Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-11FM



r11cut.jpg
R-11 Cutaway
First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service.

SKB-385 was given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM in August 1955.

Tests of the R-11FM had begun in February 1955 at Kapustin Yar with three experimental launches of the missile from a standard R-11 launch stand. This was followed by launches from a special stand simulating a ship's motion, developed by A P Abramov. Finally a third test series was conducted from the Project 611 submarine B-57 from 16 September to 13 October 1955 in the White Sea. This demonstrated launches from a pitching surfaced vessel and a total range of 150 km. Following further trials the system was accepted for military surface in 1959, but never deployed on an operational vessel. However the project had cemented Makeyev's relationship with the Soviet Navy, which decided to make him their sole source for all future naval ballistic missiles.

Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral.

Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 1959-01-01. Last Fail Date: 1959-01-01. Maximum range: 150 km (90 mi).

Stage Data - R-11FM

  • Stage 1. 1 x R-11FM. Gross Mass: 4,473 kg (9,861 lb). Empty Mass: 1,080 kg (2,380 lb). Thrust (vac): 92.829 kN (20,869 lbf). Isp: 250 sec. Burn time: 63 sec. Isp(sl): 218 sec. Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft). Span: 1.82 m (5.97 ft). Length: 7.40 m (24.20 ft). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: S2.253. Status: In Production. Comments: First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral.

AKA: 8K61; D-1.
Gross mass: 4,473 kg (9,861 lb).
Height: 9.00 m (29.50 ft).
Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft).
Thrust: 80.90 kN (18,187 lbf).
Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).
First Launch: 1954.09.26.
Last Launch: 1960.09.10.
Number: 24 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • S2.253 Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.3 kN. R-11 (Scud B) 8A61. Thrust 8300 kgf at sea level. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Isp=251s. First flight 1953. More...
  • S2.253A Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93 kN. R-11FM. Out of Production. Used in R-11FM submarine version of Scud B. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Mixture ratio derived from tank content. 81 kN sea-level. More...

See also
  • A4 The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets. More...
  • R-11 First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Makeyev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Makeyev Design Bureau, Kolomna, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Pacific Ocean Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Pacific accounted for 280 launches from 1949 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • White Sea Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile area known to have been used for 27 launches from 1955 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Sea-launched Sounding rocket launched from a naval vessel at an undocumented location. 2001 launches from 1956 to 2008, reaching up to 35,820 kilometers altitude, fall into this category. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-11FM Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,473/1,080 kg. Thrust 92.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral. More...

R-11FM Chronology


1954 January 26 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • R-11FM authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on the R-11FM' was issued..

1954 February 3 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • R-11FM platform development authorised - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On creation of the submerged submarine-launched ballistic missile' was issued..

1954 September 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SM-49. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Tests of the R-11FM SLBM begun at Kapustin Yar - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Tests began with three experimental launches of the missile from a standard R-11 launch stand. This was followed by launches from a special stand simulating a ship's motion, developed by A P Abramov..

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • SKB-385 given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM - . Nation: USSR. Summary: This derivative of the land-based R-11 ('Scud') was the first Soviet SLBM..

1955 September 12 - . 14:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: The third test series was conducted from the Project 611 submarine B-67 through 13 October 1955 in the White Sea. This demonstrated launches from a pitching surfaced vessel and a total range of 150 km..

1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 December 26 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 March 31 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 May 25 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 May 26 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 September 6 - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 40.0 N x 170.0 E. Launch Platform: B-62. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 February 20 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • R-11FM accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Decree 'On adoption of the R-11FM into armaments' was issued. The first Soviet SLBM system was accepted, but never deployed on an operational vessel. However the project had cemented Makeyev's relationship with the Soviet Navy, which decided to make him their sole source for all future naval ballistic missiles.

1960 September 10 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

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