis for an Iranian space launcher, then abandoned in 2003 in favor of development of the Shahab 3 for the role.

Shahab 6.

  • Alternate designation for Safir-2 orbital launch vehicle.

Shaheen.

  • Pakistani designation for DF-11 short range ballistic missile.

Shaheen 1.

  • Pakistani mobile single-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, a license-assembled Chinese DF-15. First flown in 1999. Entered service 2003. Project managed by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission.

Shaheen 2.

  • Pakistani mobile two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile developed by Pakistan, derived from Chinese technology. First flight March 9, 2004. Range extended from 2,500 km to 3,500 km during development.

Shaheen 3.

  • Pakistani indigenous long-range missile, designed by Pakistani scientists using Chinese technology. Development cancelled in 2000.

SHARP.

  • American gun-launched test vehicle. The SHARP (Super High Altitude Research Project) light gas gun was developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California. The L-shaped gun consisted of the 82 m long, 36 cm calibre pump tube and the 47 m long, 10 cm calibre gun barrel. SHARP began operation in December 1992 and demonstrated velocities of 3 km/sec with 5 kg projectiles. However the $ 1 billion funding to elevate the tube and begin space launch tests of smaller projectiles at speeds of up to 7 km/sec was not forthcoming. By 1996 the gun was relegated to occasional test of sub-scale Mach 9 scramjet models.

Shavit.

  • Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3.

Shavit 1.

  • Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Shavit 1 is an improved version of the original Shavit with a stretched first stage motor.

Shaviyt.

  • Alternate designation for Shavit all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Shaviyt 1.

  • Alternate designation for Shavit 1 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Shehab 4.

  • Alternate designation for Shahab 4 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Sheksna-N.

  • Launch System of R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Sheksna-V.

  • Launch System of R-16U intercontinental ballistic missile.

Sheksnva-V.

  • Launch System of UR-200 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Shenjian.

  • Popular Name of CZ-2F orbital launch vehicle.

Shotput.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair

Shourya.

  • Indian containerized solid-propellant tactical missile.

Shrimp.

  • Alternate designation for Midgetman missile.

Shtil.

  • Popular Name of R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Shtil.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM.

Shtil'.

  • Alternate designation for Shtil missile.

Shtil'-1.

  • Alternate designation for Shtil-1-1N intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

Shtil-1/1N.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM.

Shtil-2/2N.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM with a special shroud. Liftoff mass 40 tonnes. Stationary launch platform.

Shtil-3A.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Proposed four-stage air-launched orbital launch vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. Ignition mass 46 tonnes.

Shtil-3N.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Proposed orbital launch vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM with new third and additional fourth stages. Stationary launch. Liftoff mass 46 tonnes.

Shuttle.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg.

Shuttle ASRM.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle using Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (development cancelled 1993).

Shuttle C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. NASA Marshall design for a cargo version of the shuttle system. The shuttle orbiter would be replaced by an unmanned recoverable main engine pod. The same concept was studied earlier as the Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (IHLLV) and as the Class I Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV). The Phase I two-SSME configuration would have a payload of 45,000 kg to low earth orbit. Design carried to an advanced phase in 1987-1990, but then abandoned when it was found the concept had no cost advantage over existing expenable launch vehicles.

Shuttle C Block II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. In August 1989 NASA studied a version of the Shuttle-C with two Advanced Solid Rocket Mortors (ASRM's) in place of the standard RSRM's. This would increase the payload by 4500 kg, but also require use of a new 10 m x 30 m payload module.

Shuttle DC-3.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Marshall Spaceflight Center shuttle concept of April 1970 using Faget low cross range stub-winged booster and orbiter.

Shuttle FR-3.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics shuttle proposal phase A of October 1969. Unwinged flat-bottom configuration booster and orbiter with V butterfly-tails.

Shuttle H33.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Grumman/Boeing alternate shuttle proposal of July 1971. Shuttle orbiter with drop tanks, delta booster.

Shuttle HCR.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. McDonnell-Douglas/Martin Marrietta shuttle high cross-range proposal phase B of December 1970. Swept wing booster, delta wing orbiter.

Shuttle II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. In May 1988 NASA Langley studied a new-technology approach to improving the shuttle's payload capability. The design would allow 9,000 to 18,000 kg of additional payload to be carried in an external payload container or in the orbiter.

Shuttle ISS.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. When the decision was made to move the International Space Station to a high-inclination 51.6 degree orbit, net payload to the more challenging orbit dropped to unacceptable limits. The situation was improved by introduction of the Super Lightweight External Tank, which used 2195 Aluminium-Lithium alloy as the main structural material in place of the 2219 aluminium alloy of the original design. This saved 3,500 kg in empty mass, increasing shuttle payload by the same amount. The tank was first used on STS-91 in June 1998.

Shuttle LCR.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. McDonnell-Douglas/Martin Marrietta shuttle low cross-range proposal phase B of December 1970. Swept-wing booster, Faget straight wing orbiter.

Shuttle LRB.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle with Liquid Rocket Boosters in place of Solid Rocket Boosters.

Shuttle LRB 1972.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Original design for a shuttle with liquid rocket boosters, completed in March 1972 as part of the shuttle design decision process

Shuttle LRB 1989.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. In July 1989 a NASA Langley/George Washington University joint study was made of various Liquid Rocket Booster configurations.

Shuttle LS A.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed shuttle proposal phase A of December 1969. X-24B lifting body orbiter with delta-wing booster.

Shuttle LS200.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed Skunk Works alternate shuttle proposal of June 1971. X-24B lifting body orbiter with wrap-around external tank.

Shuttle MDC.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their baseline Class III vehicle design was completed in November 1969 after 13 alternate configurations had been considered. The two-stage-to-orbit vehicle had a gross mass of 1,550,000 kg and a 11,300 kg payload was accommodated in a 4.6 m x 9.2 m payload bay.

Shuttle MDC A Alternate.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. McDonnell-Douglas shuttle proposal phase A of November 1969. Delta wing first stage and HL-10 lifting body second stage.

Shuttle NAR A.

  • North American's Phase A shuttle design was completed under contract NAS9-9205 in December 1969. North American had learned that the way to win a NASA design competition was to adhere to the design favoured by Max Faget, so they proposed a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with both booster and orbiter being of Faget's straight-wing, low cross-range configuration.

Shuttle R134C.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Rockwell/General Dynamics shuttle proposal phase B, November 1970. Delta wing high-cross range orbiter and booster.

Shuttle R134G.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Rockwell/General Dynamics shuttle proposal phase B, November 1970. Straight wing low-cross range orbiter.

Shuttle Z.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle-Z was Shuttle-C on steroids, the ultimate development of the shuttle to be used to put Mars expeditions into orbit. It would use 4 SSME's, and a third stage with 181,000 kg of propellant powered by 1 SSSME. But such designs would require new handling facilities due to the extra height of the vehicle.

Shyster.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-5 and R-5M intermediate range ballistic missile.

Sibling.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SICBM.

  • American mobile small intercontinental ballistic missile. Developed 1986-1991, but cancelled as unnecessary at the end of the Cold War.

Sickle.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of Topol missile.

Sidewinder-Arcas.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket.

Sidewinder-Raven.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket.

Sineva.

  • Russian liquid-propellant submarine-launched ballistic missile. First aunch 2004.02.18; entered service 2007. Competitor was the solid-propellant Bulava.

Single Stage to Orbit And Return.

  • Alternate designation for SSOAR ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Single-Stage Earth-Orbital Reusable Vehicle.

  • Alternate designation for SERV vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Sinner.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of Temp-2S intercontinental ballistic missile.

Sirocco.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

SK-100.

  • Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Yangel produced his first design for a large clustered rocket. The SK-100 would have clustered seven R-16 ICBM first stages in order to put 100 metric tons into earth orbit. The concept was abandoned for the simpler R-56 design.

Skean.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-14 and R-14U intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Skif.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Skorost.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Soviet medium range ballistic missile, flown once but cancelled after being outlowed by INF Treaty.

Skua.

  • British sounding rocket. In 1959, the Royal Meteorological Office's High Altitude Research Unit contracted with Bristol Aerojet and RPE Wescott to develop a low-cost meteorological rocket designed to reach altitudes of 80 km. The resulting Skua design consisted of Chick boosters which burned for 0.2 seconds to blast the rocket 20 m above the 5 m launch tube. Then the Bantam second stage would ignite and boost the payload to altitude. Four Skua variants were flown over the years.

Skua 1.

  • British sounding rocket. In the original Skua version, 3 Chick boosters were used. The Bantam second stage burned for 30 seconds to boost the payload to 70 km. The payload deployed a radar-reflective parachute to allow winds aloft to be measured, and readings from a thermometer were radioed to the ground. More than 900 Skua 1's were launched from 11 sites in six countries.

Skua 2.

  • Skua 2 was used 4 Chick boosters and a lengthened Bantam motor to take more complex 5 kg scientific payloads to 100 km altitude. More than fifty Skua 2's were fired between 1967 and 1972 as part of the British national space program.

Skua 3.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle.

Skua 4.

  • British sounding rocket. Skua 4 was further enhanced to take a 7.5 kg paylaod to 140 km altitude. The vehicle used four Chick boosters and an improved Bantam upper stage.

Sky Horse.

  • Taiwanese intermediate range ballistic missile.

Skybolt.

  • American strategic air-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1959. Program cancelled amid huge controversy in 1963 after Britain had agreed to buy the weapon in place of its own Blue Streak.

Skybolt Sounding Rocket.

  • British sounding rocket. Reusable sounding rocket design proposed by Starchaser Industries, Cheshire, England. As of 2006 the business case for completing development was being reviewed.

Skylark.

  • British sounding rocket. The Skylark sounding rocket (originally named the Gassiot High Altitude Vehicle) was produced by the Royal Aircraft Establishment and first introduced in 1957, during the International Geophysical Year. It remained in European service until 2005. The original basic single-stage Skylark version used a Raven 1 motor (Rook derivative). The RPE Raven 1 burned 840 kg of propellant (ammonium perchlorate, polyisobutylene binder and aluminium powder) in thirty seconds with a 1450 kNs total impulse at sea level.

Skylark 1.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 8 + 1 x Raven 1/1A/2A

Skylark 10.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Gosling 4T

Skylark 10A.

  • Alternate designation for Skylark 10 sounding rocket.

Skylark 11.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven VI + 1 x Cuckoo II or IV. Never flown.

Skylark 12.

  • British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Raven 11 + 1 x Cuckoo 4. The AC version uses an uprated Goldfinch II booster. The Raven XI is loaded with 990 kg of propellant and produced 2500 kN-sec total impulse over 39 seconds. The Cuckoo IV stage provides 452 kN-sec impulse over 15 seconds.

Skylark 12 AC.

  • British sounding rocket.

Skylark 14.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark version using Rook 3 booster + Raven 11 upper stage. Never built. Skylark 13 designation not used for superstitious reasons.

Skylark 15.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark version using Rook 3 booster + Raven 11 + Cuckoo 5. Never built.

Skylark 16.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark version with shortened Stonechat motor. Never built.

Skylark 17.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark version with Stonechat booster and Mage 2 second stage motor. Never built.

Skylark 2.

  • British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 2 + 1 x Raven 8. The Cuckoo booster burned for 4 seconds and provided 364 kN-sec total impulse. The Raven 2 provided 1540 N-sec total impulse.

Skylark 2 AC.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 8

Skylark 2C.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 2

Skylark 3.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 6

Skylark 3 AC.

  • British sounding rocket.

Skylark 4.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Raven 8

Skylark 4 AC.

  • British sounding rocket.

Skylark 5.

  • British sounding rocket. Single stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 5. The Raven 5 increased total impulse to 1780 kN-sec.

Skylark 5C.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 5

Skylark 6.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 6. The Goldfinch provided 700 kN-sec total impulse.

Skylark 6 AC.

  • British sounding rocket.

Skylark 7.

  • British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 7 + 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 11

Skylark 7 AC.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 11

Skylark 7C.

  • British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 7

Skylark 8.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark version with Stonechat booster and Waxwing second stage motor. Never built.

Skylark 9.

  • British sounding rocket. Skylark single-stage version with Stonechat motor. This would make it similar to the Falstaff test version. Never built.

Skylon.

  • British single-stage-to-orbit, horizontal-takeoff-horizontal-landing turborocket orbital launch vehicle design of the mid-1990's. The novel lightweight structural design was based on lessons learned in the many iterations of the HOTOL concept. The classified Sabre turbojet-rocket combined-cycle engine was taken to a high level of test by Alan Bond at Rolls Royce. Despite the extreme promise of the design, neither British government or private financing was forthcoming.

SL-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Sputnik 8K71PS intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

SL-10.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Sputnik 11A59 orbital launch vehicle.

SL-11.

SL-12.

SL-13.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Proton-K orbital launch vehicle.

SL-14.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Tsiklon-3 orbital launch vehicle.

SL-15.

  • Department of Defence Designation of N1 heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

SL-16.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Zenit-2 orbital launch vehicle.

SL-17.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Energia winged orbital launch vehicle.

SL-18.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Start and Start-1 orbital launch vehicle.

SL-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Sputnik 8A91 intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

SL-3.

SL-4.

SL-5.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Vostok 11A510 orbital launch vehicle.

SL-6.

SL-7.

SL-8.

SL-9.

  • Department of Defence designation of UR-500 launch vehicle.

SLAM.

  • American intercontinental Mach-3-at-sea-level cruise missile, powered by a nuclear ramjet. Development begun 1957. Cancelled 1964 over cost and environmental concerns.

SLC-1.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Nanosat air-launched orbital vehicle which would be dropped from a boosted F-4 carrier aircraft.

SLS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. In the mid-1950's, US Air Force-funded studies identified the optimum long-term solution for space launch. The studies indicated the desirability of segmented solids for a first stage to achieve low cost, high reliability and flexibility of basic booster size by adding or subtracting segments. Studies further showed that oxygen-hydrogen propellants, with their very high specific impulse, were a preferred choice for upper stages, where mass was more important. This choice also resulted in minimum systems cost.

SLS A-388.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The A-388 was the version of the Space Launching System family proposed to fill the SLV-4 requirement - boost to orbit of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane. The booster was dubbed 'Phoenix' - perhaps a hope it could be rescued from the ashes of the manned space program having been turned over to NASA....

SLS A-410.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The smallest identified member of the SLS family, selected to place the Air Force Lunex lunar lander re-entry vehicle in a low earth orbit for initial tests, was the A-410. This consisted of the 'A' Lox/LH2 stage supplemented by 100-inch diameter solid fuel booster rockets.

SLS AB-825.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The AB-825 represented a medium launch vehicle of the USAF 1961 Space Launching System family. The AB-825 would have conducted earth orbit tests of partially-fuelled Lunex lunar lander stages, and also have boosted the Lunex manned glider on circumlunar test flights. It consisted of the 'A' stage and 'B' stages with 180 inch diameter short-length solid fuel booster motors.

SLS BC-2720.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The BC-2720 was the member of the SLS family selected to boost the Air Force Lunex lunar lander on a direct lunar trajectory. This would have used four 180 inch solid rocket boosters strapped around an the 'C' Lox/LH2 core vehicle. The core would have required either 12 J-2 engines or 2 M-1 engines. The translunar injection third stage was the 'B', with a single J-2 engine.

SLV.

  • Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-1.

  • Article Number of KT-1 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Thor Agena D orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-2.

  • Article Number of KT-2 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-2A.

SLV-2A.

  • Article Number of KT-2A all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-2C.

SLV-2G.

SLV-2H.

SLV-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Atlas SLV-3 orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-3.

  • Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SLV-3-1 + 1 x SLV-3-2 + 1 x SLV-3-3 + 1 x SLV-3-4

SLV-3 Agena B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with Agena B upper stage.

SLV-3 D4.

  • Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SLV-3-1 + 1 x SLV-3-2 + 1 x SLV-3-3 + 1 x AS-4

SLV-5.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 2G intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-5A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 3A orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-5B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 3B orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-5C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 3C orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-5D.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 3D orbital launch vehicle.

SLV-5E.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Titan 3E orbital launch vehicle.

SM-2-IV.

SM-3.

  • Alternate designation for Standard SM-3 anti-ballistic missile.

SM-62.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Snark intercontinental cruise missile.

SM-64A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile.

SM-65A.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas A test vehicle.

SM-65B.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas B test vehicle.

SM-65C.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas C test vehicle.

SM-65E.

  • Alternate Designation of CGM-16E intercontinental ballistic missile.

SM-65F.

  • Alternate Designation of HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missile.

SM-68A.

  • Alternate Designation of Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SM-75.

  • Alternate Designation of Thor intermediate range ballistic missile.

SM-78.

  • Alternate Designation of Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile.

SM-80A.

  • Alternate Designation of Minuteman 1A intercontinental ballistic missile.

Snark.

  • American intercontinental subsonic cruise missile. Developed 1946-1959; deployed only briefly in 1961 before being made obsolete by ICBM's.

Snipe.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-31 submarine launched ballistic missile.

Sobol.

  • Launch System of RM-207 target drone.

Sodruzhestvo.

  • Joint Kazakh-Russian-Ukrainian project announced in 2000 to produce an 'ecologically safe' replacement of the Proton booster that would use Energia launch facilities at Baikonur. No details available, and no more heard about it.

Soltan.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The progenitor of the Titan 3 was this design, which used two, 3 segment, 100 inch diameter solid rocket boosters. The 100 inch segmented boosters had already been ground-fired by Aerojet. However the final decision was to develop the more-capable Titan 3C with 5 segment, 120 inch diameter solid rocket boosters.

Sonda.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket family.

Sonda 1.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 1-1 + 1 x Sonda 1-2

Sonda 2.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Sonda 3.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 3-1 + 1 x Sonda 2A

Sonda 3 M1.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 3-1 + 1 x Sonda 2M

Sonda 4.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S-43 + 1 x Sonda 3-1

Sounding Rocket.

  • Taiwanese sounding rocket.

Soyuz.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch.

Soyuz 11A510.

  • Alternate designation for Vostok 11A510 orbital launch vehicle.

Soyuz 11A511.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57). Designed initially to support launch of the Soyuz complex (7K manned, 9K rocket stage, and 11k tanker) and Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite. Later 'U' model extended to cover a range of follow-on satellites. Compared to 11A57, the telemetry system was reduced in mass to no more than 150 kg, and engines were cherry-picked for the vehicle core to ensure that specific impulse was no less than 252 seconds at sea level, 315 in vacuum.

Soyuz 11A511L.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander.

Soyuz 11A511M.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of the Soyuz-M began in 1967 to launch the 6.6 metric ton Soyuz 7K-VI manned military spacecraft into a 65-degree inclination earth orbit. The spacecraft was cancelled, but development continued, and eight were Soyuz-M's were built and used to launch Zenit-4MT reconnaissance satellites in 1971-1976. The differences compared to the Soyuz-U are not known, and what (if anything) differentiated these Zenit-4MT missions from others is also a mystery.

Soyuz 11A511U.

  • Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century.

Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Fregat upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for Lavochkin interplanetary probes.

Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Ikar upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for the Kozlov Yantar series of spy satellites.

Soyuz 11A511U2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted.

Soyuz 11A514.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Soyuz launcher with increased payload, designed to launch Soyuz R military reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled along with the Soyuz R project in 1966. Unknown differences to standard Soyuz to reach payload requirement of circa 6700 kg to 65 degree orbit.

Soyuz 11K55.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz B translunar rocket stage.

Soyuz 11K56.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz V tanker spacecraft.

Soyuz 2.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz ST orbital launch vehicle.

Soyuz FG.

  • Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST.

Soyuz M.

  • Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made.

Soyuz ST.

  • Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version.

Soyuz ST / Fregat ST.

  • Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Uses Fregat upper stage.

Soyuz-2-1A.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz ST orbital launch vehicle.

Soyuz-2-1B.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle.

Soyuz-3.

  • Alternate designation for Onega orbital launch vehicle.

Soyuz-FG.

  • Alternate designation for Soyuz FG missile.

Soyuz-U.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511U.

Space Data LCLV.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x M57A1

Space Launching System A-388.

  • Alternate designation for SLS A-388 orbital launch vehicle.

Space Launching System A-410.

  • Alternate designation for SLS A-410 orbital launch vehicle.

Space Launching System AB-825.

  • Alternate designation for SLS AB-825 orbital launch vehicle.

Space Launching System BC-2720.

  • Alternate designation for SLS BC-2720 orbital launch vehicle.

Space Ship Experimental.

  • Alternate designation for SSX ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Space Transportation System.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Shuttle winged orbital launch vehicle.

Spacebus.

  • British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Bristol Spaceplanes Spacebus was a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Manned Spaceplane, with an airbreathing supersonic / hypersonic, delta winged first stage and a second stage powered by a liquid fuelled rocket engine. It was proposed by David Ashford of Bristol Spaceplanes Ltd. in the 1980`s / 1990's. The 6-crew Concorde-sized Spacecab would serve as a prototype for the larger 50-person Spacebus.

Spacecab.

  • British winged orbital launch vehicle. The Bristol Spaceplanes Spacecab was a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) Manned Spaceplane, with an airbreathing supersonic / hypersonic, delta winged first stage and a second stage powered by a liquid fuelled rocket engine. It was proposed by David Ashford of Bristol Spaceplanes Ltd. in the 1980`s / 1990's. The Concorde-sized spacecraft would deliver a payload of 6 persons to low Earth orbit. It would serve as a prototype for the larger 50-person Spacebus.

SpaceLoft.

  • American sounding rocket. Series of commercial suborbital rockets marketed by Up Industries. Data given is for first-launched prototype.

SpaceLoft XL.

  • American single-stage commercial sounding rocket. Operational, first launch 2006.09.25.

Spacemaster.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Martin-Marrietta shuttle Phase A design. X-24B type lifting body orbiter with unique catamaran-configuration booster.

Spanker.

Sparoair.

  • American air-launched sounding rocket. Air-launched two stage vehicle consisting of tandem Sparrow air-to-air missile motors.

Sparoair I.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F3H Cougar + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x Sparrow

Sparoair II.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F3H Cougar + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x Sparrow

Sparoair III.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4B Phantom + 1 x Sparrow + 1 x 22.6KS1245

Sparrow Arcas.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle.

Sparta.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Redstone + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x BE-3

Spartan.

  • American anti-ballistic missile evolved from the Nike Zeus and designed to intercept ICBM warheads in space. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-500 + 1 x TX-454 + 1 x TX-239 solid propellant motors. Nearly as large and just as costly as the missiles it was designed to intercept. After 20 years of development, deployment was limited by arms agreements, and 30 were only briefly in service in 1975-1976.

Spider.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 9K714B intermediate range ballistic missile.

Spiral 50-50.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The Soviet Air Force had an enduring interest in a horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing, manned, reusable space launch system that could ferry crews and priority supplies between earth and space on the same basis as conventional aircraft. Between 1960 and 1976 Mikoyan developed this manned partially reusable space launch system. It consisted of a reusable hypersonic air-breathing booster; two expendable rocket stages; and the reusable Spiral manned spaceplane. The effort was never properly funded by the government, and by the mid-1970's had only reached the stage of flight tests of subscale versions of Spiral. Development was discontinued in 1976 in favor of the Buran, a copy of the US space shuttle. However it was resurrected in improved form in the 1980's as the MAKS spaceplane.

Sprint.

  • Nuclear-armed point defense anti-ballistic missile, an incredible high-acceleration weapon that would intercept incoming Soviet ICBMs in the atmosphere within 15 seconds of launch. Deployment limited by arms agreements and only 70 were briefly in service in 1975-1976.

Sputnik 11A59.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Vostok 11A57. Used for flight test of prototype Chelomei ASAT after cancellation of UR-200 booster and before availability of Tsiklon.

Sputnik 8A91.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3.

Sputnik 8K71PS.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks.

Squirt.

  • American anti-ballistic test vehicle.

SR19.

  • American air-launched target missile. Single stage vehicle consisting of 1 surplus Minuteman 2 SR19AJ1 motor air-dropped from a C-130 transport. Similar to the SVC AltAir concept.

SR19/SR19.

  • American target missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x MLRS + 1 x SR19 + 1 x SR19

SRAM.

  • American Short Range Attack Missile, an air-launched nuclear-armed solid-propellant stand-off weapon to allow B-52 and FB-111 bombers to penetrate Soviet air space. In service 1972-1990. Retired after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

SRAM II.

  • Popular Name of SRAM-2 air-to-surface missile.

SRAM T.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of SRAM-2 air-to-surface missile.

SRAM-2.

  • American Short Range Attack Missile, an air-launched nuclear-armed solid-propellant stand-off weapon to replace the SRAM. Mission was to allow B-52 and B-1 bombers to penetrate Soviet air space. Cancelled in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union without going into service.

SRB CEV.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle design preferred by NASA Administrator Mike Griffin to boost the manned CEV Crew Exploration Vehicle into low earth orbit. A single shuttle solid rocket booster would be mated with an upper stage in the 100 tonne class.

SS-10.

  • Department of Defence Designation of UR-200 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-1000.

  • Brazilian intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-11 Mod.1.

  • Department of Defence designation of UR-100 missile.

SS-11 Mod.2.

  • Department of Defence designation of UR-100M missile.

SS-11 Mod.3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of UR-100K intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-11 Mod.4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of UR-100U intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-12.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 9K76 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-12M.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 9K76B intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-13 Mod.1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RT-2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-13 Mod.2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RT-2P intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-14.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RT-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-15.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RT-20 and RT-20P intermediate range ballistic missiles.

SS-16.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Temp-2S intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-17 Mod 1 and Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of MR-UR-100 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-17 Mod.3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of MR-UR-100U 15A16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-18 Mod. 1-Mod. 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-36M intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-18 Mod.4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-36MU 15A18 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-18 Mod.5 and 6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-36M2 15A18M intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-19 Mod 1 and Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence designation of UR-100N missile.

SS-19 Mod 3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-1A.

  • Department of Defence designation of R-1 missile.

SS-1B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-11 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-1C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-17 short-range ballistic missile.

SS-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-20 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 15Zh45 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-20 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 15Zh45UTTKh intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-20 Mod 3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 15Zh53 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-21.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 9K79 and 9K79-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-22.

  • Alternate Designation of 9K76B intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-23.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 9K714B intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-24.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RT-23 15Zh44 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-24 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RT-23U 15Zh60 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-24 Mod 2.

SS-25.

  • Brazilian tactical ballistic missile.

SS-25 Mod 1 and 2.

  • Department of Defence designation of Topol missile.

SS-26.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RSS-40 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-28.

  • Alternate Designation of 15Zh53 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-3 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-5 intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-3 Mod.2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-5M intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-300.

  • Brazilian short range ballistic missile.

SS-4 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-12U intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-4 Mod.1.

  • Department of Defence designation of R-12 missile.

SS-5 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence designation of R-14 missile.

SS-5 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-14U intermediate range ballistic missile.

SS-520.

  • Japanese test vehicle. The SS-520 was a two-stage rocket, the first stage consisting of the main booster of the S-520. It had a capability of launching a 140 kg payload to an altitude of about 1,000 km, and with addition of a third stage, as a satellite launch vehicle.

SS-6 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence designation of R-7 missile.

SS-6 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence designation of R-7A missile.

SS-60.

  • Brazilian tactical ballistic missile.

SS-7 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-7 Mod.2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-16U intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-8 Mod. 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Romashka intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-8 Mod. 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Dolina and Desna intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-9 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence designation of Tsiklon missile.

SS-9 Mod 4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-36 8K67P intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-9 Mod.3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-36-O orbital missile.

SSBS.

  • French medium-range ballistic missile.

SSBS S01.

  • Manufacturer's designation for SSBS submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SSBS S01.

  • French submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SSBS S02.

  • French submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SSBS S112.

  • French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Test vehicle.

SSBS S2.

  • French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle.

SSBS S3.

  • French submarine-launched ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 902 + 1 x Rita II

SSBS S4.

  • French submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SSM Korea.

  • South Korean short range ballistic missile.

SSM-A-12.

  • Alternate Designation of Lacrosse tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-A-13.

  • Alternate Designation of Hermes A-2 tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-A-14.

  • Alternate Designation of Redstone short range ballistic missile.

SSM-A-15.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Hermes A-1 tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-A-16.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Hermes A-3B tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-A-17.

  • Alternate designation of Corporal missile.

SSM-A-17 / M2.

  • Alternate Designation of MGM-5B short range ballistic missile.

SSM-A-17 / M2A1.

  • Alternate Designation of MGM-5A short range ballistic missile.

SSM-A-23.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Dart tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-A-26 / M15.

  • Alternate designation of Sergeant missile.

SSM-A-6.

  • Alternate Designation of Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile.

SSM-A-9.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Hermes B-1 tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-G-13.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Hermes C-1 tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-G-15.

  • Alternate Designation of Hermes A-1 tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-G-8.

  • Alternate Designation of Hermes A-3A tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-G-9.

  • Popular Name of Hermes B-1 tactical ballistic missile.

SSM-N-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Loon short range cruise missile.

SSM-N-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Triton intermediate range cruise missile.

SSM-N-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Taurus SSM-N-4 intermediate range cruise missile.

SSM-N-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Rigel SSM-N-6 intermediate range cruise missile.

SSM-N-8.

  • Alternate Designation of Regulus 1 intermediate range cruise missile.

SSM-N-9.

  • Alternate Designation of Regulus 2 intermediate range cruise missile.

SS-N-17.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-31 submarine launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-18.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Volna SLV intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

SS-N-18 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-29R submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-18 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-29K submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-18 Mod 3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-29RL submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-20.

  • Department of Defence designation of Rif-MA missile.

SS-N-20 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 3M20 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-20 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence designation of 3M65 missile.

SS-N-23.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-29RM submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-24.

  • Department of Defence Designation of P-750 intermediate range cruise missile.

SS-N-28.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-39M and R-39UTTKh submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

SS-N-3C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of P-6 intermediate range cruise missile.

SS-N-4.

  • Department of Defence designation of R-13 missile.

SS-N-5.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-21 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-21A submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-6 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-27 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-6 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-27K submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-6 Mod 3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-27U submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-8.

  • Department of Defence designation of Vysota missile.

SS-N-8 Mod 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-29 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-N-8 Mod 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of R-29D submarine-launched ballistic missile.

SS-NX-30.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile.

SSOAR.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. P Seigler founded a company in 1976 to promote his design for a VTOVL SSTO vehicle using a lox/hydrogen aerospike engine.

SSX.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The X-Rocket was a VTOVL SSTO design by Maxwell Hunter II at Lockheed in the late 1980's. The 227 tonne vehicle was powered by clustered RL10 engines. Internal reviews at Lockheed rejected the feasibility of the vehicle. After Hunter retired he worked with Gary Hudson to refine the design as the SSX. This was briefed by the pair to Space Defence Inititive Organization (SDIO) officials in 1988. It was largely through their efforts that the US government funded the DC-X demonstrator in the 1990's.

SS-X-26.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Iskander short range ballistic missile.

SS-X-27 / SS-X-29.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Topol M intercontinental ballistic missile.

SS-XZ.

  • Alternate Designation of RT-20 intermediate range ballistic missile.

ST.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

ST-735.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x ST-735 + 1 x ST-735 stage 2

Standard 2 ER.

  • Popular Name of RIM-67D surface-to-air missile.

Standard 3 ER.

Standard Missile 2 (ER).

  • Alternate Designation of RIM-67D surface-to-air missile.

Standard SM-2ER Block IV.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Extended-range surface-to-air missile for use by AEGIS naval vessels. A version with lower tier anti-missile capability against tactical ballistic missiles was tested but not put into production.

Standard SM-3.

  • American surface-to-air missile with anti-ballistic missile capability using the LEAP homing vehicle for use by AEGIS naval vessels. Modification for anti-satellite use demonstrated in 2008.

Standard-ER.

Standard-ER.

  • American Navy long range surface-to-air missile. Later versions have anti-ballistic missile capability.

Starbird.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Orbus 1 + 1 x Orbus 1

Starclipper.

  • Alternate designation for Shuttle LS200 winged orbital launch vehicle.

Starclipper.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Lockheed ILRV design created for the USAF in 1966. X-24B lifting body configuration orbiter with linear aerospike engine and wrap-around drop tank. Related to Lockheed Shuttle LS200 proposal.

Starclipper Light.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Downsized version of the Starclipper, equipped with conventional bell nozzle engines, released by NASA for public consumption in 1968.

STAR-H.

  • French winged orbital launch vehicle. Mach 6 hypersonic first stage would launch Hermes spaceplane with an expendable second stage.

Starlifter.

Star-raker.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Rockwell International's Star-raker was an enormous 1979 heavy-lift ramjet/rocket horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit concept capable of atmospheric cruise and powered landing for maximum operational flexibility.

STARS.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage target vehicle for anti-ballistic missile tests, consisting of a surplus Polaris A3 SLBM (A3P first stage + X-260 second stage) and an Orbus 1 third stage.

Start.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned SS-25 ICBM's (differs from ICBM/basic Start-1 in having second stage used twice, in tandem, for increased payload). Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 60 tonnes.

Start-1.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned ICBM's. Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 47 tonnes.

Start-1.2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle.

Stilleto.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of UR-100N and UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Stingray.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of R-29K, R-29R, and R-29K submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Stone.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of Iskander short range ballistic missile.

Stonechat.

  • British test vehicle. Single stage hypersonic test vehicles using variants of the Stonechat solid rocket motor.

Stonechat I.

  • British sounding rocket. Single stage hypersonic test vehicle using the Stonechat I solid rocket motor.

Storm.

  • American target missile. Two-stage Orbital Sciences vehicle used as targets in THAAD anti-ballistic missile tests. Consisted of a Sergeant first stage and Minuteman third stage as second stage. Twelve were launched January 1992 - December 1995.

Storm 1.

  • Alternate designation for FB-1 orbital launch vehicle.

Storm-2.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Strela.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Launch vehicle by NPO MASH based on UR-100N's decommissioned from Ukrainian missile fields. 106 tonne liftoff mass.

Strizh.

  • Launch System of RM-217M target drone.

Stromboli.

  • French sounding rocket. The second series of Sud Aviation sounding rockets were designed to carry large diameter payloads, and used Stromboli motors only.

Strongarm.

  • American test vehicle. A large five-stage rocket developed by the Army Ballistics Research Laboratory with the cooperation of the University of Michigan. Consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus modified Recruit plus a scaled-down Sergeant. Fired first from Wallops Island on November 10, 1959. Could lift 6.8 kg to 1600 km.

Strongarm 1.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit

Strypi.

  • American target missile. Family of re-entry vehicle test boosters and anti-missile targets using a Castor first stage with two recruit strap-ons, plus a range of upper stages.

Strypi Antares.

  • Strypi Antares

Strypi IIAR.

  • American target missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 2

Strypi IIR.

  • American target missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor

Strypi IV.

  • American target missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Star 26

Strypi IX.

  • American target missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2

Strypi Tomahawk.

  • American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x ? + 1 x Tomahawk

Strypi VI.

  • American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x ? + 1 x ?

Strypi VIIAR.

  • American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 2 + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Alcyone

Strypi VIIR.

  • American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Alcor IB + 1 x Alcyone

Strypi XI.

  • American target missile. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Castor + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Star 27

STS.

  • Alternate designation for Shuttle winged orbital launch vehicle.

STS-2000 SSTO.

  • French winged orbital launch vehicle. Single stage to orbit ramjet/rocket mix power horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing study of the 1980's.

STS-2000 TSTO.

  • Two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing variant of STS-2000. Ramjet/rocket mixed power first stage. Mach 6 separation of rocket-powered second stage. French study of the 1980's.

Sturgeon.

  • ASCC Reporting Name of 3M20 and 3M65 submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy.

  • Alternate designation for AGM-86A air-to-surface missile.

Super Arcas.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle, improved version of the original Arcas with a lengthened motor burning for 40 seconds. Payload 4 kg to 100 km or 8 kg to 40 km.

Super Chief.

  • American sounding rocket. Series of large sounding rockets developed by Aerojet Space Data using the Talos booster, various upper stages, and Astrobee electronics.

Super Chief II.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Castor

Super High Altitude Research Project.

  • Alternate designation for SHARP gun-launched test vehicle.

Super Loki.

  • American sounding rocket. Larger-diameter version of single-stage Loki sounding rocket, developed originally for NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center.

Super Loki Datasonde.

Super Loki Robin.

  • Popular Name of PWN-12 sounding rocket.

Super Sabre.

  • Popular Name of LIM-100 anti-ballistic missile.

Super Titan.

  • Popular Name of Titan C orbital launch vehicle.

Super V-2.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Developed version of German A9 studied by the German team in France in 1946-1948. Cancelled as too ambitious, but led to the Veronique of the 1950's, the Diamant of the 1960's, and the Ariane space booster of 1979-2003.

Super-Jupiter.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The very first design that would lead to Saturn. A 1.5 million pound thrust booster using four E-1 engines - initial consideration of using a single USAF F-1 engine abandoned because of development time. Existing missile tankage was clustered above the engines.

Superraket.

  • Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. The ancestor of the N1 lunar launch vehicle, this was the first heavy lift launch vehicle actively considered in the USSR. The 2,000 tonne liftoff mass was similar to the later N1 design, but the first stage would use a staggering cluster of around 66 Kuznetsov NK-9 engines (as opposed to the modest 24 NK-15's of the first N1 configuration). The real difference was in the second stage, which used the nuclear YaRD engine, giving the launch vehicle nearly double the later N1's payload capacity.

Svezda.

  • Launch System of RM-217 surface-to-air missile.

Swan.

  • American rocketplane. William G. Swan stayed aloft for 30 minutes over Atlantic City, N.J., in a glider powered with 10 small rockets.

SX-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DC-X vtovl test vehicle.

SX-2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of DC-X2 ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

System 49.

  • Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The Spiral project was not cancelled with the decision to proceed with the large Buran spaceplane. Instead flight test of the orbiter continued but the launcher design was rethought. The ambitious Mach 4 air-breathing first stage was abandoned. Instead the rocket stages and the manned Spiral orbiter were mounted on the back of an An-124 subsonic transport. This concept would evolve through the Bizan concept to the MAKS of the 1980's, which reached the hardware development stage.

System 49-M.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The 49M was an application of the system 49 design concept, but with a larger carrier aircraft. The system would have a 770 tonne gross takeoff mass. The orbiter/rocket stage combination weighted 370 tonnes, with the orbiter mass being 28 tonnes in orbit, including a 9 tonne payload in a 8.0 m x 3.3 m diameter payload bay. The tripropellant single rocket stage was equipped 1 x NK-43 / 11D112 engine burning Lox/Kerosene and 2 x RD-57 / 11D57 engines burning Lox/LH2. The orbiter could have one or two crew, and was designed for 100 reuses. Development costs for the new heavy lift aircraft and larger orbiter would be too high, and the design was abandoned in favour of the Bizan concept.

T-1.

  • 1950's Western designation of R-5 and R-5M intermediate range ballistic missile.

T-1.

  • Original conceptual design for ICBM. Final design was R-7 due to unachievability of mass ratio for this single stage design. Data from chart at Russian Space Agency HQ.

T-5E.

  • Alternate Designation of R-70 tactical ballistic rocket.

T-7.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. China's first sounding rocket and first indigenously-built sounding rocket, launched from 1960-1965. The basic vehicle consisted of a single liquid propellant stage. This was later augmented with solid propellant booster stages. Later versions dispensed with the liquid propellant stage.

T-7/GF-01A.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of T-7A + GF-01A

T-7A.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. Boosted version of China's first indigenously-built sounding rocket. Included solid propellant booster. The upper stage and payload were recovered by parachute and reused. Launches began in 1965. Consisted of a solid propellant booster mated to the basic liquid propellant T-7. Flown from 1965 to the end of the 1960's.

T-7A-S.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle

T-7A-S2.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle

T-7B.

  • Alternate Designation of R-11M submarine-launched ballistic missile.

T-7M.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. 2 stage test vehicle for T-7.

Tacite.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket using a single Stromboli SEPR 739-2 stage with 'Plastoline' propellant. Stabilisation was by four fins and a nitrogen cold-gas spin thrusters.

Taepodong.

  • North Korean long-range ballistic missile and satellite launch vehicle consisted of a No-Dong 1 IRBM as the first stage, and a derivative of the Scud-C SRBM as the second stage.

Taepodong 1.

  • North Korean orbital launch vehicle. The third stage for the satellite launch version was probably a small solid rocket engine. It failed to reach orbit in the 1998 launch attempt, and later such tests are believed to have used a different design.

Taepodong 2.

  • North Korean intermediate range ballistic missile. Two-stage ballistic missile. First stage is 18 m long, second is 14 m long.

Taifun.

  • Launch System of 3M65 missile.

Taifun.

  • German surface-to-air barrage rocket, tested during World War II, but never operational. Copied in the USA as the Loki and in the USSR as the R-103. The name translates as 'Typhoon'.

Talos.

  • American Navy long-range ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. In service 1959-1979.

Talos AAW.

  • Popular Name of RIM-8G surface-to-air missile.

Talos ARM.

  • Popular Name of RGM-8H tactical cruise missile.

Talos Castor.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of 1 x Talos booster + 1 x Castor

Talos Sergeant Hydac.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage sounding rocket consisting of 1 x Talos booster + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Hydac

Tamouz.

  • Iraqi space launch vehicle/ICBM based on clustering of Scud tactical missiles. Canadian rocket scientist Gerald Bull was allegedly killed by Israeli agents not for his work on the supergun, but rather for his much more damaging assistance to the Iraqis in doing the dynamic calculations for the Tamouz.

Tandem Double Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Deacon + 2 x Deacon

Taran.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile design that was part of the basic capability of the UR-100. Studied in 1962-1964 but abandoned.

TARANIS.

  • French study of vertical takeoff / horizontal landing, two stage to orbit launch vehicle with expendable orbiter fuel tanks.

Tater.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Talos + 1 x Terrier + 1 x Recruit

Taurus.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage. First launch used slightly larger Peacekeeper ICBM first stage instead of Castor-120. Under a 2002 contract from Boeing, Orbital developed a three-stage version of Taurus to serve as the interceptor boost vehicles for the US government's missile intercept system. The firm portion of the company's contract, awarded in early 2002, was valued at $450 million and extended through 2007.

Taurus 1110.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus 2110.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus 2210.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus 3210.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and a first stage combining a Ukrainian Zenit lower stage fitted with 30-year old surplus Russian N1 moon program rocket engines.

Taurus Orion.

  • American sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle composed of 1 x Taurus (Honest John motor) + 1 x Orion. Payload 68 kg to 260 km or 227 kg to 140 km.

Taurus RGM-59.

  • American tactical ballistic missile to provide US Navy ships with a long range surface-to-surface capability. Development began 1961; cancelled 1965.

Taurus S.

  • American sounding rocket.

Taurus SSM-N-4.

  • Interim long-range cruise missile considered by the US Navy in 1946-1948, an unmanned version of the AJ-1 Savage carrier-based bomber.

Taurus Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket. NASA two stage sounding rocket. Payload 27 kg to 590 km or 59 kg to 490 km.

Taurus Tomahawk Nike.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Taurus (Honest John motor) + 1 x Nike + 1 x Tomahawk. Payload 32 kg to 700 km or 125 kg to 400 km.

Taurus XL 3110.

  • American all-solid propellant orbital launch vehicle.

Taurus-Lite.

  • Manufacturer's designation for OBV anti-ballistic missile.

Tausend Fussler.

  • Alternate designation for V-3 gun-launched missile.

TAV.

  • American winged rocketplane. USAF program of the 1980's that reached the test hardware stage and was leading to a single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered, winged manned vehicle. Halted in favour of the X-30 National Aerospace Plane.

Temp-2S.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. World's first operational mobile ICBM. Deployed in greaty secrecy in 1976-1987 contrary to the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty.

Temp-S.

  • Launch System of 9K76 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Temp-S.

  • The Temp-S was the first solid propellant tactical guided missile deployed in the USSR. It was designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1 and formed the basis of subsequent designs leading to current modern Russian ICBM's.

Temp-S.2M.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Temp-S.2M was the first strategic rocket designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1. The design was abandoned when weight growth made it too heavy for the planned mobile transport.

Temp-SM.

  • Launch System of 9K76B intermediate range ballistic missile.

Terrapin.

  • American test vehicle. Terrapin sounding rockets were two-stage vehicles launched from Wallops Island. The Terrapin sounding rocket was developed by Republic Aviation under a National Security Agency contract for a University of Maryland project that allowed graduate students to study the upper atmosphere. The two-stage rocket used a Deacon motor with a slow-burn grain for the lower stage, and a TSI upper stage. The upper stage was equipped with low-drag swept stabilising fins.

Terrier.

  • Standard US Navy solid propellant two-stage extended-range surface-to-air missile. Developed in the 1950's, in service until replaced by the Standard ER in the 1980's. Modified Terrier missiles were used as sounding rockets, sometimes supplemented with upper stages.

Terrier 3.

  • Alternate designation for RIM-2C surface-to-air missile.

Terrier 3A.

  • Alternate designation for RIM-2D surface-to-air missile.

Terrier ASAS.

  • American sounding rocket.

Terrier Asp.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Asp

Terrier Asp IV.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Asp IV

Terrier ASROC Cajun.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x ASROC + 1 x Cajun

Terrier BT-3.

  • Popular Name of RIM-2C surface-to-air missile.

Terrier BT-3A.

  • Popular Name of RIM-2D surface-to-air missile.

Terrier BW-0.

  • Popular Name of RIM-2A surface-to-air missile.

Terrier BW-1.

  • Popular Name of RIM-2B surface-to-air missile.

Terrier HT-3.

  • Popular Name of RIM-2F surface-to-air missile.

Terrier Hydac.

  • American sounding rocket.

Terrier LEAP.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier Mk 70 + 1 x Mk 30 + 1 x ASAS

Terrier Lynx.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Lynx

Terrier Malemute.

  • American sounding rocket. The Terrier-Malemute launch vehicle was a high performance two-stage vehicle used for payloads weighing less than 180 kg, generally used for relatively lightweight plasma physics payloads. Payload 90 kg to 650 km or 180 kg to 420 km.

Terrier Nike.

  • American sounding rocket.

Terrier Oriole.

  • American sounding rocket. SPACEHAB's Astrotech Space Operations developed the Oriole sounding rocket in the late 1990s to provide launch services for commercial and scientific payloads. Oriole was both the first privately developed sounding rocket in the United States and the first new U.S. sounding rocket in 25 years.

Terrier Oriole Mk 70.

  • American sounding rocket.

Terrier Orion.

  • American two-stage, spin-stabilized sounding rocket. It used a Terrier Mk 12 Mod 1 engine for its first stage and an improved Orion motor for its second stage. The Terrier-Orion could loft payloads weighing up to 290 kilograms to altitudes up to 190 kilometers.

Terrier Orion Improved.

  • Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Improved Orion

Terrier Orion Mk 70.

  • American sounding rocket.

Terrier Sandhawk.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Sandhawk

Terrier Sounding Rocket.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Modified single stage Navy Terrier missiles with cameras were used as sounding rockets. They were launched to an altitude of 140 km from Wallops Island, providing a 1,600 km composite photograph of a frontal cloud formation.

Terrier Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Tomahawk

Terrier/551.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x NOTS 551

THAAD.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Theatre High-Altitude Air Defence. SDIO/BMDO project. Single stage vehicle.

Themis.

  • French winged orbital launch vehicle. Themis was a planned ESA booster stage demonstrator, to validate integrated propellant tank technology necessary for a reusable Ariane 5 successor. The demonstrator engine would be derived from the Vulcain of the Ariane 5. Estimated cost was up to 2.5 billion dollars. THEMIS would carry 33 tonnes of propellant, enough to reach Mach 11. Expendable boosters might permit orbital flight.

Thor.

  • American liquid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile, developed by Douglas in 1956-1958. 60 deployed to Britain in 1958-1962. The basis for a family of Thor and Delta space launch vehicles, remaining in production into the 2010's.

Thor Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Able stage derived from Vanguard second stage.

Thor Able I.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 1/AJ10-41 + 1 x Altair

Thor Able II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42

Thor Able II M1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42 + 1 x Altair

Thor Able III.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 3/AJ10 + 1 x Altair

Thor Able IV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x AJ10 + 1 x Altair

Thor Able-Star.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. As Thor Able but with enlarged Ablestar second stage with 2 1/2 x greater burn time.

Thor Ablestar 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Able-Star/AJ10-104D

Thor Agena A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Agena A

Thor Agena B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x Agena B

Thor Agena B SLV-2.

  • Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Agena B

Thor Agena B SLV-2A/B.

  • Thor Agena B upgraded with addition of three Castor 1 strap-on motors.

Thor Agena D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x Agena D

Thor Agena D SLV-2.

  • Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Agena D

Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D.

  • Thor Agena upgraded with addition of three Castor 1 strap-on motors.

Thor Burner.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Thor DM-18A with 'Burner' upper stage solid rocket packages used for launch of classified payloads.

Thor Burner 1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x FW4S

Thor Burner 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Star 37B

Thor Burner 2A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Star 37B + 1 x Star 26B

Thor Delta.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial name for the military's Thor-Delta. The name of the Delta second stage eventually was applied to subsequent commercial follow-ons.

Thor Delta A.

  • Alternate designation for Delta A orbital launch vehicle.

Thor Delta B.

  • Alternate designation for Delta B orbital launch vehicle.

Thor Delta C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2

Thor Delta C1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Delta D + 1 x FW4D

Thor Delta D.

  • Alternate designation for Delta D orbital launch vehicle.

Thor Delta G.

  • Alternate designation for Delta G orbital launch vehicle.

Thor Delta J.

  • Alternate designation for Delta J orbital launch vehicle.

Thor Delta L.

  • Alternate designation for Delta L orbital launch vehicle.

Thor DM-18.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle adapted from Thor IRBM with no upper stage.

Thor DM-18A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle

Thor DM-18C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle

Thor DSV-2D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Thor DSV-2E.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Thor DSV-2F.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Thor DSV-2G.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x AJ10-118

Thor DSV-2J.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. Single stage vehicle.

Thor DSV-2U.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Thor Hydra.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Hydra liquid oxygen/hydrogen pressure-fed upper stage. Never went beyond initial hardware testing. However such a stage would have vastly increased Thor-Ablestar performance, from 150 kg to over 1000 kg in a medium polar orbit.

Thor MG-18.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x MG-18

Thorad Agena D SLV-2H.

  • Thor Agena upgraded with Long Tank Thor stage. Variant with straight tank from Delta was Thorad (Long Tank Augmented Thrust Thor Delta)

Thorad Agena D SLV-2G.

  • Thor Agena upgraded with Extended Length Tank Thor stage. 3 stage vehicle.

Thor-Delta.

  • Alternate designation for Thor Delta orbital launch vehicle.

Thrust Augmented Thor.

Tianying-3C.

Tibere.

  • French test vehicle. Tibere was an atmospheric re-entry test vehicle derived from the earlier Berenice. Development was authorized in 1965 to support the Electre re-entry experiment program. The first two stages were Stromboli motors of identical length. The third stage was the P.064 motor developed for the Diamant orbital launcher.

Tier One.

  • American winged rocketplane. Burt Rutan's Tier One was the second manned reusable suborbital launch system (after the B-52/X-15). But it was developed privately at a small fraction of the cost.

Tiling.

  • Wing-recovered compressed powder rockets that set altitude records in Germany before being surpassed by liquid propellant designs.

Timberwind.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. DARPA project. Nuclear fission engine using pebble bed reactor with spherical fuel elements.

Timberwind Centaur.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle.

Timberwind Titan.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle.

Titan.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space.

Titan 1.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, built as back-up to Atlas, using two stages instead of one and a half, and conventional tank construction in lieu of balloon tanks. It was also to have been used for suborbital tests of the X-20A Dynasoar manned space plane. For unknown reasons never refurbished for use as space launcher and scrapped after being replaced by the Titan II in the missile role in mid-1960's.

Titan 2.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM, developed also as the launch vehicle for the manned Gemini spacecraft in the early 1960's. When the ICBM's were retired in the 1980's they were refurbished and a new series of launches began.

Titan 23B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Basic Titan 3A core, originally developed for Titan 3C, with Agena D upper stage replacing Transtage. New radio guidance system, 1.5 m diameter fairing atop Agena. Payload remained attached to the Agena.

Titan 23C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Post-MOL standardisation of Titan 3C, with man-rated systems removed, upgraded first stage engines, digital avionics, blowdown solid rocket motor thrust vector control in place of pressure-regulated system, simplified Transtage attitude control system.

Titan 23D.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Titan 3D orbital launch vehicle.

Titan 23E.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Titan 3E orbital launch vehicle.

Titan 24B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Stretched first stage, originally developed for the cancelled MOL program, with Agena D upper stage. Radio guidance system, 1.5 m diameter fairing atop Agena. Payload remained attached to the Agena.

Titan 2B.

  • American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Space launch version of Titan 2 ICBM, obtained through minimal modification of ICBM (new wiring and avionics only, and use of existing ICBM re-entry vehicle shroud). Proposed in the late 1980's but never developed.

Titan 2G.

  • American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Space launch version, obtained through minimal refurbishment of decommissioned ICBM's.

Titan 2L.

  • American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Version of refurbished Titan 2 ICBM with two liquid propellant strap-on stages. Proposed in the late 1980's but never developed.

Titan 2S.

  • American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Version of refurbished Titan 2 ICBM with two to eight Castor 4A solid-propellant strap-on stages. Proposed in the late 1980's but never developed.

Titan 33B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Basic Titan 3A core, except guidance provided by the Agena upper stage. The Agena and its payload were completely enclosed in a new 3.05 m diameter shroud. 'Ascent Agena' seperated after orbital insertion and did not remain attached to the payload.

Titan 34B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Stretched Titan core, originally developed for Titan 3M MOL, with Agena D upper stage. Guidance provided by the Agena upper stage. The Agena and its payload were completely enclosed in a 3.05 m diameter shroud. 'Ascent Agena' seperated after orbital insertion and did not remain attached to the payload.

Titan 34D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Stretched Titan core designed for use with 5 1/2 segment solid rocket motors. IUS (Interim/Inertial Upper Stage) solid upper stages, Transtage, or used without upper stages.

Titan 34D/IUS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 34D with IUS upper stages.

Titan 34D/Transtage.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 34D with Transtage upper stage.

Titan 3A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Titan with Transtage third stage. Core for Titan 3C.

Titan 3B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Titan core with Agena upper stage. Found to be more cost effective and higher performance than using Transtage.

Titan 3BAS2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. Never flown.

Titan 3C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 3A with five segment solid motors. Man-rated design originally developed for Dynasoar spaceplane.

Titan 3C7.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Variant of Titan 3C with seven segment solid motors. Proposed by Martin for precise delivery of payloads beyond Titan 3C capacity into geosynch orbit. Never flown.

Titan 3D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 3C without transtage.

Titan 3E.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 3D with Centaur D-1T upper stage. Used by NASA for deep space missions in 1970's.

Titan 3L2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Variant of Titan with 15 foot Large Diameter Core, 2 x 7 segment strap-ons. Man-rated, optimized for delivery of heavy payloads into LEO. Never developed.

Titan 3L4.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Variant of Titan with 15 foot Large Diameter Core, 4 x 7 segment strap-ons. Man rated, optimized for delivery of 40,000 pound manned payloads into 250 nm / 50 deg space station orbit.

Titan 3M.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Man-rated launch vehicle designed for MOL and other missions of the 1970's. Malfunction Detection System initiated abort procedures during launch. Also suited for launch of 'bulbous and lifting body payloads'. 7 segment UA1207 motors developed but not used until Titan 4 in 1990's. Cancelled with MOL program in 1969.

Titan 4.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Developed to handle military payloads designed for launch on Shuttle from Vandenberg before the USAF pulled out of the Shuttle program after the Challenger disaster. Further stretch of core from Titan 34, 7-segment solid rocket motors (developed for MOL but not used until 25 years later). Enlarged Centaur G used as upper stage (variant of stage designed for Shuttle but prohibited for flight safety reasons after Challenger). Completely revised electronics. All the changes resulted in major increase in cost of launch vehicle and launch operations.

Titan 402A/IUS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with IUS upper stages.

Titan 402B/IUS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with IUS upper stage.

Titan 403A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of lower-mass, higher-orbit Lacrosse, SDS and NOSS-2 payloads from Vandenberg.

Titan 403B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with no upper stage, configured for launch from Vandenberg.

Titan 404A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of heavy-weight, low altitude KH-12 and Improved CRYSTAL payloads from Vandenberg.

Titan 404B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4B with no upper stage, configured for launch from Vandenberg.

Titan 405A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Titan 4 with no upper stage, configured for launch of lower-mass, higher-orbit SDS and NOSS-2 payloads from Cape Canaveral.

Titan 45D.

Titan 45F.

Titan 45H.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Titan 405A orbital launch vehicle.

Titan 45J.

Titan 4B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Titan 4 with Upgraded Solid Rocket Motors replacing UA1207. Developed to improve performance for certain missions, and reduce number of field joints in motor after Challenger and Titan 34D explosions involving segmented motors.

Titan 5.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Titan upgrade with cryogenic core as replacement for NLS.

Titan C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan C, a Titan II booster stage topped by a new liquid oxygen/hydrogen upper stage, was the launch vehicle selected in November 1959 for the DynaSoar orbital flight program. Despite the fact the upper stage engine was secretly tested in 1958-1960, after many political twists and turns, it was cancelled in favor of the Titan 3C in July 1961

Titan Centaur 401A.

  • Version of Titan 4 with Centaur T upper stage.

Titan Centaur 401B.

  • Version of Titan 4B with Centaur T upper stage.

Titan I.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Titan II.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Titan II GLV.

  • American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Version for launch of Gemini manned spacecraft. Developed in parallel with ICBM version. Differed in having redundancy features in systems and MDS (Malfunction Detection System) installed.

Titan II SLV.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 2G intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

Titan IIIA.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 3A orbital launch vehicle.

Titan IIIB.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 3B orbital launch vehicle.

Titan IIIC.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 3C orbital launch vehicle.

Titan IIID.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 3D orbital launch vehicle.

Titan IIIE.

  • Alternate designation for Titan 3E orbital launch vehicle.

Titan-Vanguard.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin Company proposed to the Department of Defense that the first stage of the Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile be combined with the Vanguard rocket to provide a launch vehicle capable of placing an instrument package into lunar orbit and on the lunar surface. NASA was instead given the mission and used Atlas/Agena and Atlas/Centaur for this purpose instead.

Titus.

  • French sounding rocket. Sounding rocket derived from the first two stages of the Berenice test vehicle. The two stage vehicle consisted of 4 x SEPR P167 stabilisation rockets around a Stromboli 739 first stage, topped by a stretched Stromboli SEPR 740-3 second stage with four fins. The launches were made from Chaco in collaboration with the Argentinian agency CNIE.

TM-61A.

  • Alternate Designation of Matador intermediate range cruise missile.

TM-61B.

  • Alternate Designation of CGM-13A and MGM-1C intermediate range cruise missile.

TM-76A.

  • Alternate designation for CGM-13A intermediate range cruise missile.

TM-76B.

  • Alternate Designation of CGM-13B intermediate range cruise missile.

TN-81.

  • Standard warhead of ASMP cruise missile.

Tochka.

  • Launch System of 9K79 and 9K714B intermediate range ballistic missiles.

Tochka.

  • Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical short-range ballistic missile, deployed from 1976.

Tochka-U.

  • Launch System of 9K79-1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Tomahawk.

  • Popular Name of BGM-110 intermediate range cruise missile.

Tomahawk Sandia.

  • American sounding rocket. Test and sounding vehicles developed by Sandia using the TE-416 Tomahawk motor.

Topaze VE111.

  • Topaze was the first guided rocket in the French 'precious stones' series. As such it was the first launched from a pad rather than a ramp. The initial model was the VE111C (short) with the NA802 motor.

Topaze VE111L.

  • French test vehicle. The VE111L (long) used the stretched NA803 motor. The VE111L was successfully demonstrated the thrust vectoring concept over a longer burn period. The last two flights were VE111LG configuration, equipped with all-up inertial navigation systems.

Topol.

  • Alternate designation for Start and Start-1 orbital launch vehicles.

Topol.

  • Russian containerised all-solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos.

Topol'.

  • Alternate designation for Topol missile.

Topol M.

  • All-Russian solid propellant ICBM set to replace all older models in the first decade of the 21st Century. Designed for mobile deployment on 8-axis transport-launcher RT-2M2/SS-X-29), or placement in existing UR-100N and R-36M silos (RT-2M1/SS-X-27).

Topol'-M.

  • Alternate designation for Topol M intercontinental ballistic missile.

TR-1.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

TR-1A.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Trailblazer.

  • American test vehicle. The Trailblazer rockets were designed to conduct experiments in re-entry physics.

Trailblazer 1.

  • American test vehicle. The rocket's first three stages would take the upper stage package to a 260 km apogee. The upper stage package was mounted upside-down in relation to the other stages. When it had reached the peak, the three upper stages fired in sequence, ramming the payload, a 13 cm sphere, into the atmosphere at orbital re-entry speeds.

Trailblazer 2.

  • American test vehicle. NASA rocket designed for high-speed re-entry tests.

Trailblazer 2M.

  • American test vehicle. Five stage version for artificial meteorite launches consisting of 2 x Recruit strap-ons + 1 x Castor first stage + 1 x Skat second stage. The upper stage package consisted of 1 x Altair + 1 x Cygnus 15 + 1 x Cygnus 5

Triamese.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The General Dynamics proposed an ingenious "Triamese" concept for the US Air Force "Integral Launch & Re-entry Vehicle" program. This system (originally developed in 1965 for a classified USAF SAMSO study) would have utilised three virtually identical reusable booster/orbiter element vehicles rather than develop two different booster and orbiter spaceplanes. General Dynamics estimated that the Triamese only would cost $1-2 billion to develop (=$4.5-9B at 1999 economic conditions) and be operational by 1976.

Tri-Deacon Deacon HPAG 3.

  • Three stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Deacon + 1 x Deacon + 1 x HPAG

Trident.

  • American submarine-launched ballistic missile. US Navy submarine-launched ballistic missiles, which superseded the Polaris.

Trident 1.

  • Alternate designation for Trident C-4 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Trident 2.

  • Alternate designation for Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Trident C-4.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. 3 stages, inertial guided, warhead: nuclear MIRV. Could replace Poseidon in existing submarine launch tubes.

Trident D-5.

  • American intercontinental range, submarine-launched ballistic missile. Deployed March 1990 aboard the new Ohio-class submarines. 336 remain in service in the 2010's as America's seaborne nuclear deterrent.

Triple Deacon.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Triple Deacon HPAG.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Deacon + 1 x HPAG

Triton.

  • US Navy ship- and sub-to-surface cruise ramjet-powered supersonic missile. Development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1957.

Triumf.

Truax.

  • American test vehicle. The US Navy's R. C. Truax, at Annapolis, Md., developed a number of pioneering early rockets.

Truax Volksrocket..

  • Alternate designation for Sea Horse sea-launched test vehicle.

Tselina-2.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the Tselina-2 road transport for a heavy ICBM can be traced back to the late 1960's. By the 1970's two versions had been designed, the 12-axle MAZ-7906 and 8-axle MAZ-7907. They could transport loads of up to 140 tonnes, much greater than the single-warhead RT-23 and its container. Although trials of prototypes were conducted in the 1980's, the road mobile version of the RT-23 was never put into service.

Tsien Spaceplane 1949.

  • American winged rocketplane. In 1949 Tsien Hsue-shen, the leading expert in high-speed aerodynamics working in America, applied the knowledge learned from German rocket developments to the design of a practical intercontinental rocket transport.

Tsiklon.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans.

Tsiklon-1.

  • Alternate designation for 64S5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Tsiklon-2.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit.

Tsiklon-2A.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle.

Tsiklon-3.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy.

Tsiklon-4.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Updated version of Tsyklon 3, announced by the Ukraine in 2005 as being in design. Improved lower stages, new upper stage and a new 4.0-m diameter payload fairing. No production plans.

Tsiolkovsky.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Tsiolkovsky was the first to propose the use of liquid hydrogen and oxygen to propel a rocket, and calculated its performance using the crucial rocket equation V = c ln(Mo/ Me).

Tsyklon M.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Tsiklon-2 orbital launch vehicle.

TT-200.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

TT-210.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

TT-500.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. Small, half-meter diameter, two stage suborbital rocket used for tracking system and microgravity tests.

TT-500A.

  • Japanese sounding rocket.

Tu-121.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Mach 3 intermediate range cruise missile, tested in 1958-1960 before cancellation.

Tu-123.

  • Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Exotic design for an intercontinental missile using a gas core fission reactor for cruise propulsion. Studied circa 1957.

Tu-123D.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-133 intercontinental cruise missile.

Tu-123DP.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-123 intercontinental boost-glide missile.

Tu-130.

  • Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Three-stage intercontinental boost-glide missile. Studied 1957-1960.

Tu-131.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Tupolev design for a long-range air-breathing surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage.

Tu-133.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Mach 3 intercontinental range cruise missile, cancelled in 1960 before flight tests began.

Tu-2000.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This Soviet equivalent to the US X-30 single-stage-to-orbit scramjet aerospaceplane began development in1986. Three versions were planned: a Mach 6 test vehicle, under construction at cancellation of the program in 1992; a Mach 6 intercontinental bomber; and a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle.

Type 149.

  • Standard RV of Variant B submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Type 46.

  • Standard warhead of P-205 intermediate range cruise missile.

UGM-133A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

UGM-27A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Polaris A1 missile.

UGM-27B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Polaris A2 missile.

UGM-27C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Polaris A3 missile.

UGM-73A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missile.

UGM-96A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Trident C-4 intercontinental ballistic missile.

UGM-96B.

  • Alternate Designation of Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Universal.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye solid-propellant ICBM designed for mass production to counter US 'Star Wars' programme. Two built before break-up of Soviet Union. Some design features incorporated into all-Russian Topol-M.

Uprated Saturn I.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of Saturn IB with old-design Saturn IB first stage.

Upstage.

  • American sounding rocket. Sprint test vehicle.

UR-100.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country.

UR-100K.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100K was a version of the 8K84M with further improvements in accuracy and capable of delivering three separate (but not independently targeted) re-entry vehicles.

UR-100M.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The 8K84M was an improved version of the UR-100 with an improved empty mass fraction, a new guidance system, countermeasures capability, and post-boost manoeuvrability to defeat enemy anti-ballistic missile systems.

UR-100M SLBM.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100M designation was used for a naval version of the UR-100, developed by Chelomei in 1962-1964. This would fit in the Navy's D-8 launch system. It was rejected in favour of the R-29 from Makeyev, who became the Navy's traditional supplier of SLBM's.

UR-100N.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other.

UR-100NU.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of an improved version of the UR-100N was authorised on 16 April 1976 (UR-100NU; U = UTTKh = 'Improved Technical-Tactical Characteristics). Viktor Bugaisk at TsKBM headed the engineering team. The UR-100NU was to have a new warhead dispenser bus and improved guidance system by Vladimir Sergeyev of NII-692. The new system allowed up to six pre-programmed targets to be entered, any one of which could be selected at launch. This allowed deployment of better countermeasures and a considerable improvement in accuracy.

UR-100NU 15A35.

  • Alternate designation for UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missile.

UR-100NU 15A35P.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile.

UR-100NU 15A35S.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile.

UR-100NUTTKh.

  • Alternate Designation of UR-100NU intercontinental ballistic missile.

UR-100U.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100U was a development of the UR-100K with improved shock isolation in the silo.

UR-200.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36.

UR-200A.

  • Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Version that would boost the Raketoplan combat re-entry vehicle, which would use aerodynamic horizontal and vertical manoeuvring to penetrate enemy space defences and be practically invulnerable.

UR-200B.

  • Russian orbital missile. Global rocket version. Would place nuclear warhead into orbit, which would approach United States from any direction at low altitude and be deorbited with little warning time on on enemy targets.

UR-500.

UR-500.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original UR-500 two stage configuration was designed as a monster ICBM. It was flown four times from 1965, but never deployed as an operational missile. The design was succeeded by three and four stage versions for launching of large payloads into space.

UR-500K.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Proton-K orbital launch vehicle.

UR-500KM.

UR-500MK.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1975 Chelomei proposed this version of the Proton powered by lox/kerosene NK-33 engines developed for the cancelled N1 moon booster. This would give the Soviet Union an equivalent to the all-new Zenit-2 booster being developed by Glushko, but at a fraction of the time and expense through the use of existing components. The proposal had no chance politically, and was never seriously considered.

UR-530.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Design for an upgraded Proton, replacing the first stage with a cluster of six modular stages derived from the UR-100N first stage. Detail design to the draft project stage was undertaken in 1976-1977 but the much larger and more expensive Energia/Buran system was selected for development instead.

UR-700.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The UR-700 was the member of Vladimir Chelomei's Universal Rocket family designed in the 1960's to allow direct manned flight by the LK-700 spacecraft to the surface of the moon. However Korolev's N1 was the selected Soviet super-booster design. Only when the N1 ran into schedule problems in 1967 was work on the UR-700 resumed. The draft project foresaw first launch in May 1972. But no financing for full scale development was forthcoming; by then it was apparent that the moon race was lost.

UR-700 / 11D54.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. UR-700 with high energy upper stage consisting of 9 x RD-54 / 11D54 Lox/LH2 engines with a total thrust of 360 tonnes. Usable third stage propellant 300 tonnes, payload to a 200 km, 51.5 degree orbit increased to 185 tonnes

UR-700 / RD-350.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. UR-700 with high energy upper stage consisting of 3 x RD-350 LF2/LH2 engines with a total thrust of 450 tonnes. Usable third stage propellant 350 tonnes, payload increased to 215 tonnes

UR-700 / RO-31.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. UR-700 with high energy upper stage consisting of 7 x RO-31 Nuclear A engines using LH2+Methane propellants with a total thrust of 280 tonnes. Usable third stage propellant 196 tonnes, payload increased to 230 to 250 tonnes

UR-700M.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 the Soviet Union began project Aelita, studying the best method to beat the Americans in landing a man on Mars. Chelomei's team reached the conclusion that a Mars expedition would best be launched by an immense vehicle would allow their MK-700 Mars spacecraft to be orbited in two launches. The proposed UR-700M launch vehicle had a gross lift-off mass of 16,000 metric tons and could deliver 750 metric tons to orbit. By 1972 the Nixon administration had cancelled NASA's plans for manned Mars missions. Perhaps not coincidentally, a Soviet expert commission the same year concluded that the Mars project - and the UR-700M booster - were beyond the technical and economical capabilities of the Soviet Union and should be shelved indefinitely.

UR-900.

  • Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Vladimir Chelomei proposed a family of modular launch vehicles. In January 1969, Chelomei was proposing the UR-900 for the Mars expedition. A garbled description of this launch vehicle appears in Chertok's memoirs. This would seem to be a version of the UR-700 moon rocket using 15 RD-270 modules in the first and second stages in place as opposed to the nine modules of the UR-700. The third and fourth stages were derived from the UR-500. The booster could deliver 240 tonnes to low earth orbit.

Ural.

  • Popular Name of UR-500 missile.

Ute.

  • American sounding rocket. The Ute (TU-715) motor was developed from the Genie motor baseline. Later derivatives were combined with booster or upper stages.

Ute Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Ute + 1 x Apache

Ute Tomahawk.

  • American sounding rocket. The Ute (TU-715) motor was developed from the Genie motor baseline to serve as a first stage booster in the Ute-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle. 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Ute + 1 x Tomahawk

V(1D).

  • Manufacturer's designation for S-75 surface-to-air missile.

V-1.

  • First significant cruise missile. German engineer, Paul Schmidt, working from design of Lorin tube, developed and patented a ramjet engine later modified and used in the V-1 Flying Bomb.

V-1000.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. First Soviet anti-ballistic missile system. Development began in 1956 and the system was tested at Sary Shagan 1960 to 1961. It was clear that enormous development work was needed to achieve an operational anti-ballistic missile system. Therefore work began on the successor A-35 system, although the Americans were led to believe that an operational system was deployed around Moscow. The System A anti-ballistic missile equipped with the V-1000 rocket made the first intercept and destruction in the world using a conventional warhead of an intermediate range ballistic missile warhead coming in at 3 km/s on 4 May 1961. The US did not demonstrate an equivalent capability until 1984.

V-11A.

  • Manufacturer's designation for R-11A suborbital launch vehicle.

V-2.

  • The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars. 6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave labourer in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877. As many as 3,225 were launched in combat, primarily against Antwerp and London, and a further 1,000 to 1,750 were fired in tests and training. Despite the scale of this effort, the inaccurate missile did not change the course of the war and proved to be an enormous waste of resources. The British, Americans, and Russians launched a further 86 captured German V-2's in 1945-1952. Personnel and technology from the V-2 program formed the starting point for post-war rocketry development in America, Russia, and France.

V-2 VTOHL.

  • Chinese winged orbital launch vehicle. The V-2 vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage reusable space shuttle was proposed by Beijing Department 11 of the Air Ministry in 1988. The first stage would use liquid oxygen/kerosene engines, while the second would use liquid oxygen/hydrogen engines. Both stages would be winged, and first flight would be no earlier than 2015.

V-3.

  • German gun-launched missile. The V-3 Hochdruckpumpe (aka HDP, 'Fleissiges Lieschen'; 'Tausend Fussler') was a supergun designed by Saar Roechling during World War II. The 140 m long cannon was capable of delivering a 140 kg shell over a 165 km range. Construction began of a bunker for the cannons in September 1943 at Mimoyecques, France. The site was damaged by Allied bombing before it could be put into operation and was finally occupied by the British at the end of August 1944. Two short-length (45 m long) V-3's were built at Antwerp and Luxembourg in support of the Ardennes offensive in December 1944. These were found to be unreliable and only a few shots were fired without known effect.

V-300.

  • Missile article number for S-25 missile.

V-400.

  • Missile of Dal surface-to-air missile.

V-420.

  • Missile article number for Dal-M missile.

V-500.

  • Missile of Dal-2 surface-to-air missile.

V-500.

  • Alternate Designation of S-300P surface-to-air missile.

V-5A.

  • Alternate Designation of R-5A intermediate range ballistic missile.

V-5V.

  • Alternate Designation of R-5V intermediate range ballistic missile.

V-750.

  • Missile of S-75 surface-to-air missile.

V-750M.

  • Missile of S-75M surface-to-air missile.

V-753.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the SA-2 Guideline. Installed on the test cruiser Dzerzhinsky 1958-1982. Not adopted for fleet use due to the missile's liquid propellants, but exploited for its unique capability, including ability to intercept targets travelling at up to 2300 kph

V-758.

  • Missile of 22D surface-to-air missile.

V-825.

  • Alternate designation for S-225 anti-ballistic missile.

V-860.

  • Missile article number for S-200 missile.

V-860P.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

V-860PV.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

V-870.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

V-880.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

V-880E.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Export version.

V-880M.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. Fakel-designed missile; not widely exported until 1980s.

V-880N.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile.

Valier.

  • Max Valier, first with the backing of automobile magnate von Opel, then in competition with him, was instrumental in popularising rocketry in Germany in the 1920's. He dreamed of rocket-propelled transatlantic aircraft, but was killed in a rocket engine test in 1932.

Valier-Oberth Moon Gun.

  • German gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. In 1926 rocket pioneers Max Valier and Hermann Oberth, members of the VfR (Society for Space Travel), amused themselves by designing a gun that would rectify Verne's technical mistakes and be actually capable of firing a projectile to the moon.

Vandal.

Vanguard.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Vanguard was the 'civilian' vehicle developed by the US Navy to launch America's first satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year. The Army / von Braun Jupiter-C instead launched the first US satellite after Sputnik and Vanguard's public launch failure. The second stage design led to the Able upper stage for Thor/Atlas, and then to the Delta upper stage still in use in the 21st Century. The original version of Vanguard used a Grand Central final stage.

Vanguard X-248.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version of Vanguard with X-248 upper stage.

Variant B.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version with clustered Nylon-B propellant motors.

Variant S.

  • Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version with clustered Nylon-S propellant motors.

VE.

  • Series of Experimental Vehicles (VE's), each named after precious stones, leading to the MSBS/SSBS solid propellant missiles that made up the French nuclear deterrent.

VE110.

  • Alternate designation for Agate test vehicle.

VE121.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Emeraude VE121 orbital launch vehicle.

VE210.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Rubis orbital launch vehicle.

VE231.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Saphir orbital launch vehicle.

VE9.

  • First test rocket in the series leading to French IRBM's. The VE 9 instrumented warhead was boosted twice in 1960 and 1961 by a SEPR 732, motor, 55 cm in diameter. his had been developed as the booster for the SE.4400 Surface-to-Air Missile and was the most powerful French solid propellant motor available at that time.

Vega.

Vega.

  • Primarily Italian all-solid propellant launch vehicle. After years of furious debate, a $173 million development program began, 52% funded by Italy and 34% by France. As of the first firing of the P80 first stage motor at the end of 2006, first flight had slipped into 2008 from a 2007 original planned date.

Vega SAM.

  • French surface-to-air missile, tested at Hammaguir in early 1961 but not put into production.

Vega Statoreacteur.

  • French surface-to-air missile.

Vega-M .

  • Launch System of V-880 surface-to-air missile.

Vehra.

  • French air-launched rocketplane. Dassault design for an air-launched experimental reusable launch vehicle. It would be launched from Novespace's Airbus 300 zero-G aircraft. The lifting-body design was loosely based on Dassault's work on the NASA-led X-38 Crew Rescue Vehicle program. VEHRA weighed 6.5 t tonnes and carried 19.5 tonnes of kerosene and oxygen propellant. One Russian 400.5 kN-thrust NK-39 engine would power the vehicle, which would be capable of reaching Mach 14. The 11.5 meter long vehicle also contained a small 1.5 x 1.5 x 5 meter payload bay for an expendable upper stage+250 kg satellite. Like THEMIS, VEHRA would explore hypersonic flight and the operational and cost aspects of reusability.

Veiculo Lancador de Microsatelites.

  • Alternate designation for VLM all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Veiculo Lancador de Satelites.

  • Full Portugese name (Satellite Launch Vehicle) for VLS all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Venturestar.

  • American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Production reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using technology developed in X-33 testbed.

Vergeltungswaffen-1.

  • Alternate designation for V-1 short range cruise missile.

Vergeltungswaffen-2.

  • Alternate designation for V-2 short range ballistic missile.

Veronique.

  • After the cancellation of the 'Super V-2' project, the German team at Vernon pursued development of a tenth-scale version, the Project 4213 Veronique (VERnon et electrONIQUE). The 4 tonne thrust motor, using nitric acid and kerosene, beat the 'pure French' project 4211 Eole design and paved the way leading to the Ariane space booster.

Veronique 61.

  • French sounding rocket. Development of an improved version of Veronique, with a 50% increase in thrust, began in 1961. The much larger vehicle could reach 315 km with the standard Veronique 60 kg payload.

Veronique 61M.

  • French sounding rocket. Lengthened version of Veronique 61 capable of carrying an increased payload of 100 kg.

Veronique AGI.

  • French sounding rocket. The Veronique AGI was the rocket originally intended for the International Geophysical Year order. It followed the configuration of the Veronique NA, but had a lower empty weight, a simplified engine using single wall cooling, and used turpentine fuel instead of kerosene. This increased the specific impulse, decreased combustion instabilities, and allowed the version to reach 210 km altitude.

Veronique N.

  • French sounding rocket. 'Veronique Normal ' - Full-scale version of the original Veronique design.

Veronique NA.

  • French sounding rocket. Lengthened version of the Veronique N, allowing the vehicle to reach the more scientifically-interesting altitude of 135 km. It also used a modified injector for the engine to improve combustion stability.

Veronique P2.

  • French sounding test vehicle. Test vehicle, powered by two powder rockets, to test the Veronique's unique wire guidance system.

Veronique P6.

  • French sounding test vehicle. Test vehicle, powered by six powder rockets, to test the Veronique's unique wire guidance system.

Veronique R.

  • French sounding test vehicle. 'Veronique Reduce' - test vehicle for the full-size Veronique, with the burn time of the engine limted to 6.5 sec instead of the nominal 32 sec. Tested in France at the Suippes range in 1950 and 1951, then at Cardonnet in early 1952.

Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing.

  • Alternate designation for VTOVL ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

Vertikal.

  • Alternate designation for R-5A and R-5V sounding rocket versions of R-5 intermediate range ballistic missile.

Vertikal' K65UP.

  • Alternate designation for Vertikal-4 orbital launch vehicle.

Vertikal-4.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soviet sounding rocket, based on the R-14 IRBM.

Vesta.

  • French sounding rocket. In the late 1950's LRBA studied several possible configurations for a 'Super Veronique' sounding rocket, with engines of 80 to 250 kN to carry a payload of 100 kg up to 600 km altitude. In 1962 CNES ordered the Vesta configuration. Static tests in 1964 led to a modest series of launches in 1965-1969.

Viking.

  • American sounding rocket. The Viking sounding rocket, originally code-named Neptune, was conceived in 1945 by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as having the same altitude capability as the V-2 but only one third the mass. Martin was given the contract to develop the rocket, and Reaction Motors the engine. The advanced design featured a gimbaled pump-fed engine, a fuel tank integral with the fuselage. All rockets would be static-tested and certified before launch. The first launch was on 3 May 1949. Viking was abandoned in 1954 as too expensive, but Martin's experience on the design led to the first stage of the Vanguard orbital launch vehicle and the Titan ICBM.

Viking Model I.

  • Alternate designation for Viking sounding rocket.

Viking Model II.

Viking Type 9.

  • American sounding rocket. Increased-diameter version of the basic Viking.

Viper.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket developed as a follow-on to the Loki-Dart.

Viper 3A.

  • American sounding rocket. The Viper 3A/10D Dart was a two stage sounding rocket vehicle consisting of a solid propellant Viper 3A rocket motor as the first stage and a non-propulsive Dart containing the payload as the second stage.

Viper Falcon.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Viper I + 1 x Falcon

Viper V/Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Viper-Dart.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket that delivered a 1-m diameter inflatable sphere to 90 km to meaure winds aloft.

VKS.

  • Russian SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. RKK Energia's proposed solution to the Soviet government's MVKS requirement for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable aerospaceplane system was this 700-metric-ton, turboramjet/rocket mised propulsion design. Work began in 1986 but abandoned when the Soviet Union collapsed.

VKS-D.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from An-225. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

VKS-DM.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from Gerakl / NPO Molniya-1000 heavy-lift aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

VKS-G.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from Kholod Mach 5 mother ship. This was a Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Spiral 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s. It was concluded that the extensive development would be required for the combination-cycle engines, resulting in an extended development schedule and high technical risk. The more conservative subsonic-launched MAKS was chosen instead.

VKS-O.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, ballistic re-entry, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered, reusable launch vehicle. 550 tonne and 770 tonne gross lift-off mass versions considered.

VKS-R.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled launched, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/LH2 launch vehicle. 290 tonne and 550 tonne versions considered. Studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. The wheeled sled would get the vehicle up to a velocity where the wings could provide lift, allowing lower-thrust engines to be used than in a vertical-takeoff design. This saved weight, but velocity losses during lifting flight to orbit almost cancelled the advantage, resulting in the approach being unattractive in comparison to pure vertical-launch or air-launch designs.

VKS-RTO+ZhRD.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Horizontal takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle. Mixed rocket / ramjet propulsion.

VKS-V.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered vehicle. 550 tonne gross liftoff mass and 1000 tonne versions studied. Analogous to NASA's Shuttle-2 and RKK Energia's VKS.

VKS-ZhRD+GPVRD.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Horizontal takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle. Mixed rocket / scramjet propulsion.

VLM.

  • Brazilian satellite launcher using core of VLS only. Planned for launch of microsatellites. First launch 2002 or later.

VLS.

  • Brazilian satellite launcher building on successful family of sounding rockets.

VLS-1.

  • Brazilian all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

VLS-R1.

  • Brazilian all-solid test vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

Voevoda.

  • Alternate Designation of R-36M2 15A18M intercontinental ballistic missile.

Volkhov.

  • Popular Name of S-75M surface-to-air missile.

Volkhov-M.

  • Complex of V-753 surface-to-air missile.

Volna.

  • Popular Name of R-29K and R-29R submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Volna.

  • Popular Name of R-29RL submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Volna SLV.

  • Russian launch vehicle based on surplus R-29RL submarine launched ballistic missiles. Suborbital and orbital versions. Payload volume 1.3 cu. M. Payload 115 kg to 3000 km or 1250 kg to 200 km altitude suborbital trajectories, or 120 (260 lb) kg to a 200 km orbit. Liftoff mass 34 tonnes.

Von Braun 1948.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's 1948 design for a reusable space launcher was remarkable in its tubby design. This was partly driven by the need for large parachute cannisters in the base of the first and second stages, which took up one half of the diameter, with the engines arranged around the periphery.

Von Braun 1952.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's 1952 design for a reusable space launcher used the same mass and performance calculations done in 1948. However the large parachute cannisters were replaced by deployable drag skirts. This allowed the design to be substantially less squat and more elegant than the 1948 version -- but still fatter than the sleek paintings that appeared in print!

Von Braun 1956.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1956, for the book Exploration of Mars and the Disney television series, the 1952 design was significantly 'down-sized'. The first and second stages were simply reduced to 20% of their former size. A tiny expendable third stage replaced the manned glider. The manned glider itself became a seperate payload, that could be replaced by an 'all cargo' module.

Voskhod 11A57.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite, but was also used for the Voskhod manned flights and later for a variety of other Zenit series versions.

Vostok 11A510.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of R-7 launch vehicle with Vostok second stage and unknown third stage used only twice to launch prototype RORSATs. These satellites were originally to have been launched on the cancelled UR-200 launcher, and operational satellites used Tsyklon-2 launchers.

Vostok 8A92.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 8A92 was a modernized version of the Vostok booster used for launch of Zenit-2 reconnaisance satellites.

Vostok 8A92M.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977.

Vostok 8K72.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. 8K72 Luna launch vehicle, third stage modified with larger forward cylindrical section to accomodate Vostok-sized spacecraft. Used only for launch of first few prototype Vostoks.

Vostok 8K72K.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine third stage, uprated from Luna launch vehicle and with forward fairing to accomodate Vostok/Zenit sized spacecraft. 8K72K, used for Vostok manned spacecraft launches and the first Zenit launch attempt.

Vostok-L 8K72.

  • Alternate designation for Luna 8K72 orbital launch vehicle.

VS-30.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Single stage suborbital launch vehicle.

VS-30/Orion.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Sonda 3-1 + 1 x Orion

VS-40.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x S-40TM + 1 x S-44

VSB-30.

  • Brazilian two stage sounding rocket consisting of 1 x S-31 plus 1 x S-30. It replaced the British Skylark for suborbital flights from Kiruna.

VTOHL 45t.

  • American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing (winged).

VTOHL 9t.

  • American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical Takeoff Horizontal Landing (winged).

VTOVL.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing.

Vulkan.

  • Super heavy-lift version of Energia with six strap-on boosters, and in-line upper stages and payloads. The concept was put on the back burner when Energia / Buran development begun.

Vysota.

  • Popular Name of R-29 and R-29D submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Vysota.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle based on R-29D SLBM. Suborbital; 30-55 min zero G. Payload volume 0.7 cu. m. Payload 115 kg to 5200 km or 1150 kg to 200 km. Liftoff mass 33 tonnes.

W13.

  • Standard warhead of Navaho G-26 intermediate range cruise missile.

W27.

  • Standard warhead of Regulus 2 intermediate range cruise missile.

W28.

  • Standard warhead of CGM-13B and AGM-28B intermediate range cruise missiles.

W30.

  • Standard warhead of Talos missile.

W31.

  • Standard warhead of MIM-14A surface-to-air missile and MGR-1B tactical ballistic rocket.

W36.

  • Standard warhead of Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile.

W38.

  • Standard warhead of CGM-16E and HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missiles.

W39.

  • Standard warhead of Snark intercontinental cruise missile and Redstone short range ballistic missile.

W40.

  • Standard warhead of CIM-10B surface-to-air missile and Lacrosse tactical ballistic missile.

W45.

  • Standard warhead of Little John tactical ballistic rocket and Terrier surface-to-air missile.

W45 Mod 1.

  • Standard warhead of RIM-2D surface-to-air missile.

W47.

W49.

  • Standard warhead of Thor and Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missiles and Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

W5.

W-5.

  • Standard warhead of Hermes A-3B tactical ballistic missile.

W50.

  • Standard warhead of Pershing 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

W52.

W53.

  • Standard warhead of Titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

W54.

W56.

  • Standard warhead of Minuteman 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

W58.

W59.

  • Standard warhead of Minuteman 1A intercontinental ballistic missile.

W59 (Mk. 5) or W56 (Mk. 11).

  • Standard warhead of Minuteman 1B intercontinental ballistic missile.

W66.

  • Standard warhead of Sprint anti-ballistic missile.

W68.

  • Standard warhead of Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missile.

W69.

  • Standard warhead of SRAM air-to-surface missile.

W7.

W-7.

  • Standard warhead of Hermes A-2 tactical ballistic missile.

W70.

  • Standard warhead of MGM-52A short range ballistic missile.

W71.

W76.

  • Standard warhead of Trident C-4 intercontinental ballistic missile.

W78.

  • Standard warhead of Minuteman 3 intercontinental ballistic missile.

W80.

  • Standard warhead of AGM-86A air-to-surface missile.

W80-1.

  • Standard warhead of AGM-86B air-to-surface missile.

W81.

  • Standard warhead of RIM-67A surface-to-air missile.

W85.

W87.

  • Standard warhead of Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile.

W88.

  • Standard warhead of Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Wac.

  • Development of the JPL-Ordnance WAC began in 1944. In 1946 it became the first American rocket to exceed 80 km altitude (above the earth's atmosphere as defined by publicity of the time). It was capable of taking 11 kg to 30 km altitude and was powered by a liquid propellant engine originally developed for JATO applications.

WAC A.

  • American sounding rocket.

WAC B.

  • American sounding rocket.

Wac Corporal.

  • Alternate designation for Wac sounding rocket.

Wasp.

  • American sounding rocket. Wasp research and develoment chaff and parachute rockets were used to obtain wind soundings to 260,000 m, fired by Naval Ordnance Missile Test Facility at WSPG.

Wasserfall.

  • Seminal German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never operational. The V-2-configuration rocket was copied in the USA as the Hermes and in the USSR as the R-101. In Russia it also became the starting point for the R-11/R-17 Scud surface-to-surface missile.

Winged Saturn V.

  • In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations. North American's study was dated 18 March 1963. The second alternative was a two-stage reusable booster derived from the Saturn V. This would boost either an 11,400 kg cargo, or a half-disc lifting body spaceplane, which would accommodate two crew plus ten passengers and minor cargo

Winged Titan.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The only trace of this winged version of the Titan launch vehicle are some drawings in popular magazines ca. 1960.

World Circling Space Ship.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Rand study of 1946-1947, in response to the Navy HATV, for a three-stage satellite launcher to be in use by 1952. Development funding was not forthcoming.

World Series.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. In May 1956 the Air Force proposed mating an Atlas A with an Aerobee-Hi upper stage in order to launch a satellite during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). The Eisenhower administration selected the Vanguard instead. After Sputnik, an Atlas B with no upper stage orbited the Score satellite as a reply to the Soviet's Sputnik 3.

WS 107A-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Atlas A test vehicle.

WS 133A.

  • Alternate designation for Minuteman 1A intercontinental ballistic missile.

WS 133B.

  • Alternate designation for Minuteman 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

WS 140A.

  • Alternate designation for SRAM air-to-surface missile.

WS-104A.

  • Alternate designation for Navaho G-38 intercontinental cruise missile.

WS-199.

  • Alternate Designation of Bold Orion air-launched anti-ballistic missile.

X-10.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Navaho X-10 intermediate range cruise missile.

X-11.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas A test vehicle.

X-12.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas B test vehicle.

X-15.

  • American air-launched rocketplane.

X-15/Blue Scout.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. In March 1962, NASA proposed an orbital launch vehicle using the B-52/X-15 combination. A Blue Scout booster would be fitted to an extendable launch rail on the belly of the X-15. The X-15 would be air-launched from the B-52, and then itself air-launch the Blue Scout well above the earth's atmosphere.

X-15A.

  • American air-launched rocketplane. Manned hypersonic research rocket aircraft.

X-15A-2.

  • American air-launched rocketplane. Manned hypersonic research rocket aircraft. Stretched rebuild of crashed X-15A, with drop tanks. Reached Mach 6.7 and 108 km altitude.

X-17.

  • Department of Defence Designation of RAM all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

X-17.

  • American test vehicle. USAF X-17 flight test program at Cape Canaveral studied reentry problems by simulating reentry velocities and conditions with a three-stage solid-fuel Lockheed X-17. A total of 26 X-17 flights were conducted until March 1957.

X-17 HTV.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 3 x NOTS 124-C + 1 x NOTS 124-C

X-17 HTV 1.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 3-DS-47000 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage

X-17 QTV.

  • American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x T-40 + 1 x Dummy stage + 1 x Dummy stage

X-30.

  • American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Air-breathing scramjet single stage to orbit. Second attempt after study of similar proposal in early 1960's. Cancelled due to cost, technical challenges.

X-33.

  • American winged rocketplane. NASA-sponsored suborbital unmanned prototype for a single-stage-to-orbit rocketplane. The Lockheed Martin vehicle would have used a linear aerospike engine, metallic insulation, and other features similar to their Starclipper shuttle proposal of 1971. In 1999 catastrophic failure of the composite fuel tank during static test brought into question the technical feasiblity of the design. The program was cancelled in 2001 before any flight articles were completed and after over $1.2 billion had been expended.

X-34.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. NASA failed to attract industry co-investment to develop the original X-34A air-launched, reusable, low-technology, low-cost orbital launch vehicle concept. So the project was scaled back and NASA contracted with Orbital Sciences on 28 August 1996 to build and fly the X-34 unmanned technology demonstrator. This program in turn developed overruns and was cancelled in 2001 before a test flight was made.

X-34A.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The original X-34A was a three-stage vehicle consisting of the Orbital Sciences L-1011; which air-launched the X-34A reusable rocketplane; which space-launched the rocket-powered third stage; which would take a small payload to orbit. Only the third stage would be expendable.

X4.

  • German wire-guided air-to-air missile. 8 kg of pressure-fed Salbei + Tonka 250 propellants provided a thrust that varied from 140 kgf down to 30 kgf over the 17 second burn time. Final velocity was 230 m/s.

X-51A.

  • X-51A

XBQM-8F.

  • American surface-to-air drone.

XF-99.

  • Alternate designation for CIM-10A surface-to-air missile.

XIM-70.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Land-based version. Full scale development begun in 1954. Project cancelled in 1957.

XLIM-49A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Nike Zeus anti-ballistic missile.

XM-270.

  • Alternate designation for MLRS tactical ballistic rocket.

XM-28.

XM-388.

XMGM-52B.

  • American short range ballistic missile.

X-OP.

  • Manufacturer's designation for SSX ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

XRM-89.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Blue Scout 1 suborbital launch vehicle.

XRM-90.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Blue Scout 2 all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

XRM-91.

X-Rocket.

  • Alternate designation for SSX ssto vtovl orbital launch vehicle.

XSM-64.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Navaho G-26 intermediate range cruise missile.

XSSM-A-2.

  • Alternate Designation of Navaho SSM-A-2 intermediate range cruise missile.

XSSM-A-4.

  • Alternate Designation of Navaho G-26 intermediate range cruise missile.

YaKhR-2.

  • Russian nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. First large space launcher considered in the Soviet Union. It would have had the same layout as the R-7, but with six strap-ons increased in size by 50%. The core, igniting at altitude, used a nuclear thermal engine using ammonia as propellant. Dropped in favor of development of conventional chemical propulsion.

Yakovlev MVKS.

  • Russian SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space. It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaux submitted designs. No details of the Yakovlev design have become available to date.

Yamal.

  • Version of the Soyuz proposed with an Ariane 4 or Russian Lox/LH2 upper stage.

YaRD ICBM.

  • Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Single-stage nuclear-powered ICBM designed by OKB-1.

Z.

  • Alternate designation for Tu-131 surface-to-air missile.

Zenit.

  • Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium.

Zenit-2.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union.

Zenit-2 11K77.05.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version with a dispenser for multiple Globalstar communications satellite launches.

Zenit-2M.

  • Alternate designation for Zenit-2SLB orbital launch vehicle.

Zenit-2SLB.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version of the Zenit-3SL booster developed for the Sea Launch program, modified for launch from ground facilities at Baikonur. Uses the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with no upper stage.

Zenit-3F.

Zenit-3SL.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. From the beginning of the program a Zenit-3 version was proposed for geosynchronous launches using the N1/Proton Block D third stage. This had the potential of replacing the Proton in the role of geosynchronous launcher. It was considered for launch from Australia / Cape York in the 1980's. Finally a joint US-Norwegian-Ukraininan-Russian consortium was formed to launch the three stage commercial Zenit from the Odyssey floating launch platform in the Pacific Ocean.

Zenit-3SLB.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia).

Zhinui.

  • Chinese sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Zucker Rocket.

  • The Zucker Rocket was not an operational rocket at all, but a series of flashy-looking hulls powered by powder rockets like those used in fireworks. Zucker travelled through Germany in 1931-1933, displaying his rocket, selling tickets to launches, and then selling fraudulent postal covers carried aboard the 'flights'. The highest recorded altitude achieved in Germany was 15 m.

Zyb.

  • Russian zero-G suborbital launch vehicle based on surplus R-27 SLBM. Suborbital; 17-24 min zero G. Payload volume 1.5 cu. M. Payload 650 kg to 1800 km or 1000 kg to 1000 km.

More... - Chronology...

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use