Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-16



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R16 on launch pad
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-16 Silo
Credit: © Mark Wade
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R-16 Missile
Credit: © Mark Wade
r36fammw.jpg
R-36 Family
Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations.

The Soviet leadership recognised that Korolev's missile designs were expensive and impractical for military purposes. Therefore as early as 17 December 1956 Yangel was ordered to start work on development of a storable-propellant alternative to Korolev's R-7 ICBM, with trials planned for June 1961. The draft project was completed in November 1957 and reviewed by an expert commission in January 1958. The work was ordered accelerated on 28 August 1958. A 13 May 1959 decree authorised Yangel to begin work on the R-14 MRBM and R-16 ICBM, and Korolev to start advanced development of the competing R-9 design. Such was the urgency to obtain usable quick-reaction ballistic missiles to replace the R-7, the decree specifically prohibited Yangel from further work on SLBM's. This was later extended to surface-to-air missiles and cruise missiles, forcing him to concentrate on providing the Soviet Union with a credible nuclear deterrent. Yangel sold his ICBM concept to the leadership as simply his R-12 IRBM serving as the second stage to his R-14 MRBM. In fact substantial redesign and repackaging of all elements, and new propellants were necessary to provide a viable ICBM.

Construction began of LC-41 and LC-42 at Baikonur in the spring of 1960. LC-41 would be used for experimental and test launches, and LC-42 to prove tactical systems. Stand tests of the first and second stages started at Zagorsk in August 1960. Yangel's new MIK assembly building at Baikonur received the first flight missile in September. This On 24 October 1960 the first R-16 prototype was fuelled and on the pad, awaiting launch. An electrical problem developed, leading to a hold. Marshal Nedelin, commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces, ordered the engineers and technicians to fix the problem without the long delay of defuelling and refurbishing the missile. He personally had a deck chair brought out to the pad so he could watch the work first-hand. At 18:45 local time a spurious radio signal ordered the second stage of the rocket to fire while workers swarmed around the missile in its gantry. The missile exploded, killing a good part of the Soviet Union's rocket engineering and management talent. Among the dead were Nedelin, Konopalev (designer of the missile's guidance system), Grishin (deputy chairman of GKOT), Nosov (chief of launch command at Baikonur), and OKB-586 engineers Kontsevsky and Lev Berlin. 74 people were killed immediately, and 48 died in the ensuing weeks from burns or contact with the toxic and corrosive propellants. The total included 38 civilian engineers and 84 officers and enlisted rocket technicians.

Nevertheless the programme was of such high priority that development continued. The next launch attempt, on 2 February 1961, was a failure, with the missile impacting only 520 km from the launch site. But a successful first launch was achieved 20 days later. The missile obtained preliminary acceptance for military use on 20 October 1961, in order to get production lines started. Following the first trials series the missile was fully accepted for military service on 15 June 1963. This first pad-launched version used the Sheksna-N launch complex. This consisted of two launch pads, a command point, a vehicle preparation base, and a propellant farm. In service an R-16 regiment consisted of three launch pads.

Development of a more militarily useful silo-based version of the missile had been authorised on 14 June 1960. The R-16U missile designed for this purpose could be used for either pad or silo launch. This version was accepted for service on 15 July 1963. These were deployed in groups of three silos, controlled from a single command centre and separated by 8 to 10 km. Series production of the missile had begun in 1961 at Factory 586 in Dnepropetrovsk and Factory 166 in Omsk. 186 8P864 pad launchers were originally built for the R-16 in 1961-1965. One third of these were later moved to hardened silos as these became available. The first R-16 regiments became operational at Nizhniy Tagil, Yurya and Baikonur on 1 November 1961, followed by LC-6, LC-7 and LC-8 at Plesestk between 15 January and 13 June 1962. By the end of 1962 26 launchers were in service, by 1964 153 launchers, and peak deployment of 186 R-16/R-16U pad and silo launchers was attained in 1965 and maintained until 1974. The R-16 had by then long since outlived its operational usefulness but served as a useful bargaining chip in the SALT-1 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty negotiations with the United States. Under the treaty, the R-16 launchers were demolished in 1974-1977 in such a way that their uselessness could be verified by American photo-reconnaissance satellites. Total deployment declining to 138 missiles by the end of 1976. The final R-16U silo was demolished in 1978.

Although having a number of operational drawbacks, the R-16 was the only weapon that provided the Soviet Union with a credible nuclear deterrent between 1962 and 1967, when the UR-100 and R-36 surpassed it in numbers deployed. This was the first operational ICBM using storable propellants, and it could be held in fuelled launch readiness for up to 30 days before having to be defuelled and refurbished. To assure warhead accuracy solid rocket engines braked the second stage away from the re-entry vehicle after separation. The three variants of thermonuclear warheads were designed by Samuel Kocharyaits. The all-inertial guidance system was designed by B M Konopalev at NII-692 and had a total mass of 440 kg (152 kg of avionics in the first stage and 288 kg in the second).

Glushko built the RD-218/RD-219 main engine assemblies for the 8S81 first and 8S82 second stages, but Yangel's OKB-86 itself had to develop the small vernier engines in each stage used for steering and velocity trim. These were the RD-68, with 4 thrusters and a total thrust of 380 kN in the first stage, and RD-69, with 4 thrusters totalling 49.2 kN in the second stage. The vehicle was loaded with a total of 130 tonnes of AK-27I Nitric acid / UDMH propellants. Gaseous oxygen was used for oxidiser tank pressurisation.

Failures: 28. Success Rate: 87.33%. First Fail Date: 1960-10-24. Last Fail Date: 1968-07-16. Launch data is: incomplete. Standard warhead: 1,475 kg (3,251 lb). Maximum range: 13,000 km (8,000 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Standard RV: 8F17. Warhead yield: 3,000 KT. CEP: 2.70 km (1.60 mi). Alternate warhead: 2,175 kg (4,795 lb). Maximum range with alternate warhead: 11,000 km (6,000 mi). Number Alternate Warheads: 1. Alternate RV: 8F115 or 8F116. Alternate warhead CEP: 2.23 km (1.38 mi). Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket, IRFNA/UDMH. Cruise engine: RD-219. Initial Operational Capability: 1962.

Stage Data - R-16

  • Stage 1. 1 x R-16 Stage 1. Gross Mass: 110,000 kg (240,000 lb). Empty Mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 2,609.500 kN (586,639 lbf). Isp: 289 sec. Burn time: 106 sec. Isp(sl): 246 sec. Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Span: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Length: 16.00 m (52.00 ft). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-218. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH.
  • Stage 2. 1 x R-16 Stage 2. Gross Mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Empty Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust (vac): 882.100 kN (198,304 lbf). Isp: 293 sec. Burn time: 80 sec. Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft). Span: 2.40 m (7.80 ft). Length: 13.00 m (42.00 ft). Propellants: Nitric acid/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-219. Status: Out of production. Comments: Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH.

AKA: SS-7 Mod 1; 8K64; Saddler; Sheksna-N.
Status: Retired 1972.
Gross mass: 140,600 kg (309,900 lb).
Payload: 1,475 kg (3,251 lb).
Height: 30.44 m (99.86 ft).
Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Thrust: 2,221.30 kN (499,368 lbf).
Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).
First Launch: 1960.10.24.
Last Launch: 1961.12.02.
Number: 22 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Vostok Russian manned spacecraft. 13 launches, 1960.05.15 (Korabl-Sputnik 1) to 1963.06.16 (Vostok 6). First manned spacecraft. Derivatives were still in use in the 21st Century for military surveillance, earth resources, mapping, and biological missions. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-218 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 2592 kN. R-16 stage 1. Isp=289s. Consisted of three RD-217; had 6 combustion chambers and 3 turbines; powered the R-16 ICBM. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-219 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 883 kN. R-16 stage 2. Isp=293s. Derivative of RD-217 with a truss and piping changes. Despite higher expansion ratio, engine was shorter than first stage version, with relatively low performance. Flown 1960-1972. More...
  • RD-69 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 49.2 kN. R-16 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-68 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 380 kN. R-16 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-852 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 48.250 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=255s. More...
  • RD-851 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 32.480 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 1 attitude control engine . Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=279s. More...

See also
  • R-16 The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautical and Astronautical Events of 1961 Report of NASA to the Committee on Science and Astronautics US House of Representatives 87th Cong 2d Sess, NASA, 1962. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, "Mourning Star", Quest, 1994, Volume 3, Issue 4, page 39.
  • Placard, TsNIIMASH Museum,
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.
  • Pervov, Mikhail, Raketnoye Oruzhiye RVSN, Violanta, Moscow, 1999..
  • Karpenko, A V, Utkin, A F and Popov,A D, Otechestvenniye strategischeskiye raketnoye kompleks, Sankt-Peterburg: Nevskii bastion; Gangut 1999..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-16-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,609.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • R-16-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 882.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...

R-16 Chronology


1956 December 17 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • Development of the R-16 ICBM is authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On the Creation of the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile R-16 (8k64) with Start of LKI in June 1961--start of work on the R-16 ICBM' was issued..

1958 August 28 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • R-16 development accelerated. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On expansion of work on the R- 16 ICBM' was issued..

Summer 1959 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • Khrushchev tours Yuzhnoye facility and directs creation of Strategic Rocket Forces (RVSN) - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Yangel; Nedelin. Khrushchev tours Yangel’s missile factory at Dnepropetrovsk. At this time Yangel was developing the R-16, equipped with an autonomous inertial navigation unit -- while Korolev was still using radio guidance. Leonid Smirnov was manager of the factory (he would later be made Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, reporting to Ustinov). The delegation included Rudnev, Kalmykov, Serbin, Nedelin and Podgorny. Yangel told the leaders to think of the R-16 as an R-12 stacked atop an R-14. In this way he was able to quickly develop an ICBM on the basis of existing rockets. He expected to have an R-16 test article ready for tests with the first ICBM silo by September 1959. Khrushchev was overjoyed and discussed his plans to create an entirely new branch of the service - the RVSN, Strategic Rocket Forces. The Soviet Union had no real equivalent to the US Strategic Air Command and the VVS Air Forces would not handle ballistic missiles correctly. He asked Nedelin to draw up a plan to create the new branch. There was no objection form the leadership or military chiefs. None of the military services wished to handle the missiles.

1960 February 22 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • State Commission to oversee R-16 tests established. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 236-89 'On creation of the State Commission for the R-16 ICBM' was issued..

1960 October 24 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 LKI. FAILURE: Exploded on pad, killing nearly 100 people..
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). First attempted launch of R-16 ICBM results in explosion on pad, killing over 100 military, engineers, and technicians, including Strategic Rocket Forces Marshal Nedelin. The first R-16 prototype was fuelled and on the pad, awaiting launch. An electrical problem developed, leading to a hold. Marshal Nedelin, commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces, ordered the engineers and technicians to fix the problem without the long delay of defuelling and refurbishing the missile. He personally had a deck chair brought out to the pad so he could watch the work first-hand. At 18:45 local time a spurious radio signal ordered the second stage of the rocket to fire while workers swarmed around the missile in its gantry. The missile exploded, killing a good part of the Soviet Union's rocket engineering and management talent. Among the dead were Nedelin, Konoptev, Grishin, Nosov, Kontsevsky, and Lev Berlin. 74 people were killed immediately, and 48 died in the ensuing weeks from burns or contact with the toxic and corrosive propellants. The total included 38 civilian engineers and 84 officers and enlisted rocket technicians. Yangel, the rocket's designer, was spared only because he had slipped into a bunker for a cigarette when the explosion occurred.

1961 January 5 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • State Commission Meeting - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Korolev; Barmin; Glushko; Semenov; Bushuyev; Rudnev. Program: Vostok; Venera. Spacecraft: Vostok. Rudnev chaired the meeting, which first heard the failure analysis for the failed Mars launches on 10 and 14 October and the R-16 catastrophe on 24 October. All of these had been accelerated to coincide with Khrushchev's visit to the United Nations in New York, in Kamanin's view a criminal rush that led to the death of 74 officers and men in the R-16 explosion. Future plans were then reviewed. Launches of probes toward Venus were planned for 20-23 January, 28-30 January, and 8-10 February. Four Vostok manned spacecraft were completed, with first launch scheduled for 5 February and the second for 15-20 February.

1961 February 2 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 3L-5T. FAILURE: Failure..
  • First successful R-16 launch. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). The missile was supposed to be launched at 18:00, but is then delayed to 24:00 due to technical problems. It is a clear night, illuminated by the moon, and the missile takes off at midnight. The first three minutes of flight are successful, but then the second stage fails to ignite. The missiles impacts 520 km downrange from the launch pad.

1961 March 3 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 4L-6T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 April 2 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 5L-7T.
  • First full range R-16 flight. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Summary: The R-16 carried a warhead to the impact zone in the Kamchatka Peninsula, only 400 m off target in range, and only 50 m to the right..

1961 April 15 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 7L-12T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 April 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 6L-11T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 April 27 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • R-16U silo-based ICBM operational plan issued. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: State Committee for Defence Technology (GKOT) Decree 'On the Organisation of Military Duty of the R-16U (Unified Variant)--putting the R-16U missile into operation' was issued..

1961 May 16 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 8L-8T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 May 24 - . 03:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 9L-9T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 June 2 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 10L-10T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 June 6 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 11L-13T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 June 16 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 14L-16T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 July 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 13L-15T. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 August 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 12L-14T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 August 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 21L. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 September 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • New ICBM tests announced. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: U.S.S.R. announced that it would launch a series of "more powerful and improved rockets. (Article in Red Star timed to coincide with first firing of new rocket series in the Pacific.).

1961 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 23L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 22L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 17L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 15L.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 September 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 16L. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 October 20 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • R-16 accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-16 into armaments' was issued..

1961 October 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41?/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • K (OT) test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 November 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41?/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 December 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41?/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 June 15 - . LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16.
  • R-16 accepted into service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption into armaments of the R-16 surface variant' was issued..

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