Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This preferred near-term configuration was a semi-reusable vertical takeoff/horizontal landing two stage launch vehicle. It would use a flyback booster, expendable second stage, and a small manned spaceplane. This was preferred to the Orel V3, which was essentially the earlier MMKS/OK-M1 system with a flyback booster, expendable core tank, and small spaceplane with recoverable main engines.
LEO Payload: 10,900 kg (24,000 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.00 degrees.
Status: Study 1997.
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Gross mass: 550,000 kg (1,210,000 lb).
Payload: 10,900 kg (24,000 lb).
Height: 83.00 m (272.00 ft).
Diameter: 22.83 m (74.90 ft).
Thrust: 8,090.00 kN (1,818,700 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
Orel In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel programme to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation. More...
Winged In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane. More...
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