Conceptual drawing of Onega booster and Kliper recoverable lifting body design announced in 2004.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Prospective Kliper launch vehicles: from left: Angara 3A, Zenit-2SLB, Onega/Soyuz-3
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle proposed for the 'Kliper' manned spaceplane in 2004. The 'Onega' was a hitherto-unrevealed massive improvement of the reliable Soyuz. It would deliver double the payload to a space station orbit, and could be available by 2010 if funding was made available.
In order to achieve a payload double that of the current vehicle, it would seem a high-energy Lox/LH2 upper stage would be needed. Such an improvement was proposed as far back as July 1962 (the Molniya 8K78L) but never developed. An existing pad at Baikonur would be modified initially. A pad at Plesetsk, or the new Soyuz pad at Kourou could be modified eventually to accommodate the Onega.
LEO Payload: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.60 degrees.
More... - Chronology...
Status: Study 2004.
Payload: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
Kliper Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004. More...
RD-0126 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 39.2 kN. Space tugs or upper stage for Onega or Yastreb versions of Soyuz. Isp=476s. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, separate turbopumps. Design concept 1993. Hot-tests in 1998. More...
R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
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