Encyclopedia Astronautica
N1 1964



n119642.jpg
N1-L3 - 1964
N1-L3 as per advanced project, 1964
Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle for the N1-L3 lunar landing mission as described in the draft project of 1964. Design requirement for the single-launch lunar-orbit-rendezvous lunar landing was 2750 tonnes liftoff mass and 95 tonnes low earth orbit payload. The actual N1 that flew in 1969 to 1972 had lighter first and third stages, but never demonstrated a full fuel load using superchilled propellants as planned in the draft project..

LEO Payload: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb) to a 225 km orbit at 51.60 degrees in 1985 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 604.000 million.

Stage Data - N1 1964

  • Stage 1. 1 x N1 1964 - A. Gross Mass: 1,942,000 kg (4,281,000 lb). Empty Mass: 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 49,420.000 kN (11,110,050 lbf). Isp: 331 sec. Burn time: 113 sec. Isp(sl): 296 sec. Diameter: 10.00 m (32.00 ft). Span: 17.00 m (55.00 ft). Length: 30.00 m (98.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 30. Engine: NK-15. Status: Study 1964. Comments: As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Block A modified with six additional engines and propellant increased by 550 tonnes by using chilled propellants.
  • Stage 2. 1 x N1 1964 - B. Gross Mass: 506,000 kg (1,115,000 lb). Empty Mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 13,700.000 kN (3,079,800 lbf). Isp: 346 sec. Burn time: 106 sec. Diameter: 6.80 m (22.30 ft). Span: 9.80 m (32.10 ft). Length: 20.00 m (65.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 8. Engine: NK-15V. Status: Study 1964. Comments: As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Specific impulse estimate down one second from 1962 draft project. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given.
  • Stage 3. 1 x N1 1964 - V. Gross Mass: 193,000 kg (425,000 lb). Empty Mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 1,560.000 kN (350,700 lbf). Isp: 347 sec. Burn time: 368 sec. Diameter: 4.80 m (15.70 ft). Span: 6.80 m (22.30 ft). Length: 12.00 m (39.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 4. Engine: NK-19. Status: Study 1964. Comments: As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given.

AKA: SL-15; 11A52; G-1.
Status: Development ended 1964.
Gross mass: 2,750,000 kg (6,060,000 lb).
Payload: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb).
Height: 105.00 m (344.00 ft).
Diameter: 17.00 m (55.00 ft).
Thrust: 44,000.00 kN (9,891,000 lbf).
Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • NK-19 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 4. Development ended 1964. Based on NK-9 engine. Originally developed for the modernized second stage of the R-9 (abandoned). Also to have been used on GR-1 / 8K713 Stage 2. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-15 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1544 kN. N-1 stage 1 (block A). Development ended 1964. On the basis of NK-9 the NK-15 was developed for the N-1 launcher. 30 were used on the Block A (Stage 1) of the N-1. Isp=318s. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-15V Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1648 kN. Development ended 1964. Isp=325s. Developed from the NK-9. 8 engines, featuring high-expansion nozzles, used on N1 Stage 2. First flight 1969. More...

See also
  • N1 The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Stages
  • N1 1964 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,942,000/192,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. First stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Block A modified with six additional engines and propellant increased by 550 tonnes by using chilled propellants. More...
  • N1 1964 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Second stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Specific impulse estimate down one second from 1962 draft project. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...
  • N1 1964 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...

N1 1964 Chronology


1963 March 21 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1964.
  • Presidium of Inter-institution Soviet - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Keldysh; Chelomei; Glushko. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V; Soyuz 7K-OK. The expert commission report on Soyuz is reviewed by the Chief Designers from 10:00 to 14:00. The primary objective of the Soyuz project is to develop the technology for docking in orbit. This will allow the spacecraft to make flights of many months duration and allow manned flyby of the moon. Using docking of 70 tonne components launched by the N1 booster will allow manned flight to the Moon, Venus, and Mars. Keldysh, Chelomei and Glushko all support the main objective of Soyuz, to obtain and perfect docking technology. But Chelomei and Glushko warn of the unknowns of the project. Korolev agrees with the assessment that not all the components of the system - the 7K, 9K, and 11K spacecraft - will fly by the end of 1964. But he does argue that the first 7K will fly in 1964, and the first manned 7K flight will come in 1965.

1963 April 28 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1964.
  • N1 Plans - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: TMK-1; L3-1963; OS-1 (1965). An Inter-Institution Soviet considers Korolev's N1 plans. He believes the first booster will be launched in 1965. The N1 is to have a payload capability of 75 tonnes to a 250 km altitude orbit, 50 tonnes to a 3000 km altitude orbit, and 16 tonnes in geostationary orbit. It could launch spacecraft capable of landing men on the moon and returning them to earth, or manned flybys of Mars or Venus. Three to ten launches would be needed for such missions, with the components being docked together in low earth orbit. The N1 can also be used to launch a large space station for military research. After the N1 discussion a decision is made that cosmonauts will not have to spend more than three to four days in a spacecraft mock-up on the ground to prove their readiness for flight. A simulation of the entire flight duration is not necessary.

1965 September 1 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1964.
  • Voskhod/Soyuz crewing plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Gagarin; Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Komarov; Kolodin; Artyukhin; Matinchenko; Anokhin; Volynov; Katys; Ponomaryova; Solovyova. Program: Voskhod; Soyuz; Lunar L3. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 5; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft: LK-1; LK; Soyuz 7K-LOK; Soyuz 7K-L1; Voskhod. Kamanin meets with Korolev at 15:00 to discuss crew plans. As Soyuz pilot candidates, Kamanin proposes Gagarin, Nikolayev, Bykovsky, Komarov, Kolodin, Artyukhin, and Matinchenko. Korolev counters by proposing supplemental training of a supplemental group of engineer-cosmonauts from the ranks of OKB-1. He calls Anokhin, his lead test pilot, informs Korolev that there are 100 engineers working at the bureau that are potential cosmonauts candidates, of which perhaps 25 would complete the selection process. Kamanin agrees to assist OKB-1 in flight training of these engineer-cosmonauts. Kamanin again proposes Volynov and Katys as prime crew for the Voskhod 3 12-15 day flight. Korolev reveals that, even though Kamanin will have the crew ready by October, the spacecraft for the flight may not yet even be ready by November - Kamanin thinks January 1966 is more realistic. The discussion turns to the female EVA flight - Ponomaryova as pilot, Solovyova as spacewalker. It is decided that a group of 6 to 8 cosmonauts will begin dedicated training in September for lunar flyby and landing missions. Korolev advises Kamanin that metal fabrication of the N1 superbooster first article will be completed by the end of 1965. The booster will have a payload to low earth orbit of 90 tonnes, and later versions with uprated engines will reach 130 tonnes payload. Korolev foresees the payload for the first N1 tests being a handful of Soyuz spacecraft.

1965 December 31 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1964.
  • Daunting year ahead - . Nation: USSR. Program: Voskhod; Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soviet Lunar Landing. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-LOK; LK. Kamanin looks ahead to the very difficult tasks scheduled for 1966. There are to be 5 to 6 Soyuz flights, the first tests of the N1 heavy booster, the first docking in space. Preparations will have to intensify for the first manned flyby of the moon in 1967, following by the planned first Soviet moon landing in 1967-1969. Kamanin does not see how it can all be done on schedule, especially without a reorganization of the management of the Soviet space program.

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