Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-17



8k14.jpg
8K14
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian short-range ballistic missile. The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. The original design was by Makeyev but the missile itself was produced by the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant.

In 1958-1959 Makeyev designed and built the first mock-up of the new missile. But by then the decision was made to devote the bureau to sea-launched missiles, and in 1959 the program was transferred to Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. There design work continued with first launch in 1961 and acceptance into military service in 1964. The R-17 was eventually operated by 27 countries and was known to Western intelligence circles as the SS-1c Scud-B (the SS-1b Scud-A designation having been applied to the Soviet R-11, and the SS-1 designation to the R-1).

North Korea reverse-engineered R-17's purchased from Egypt around 1980. Minor improvements resulted in a range 15% better than the Soviet design. This went into production as the Hwasong 5. Following a direct sale in 1985, a production line was set up in Iran, where the missile was known as the Shahab-1. North Korea also exported missiles to users of existing R-17's such as Egypt, Syria, plus new customer Oman.

An extended-range version, with 600 km range but half the payload and accuracy was tested from Kapustin Yar beginning in 1965. This received the Western designation SS-1d Scud-C. Competing missiles offered better accuracy, so it was not accepted for production by the Soviet military. However the same concept was used two decades later in North Korea, going into production there as the Hwasong 6. In Iraq, an extended range version of the R-17 was developed as the Al Hussein. A further Iraqi modification, the Al Abbas, achieved an 800-km range by reducing warhead weight to only 125 kg and increasing propellant load by 30 percent. Although different in design from the Soviet missile, these missiles were often referred to in the West as ‘Scud-C'.

In the 1980s, TsNIIAG (Central Research Institute of Automatics and Hydraulics ) began development of an optronically-guided terrain-comparison and map-matching re-entry vehicle for the R-17. TsNIIAG specialists developed software, an optronic guidance system, onboard equipment for the re-entry vehicle control system, ground-based data gathering equipment, and re-entry vehicle targeting equipment. To ensure the reliability of the guidance system in any weather, and over any terrain, a target databank was developed of more than 10,000 images of the Earth's surface made at different times of day and in different seasons of the year. After a series of ground tests the system's equipment components and software were substantially improved. During hundreds of flights, the system's accuracy and operating reliability in any weather and over any terrain were assessed.

At the final stage of the tests, missiles fitted with target re-entry vehicles were launched. Their point-of-impact error did not exceed a few dozen meters. The work on the R-17 missile equipped with an optronic guidance system was successfully completed, and the missile was accepted for operational service in 1989 with the designation 9K720 Aerofon. However the collapse of the Soviet Union meant that the missile did not enter service with the Russian armed services. The upgrade was offered for export to R-17 foreign users, but it is unknown if any were sold. The missile received the Western designation SS-1e Scud-D.

In the 1990's North Korea developed a further improved version, the Hwasong 7, with a 700 km range, which was also sold to Syria. This was also referred to as the ‘Scud-D'.

The R-17 has been launched in greater numbers than any ballistic missile in war, except the V-2. Small numbers were launched by Egypt against Israel, in 1973; by Libya against Lampedusa in 1986; and in Afghanistan, Yemen, and Chechnya. However the major use was in the wars Iraq waged from 1980-1991.

Iraq launched 331 R-17 missiles at Iran during the Iran-Iraq War, and 189 al-Hussein missiles at Iranian cities during the 1988 "War of the Cities." Iran fired a comparable number of Hwasong 5 and Hwasong 6 missiles against targets in Iraq from 1985-2001. The Soviets and Afghan army fired as many as 1700 R-17's against mujahideen forces in 1988-1992. In the first Iraq War, between January 18 and February 26, 1991, only 40 R-17s were launched by Iraq against Israel and 46 against Saudi Arabia. This handful of launches had enormous operational impact on Coalition operations.

Efforts by Coalition air forces to suppress Iraqi launches ran into many problems. Key portions of the target set -- notably the presurveyed launch sites and hiding places used by the mobile launchers -- were not identified before 17 January 1991, and, even in the face of intense efforts to find and destroy them, the mobile launchers proved remarkably elusive and survivable. Iraq's average weekly launch rate of modified Scuds during Desert Storm (14.7 per week) was lower than it had been during the 1988 "war of the cities". While launch rates declined over the course of the Gulf War, the actual destruction of any Iraqi mobile launchers by fixed-wing Coalition aircraft was impossible to confirm. Coalition aircrews reported destroying around eighty mobile launchers; another score or so were claimed by special operations forces. Most of these reports undoubtedly stemmed from attacks that did destroy objects found in the Scud launch areas. But most, if not all, of the objects involved appear to have been decoys, vehicles such as tanker trucks that had infrared and radar signatures impossible to distinguish from those of mobile launchers and their associated support vehicles, and other objects unfortunate enough to provide "Scud-like" signatures. Over the 43 days of Desert Storm, roughly 1,500 strikes were carried out against targets associated with Iraqi ballistic missile capabilities.

Failures: 5. Success Rate: 95.37%. First Fail Date: 1964-02-05. Last Fail Date: 1965-02-20. Launch data is: continuing. Standard warhead: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Maximum range: 300 km (180 mi). Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket.

Stage Data - R-17

  • Stage 1. 1 x R-17. Gross Mass: 5,385 kg (11,871 lb). Empty Mass: 1,645 kg (3,626 lb). Thrust (vac): 93.100 kN (20,930 lbf). Isp: 251 sec. Burn time: 95 sec. Isp(sl): 219 sec. Diameter: 0.96 m (3.14 ft). Span: 1.77 m (5.80 ft). Length: 7.43 m (24.37 ft). Propellants: Nitric acid/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: Isayev R-17. Other designations: 8K14, SS-1C Scud B, 9K72 Elbrus. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Developed from Russian storable fuel tactical missile. Original R-11 designed by Korolev OKB, subsequent developments by Makeyev OKB. Using calculations of Gerald Bull, stretched and clustered as basis of Iraqi ICBM/satellite launch vehicle.

AKA: R-17; SS-1C; 9K72; 9K720; Aerofon; Scud B; Elbrus; Zemlya.
Location: Reutov, Russian Federation.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 6,350 kg (13,990 lb).
Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Height: 13.00 m (42.00 ft).
Diameter: 0.85 m (2.80 ft).
Span: 1.80 m (5.90 ft).
Thrust: 81.30 kN (18,277 lbf).
Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).
First Launch: 1959.12.12.
Last Launch: 2011.10.05.
Number: 218 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Isayev R-17 Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 131.2 kN. R-17. Out of production. Designation unknown. First flight 1961. More...

See also
  • A4 The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets. More...
  • A4 The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets. More...
  • R-17 The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. More...
  • R-17 The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Makeyev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Makeyev Design Bureau, Kolomna, Russia. More...
  • Votinsk Russian manufacturer of rockets. Votinsk, Votinsk, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Pacific Ocean Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Pacific accounted for 280 launches from 1949 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Point Mugu US Naval Air Station and major missile testing centre, known to have been used for 2551 launches from 1955 to 2005. The actual total of missile tests is many times greater. More...
  • Barking Sands Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. Known to have been used for 2320 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Kapustin Yar V-2 V-2, RT-15, R-5, R-2, R-17, R-11, R-1, Pioner, MR-12, M-100, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 2, RT-1, R-13, MMR-06, MERA launch complex. V-2 Launch Area More...
  • Bigen Island Bigen Island, Aur Atoll, Marshall Islands, was a sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1997, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-11 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,660/955 kg. Thrust 93.28 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. More...
  • R-17 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,385/1,645 kg. Thrust 93.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. Developed from Russian storable fuel tactical missile. Original R-11 designed by Korolev OKB, subsequent developments by Makeyev OKB. Using calculations of Gerald Bull, stretched and clustered as basis of Iraqi ICBM/satellite launch vehicle. More...

R-17 Chronology


1958 During the Year - . LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • Development of the R-17 begins - . Nation: USSR. In 1958-1959 Makeyev designed and built the first mock-up of a new design missile to rectify the shortcomings of the R-11. The R-17 would later become infamous around the world as the 'Scud-B'. The decision was made to devote the Makeyev bureau to sea-launched missiles, and in 1959 the program was transferred to Votkinsk Machine Building Plant.

1959 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 BK1-02 (R-11MU).
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 BK1-04 (R-11MU).
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1961 During the Year - . LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • R-17 (Scud B) first launch - . Nation: USSR. Summary: The program was conducted by the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. There design work continued with first launch in 1961 and acceptance into military service in 1964..

1961 Sep - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • Last LKI - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1964 Duing the year - . LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • R-17 (Scud B) accepted for military service - . Nation: USSR.

1964 February 5 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 February 11 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 March 15 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1964 April 8 - . 08:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi).

1964 April 25 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 July 18 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1964 August 12 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi).

1964 September 2 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 October 10 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi).

1964 October 16 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi).

1964 October 29 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi).

1964 November 28 - . 11:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1964 December 21 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-3 (Scud C).
  • Long range R-17 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 January 15 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 January 30 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1965 February 12 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 February 20 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 March 5 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 March 13 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1965 April 24 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 May 26 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 KY-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1973 October 22 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Deversoir. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Egypt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1973 October 22 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Deversoir. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • R-17E - . Nation: Egypt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1973 October 22 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Deversoir. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Egypt. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1977 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1977 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1977 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1977 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1977 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1977 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1979 September 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17VTO Aerofon.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1980 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 69 against Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Apr - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Apr - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Apr - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Apr - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Apr - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1981 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Jul - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Sep - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1982 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Aug - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Aug - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Nov - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1983 Dec - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Feb - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Jun - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17VTO Aerofon.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 Oct - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1984 October 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17VTO Aerofon.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1985 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17VTO Aerofon.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 54 launches vs Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Mar - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Weapon - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 March 12 - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Kirkuk - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 March 14 - . Launch Site: Kermanshah. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Shahab 1.
  • Baghdad - . Nation: Iran. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Apr - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 22 launches vs Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 15 launches vs Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 May - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1985 Aug - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • Test launch - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1986 April 15 - . Launch Site: Tripoli. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • Lampedusa - . Nation: Libya. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1986 April 15 - . Launch Site: Tripoli. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • Lampedusa - . Nation: Libya. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1987 Jan - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 27 launches vs Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1987 February 11 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • Al Hussein R&D 1 - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1987 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 9 launches vs Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1987 April 21 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • Al Hussein R&D 2 - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1987 April 28 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • Al Hussein R&D 3 - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1988 Mar - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Scud B.
  • 181 launches vs Iran - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1990 April 18 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Al Hijara.
  • Test flight - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1990 December 26 - . Launch Site: Al Nikheb. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • Launch trailer test - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Al Hijara.
  • Israel-Negev - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Al Hijara.
  • Israel-Negev - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Al Hijara.
  • Israel-Negev - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Al Hijara.
  • Israel-Negev - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 February 25 - . Launch Site: Scud Batteries. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: R-17 Al Hijara.
  • Israel-Negev - . Nation: Iraq. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1997 February 7 - . Launch Site: Bigen Island. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • Willow Dune Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1997 March 19 - . Launch Site: Bigen Island. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • Willow Dune Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2000 September 1 - . Launch Site: Hama-Allepo. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud D.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2000 September 23 - . Launch Site: Hama-Allepo. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud D.
  • - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2001 July 1 - . Launch Site: Minakh. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2002 November 14 - . 19:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF7632. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • GMDS - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 46 km (28 mi).

2002 November 25 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF7632. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • GMDS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

2004 July 29 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • Arrow Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

2005 May 27 - . Launch Site: Hama-Allepo. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud B.
  • - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2005 May 27 - . Launch Site: Hama-Allepo. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud D.
  • (Hit Turkey) - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2005 May 27 - . Launch Site: Hama-Allepo. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud D.
  • - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2007 January 27 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Platform: MLP. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • FMA - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2007 January 28 - . Launch Site: Hama-Allepo. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud D Long range test.
  • Long range test - . Nation: Syria. Agency: SYMC. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2007 April 6 - . 06:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Platform: MLP. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • FMA - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2008 June 5 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA Aegis FTM-14 Target.
  • FMA Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

2008 September 18 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA THAAD FTT-10 Target.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

2009 March 18 - . 00:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • THAAD Target - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Target.

2010 February 12 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • ABL shoots down Scud target. - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). First test of the Airborne Laser against a foreign-technology missile target. The ABL destroyed the Scud liquid-fueled short-range ballistic missile launched from a mobile platform at sea. The entire engagement, including atmospheric compensation for the high-energy laser while the ballistic missile's rocket motor was still firing, occurred less than one minute from target launch.

2010 June 29 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands MLP. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • FTT-14 Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi). Summary: ABM Target.

2010 September 1 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • RV - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: ABM target..

2011 October 5 - . 05:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: R-17.
  • FTT-12 Target - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Target mission. Probably an SR-19 based Coleman Aerospace SRALT dropped out of a C-17 airplane..

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