Encyclopedia Astronautica
Redstone



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Redstone Missile
Credit: © Thomas Kladiva - Thomas Kladiva
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Redstone
Credit: NASA
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Wresat launch
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Redstone
Redstone Day We Launched the Tower
Credit: NASA
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Mercury Redstone
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Redstone engine
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Redstone Adam
Credit: © Thomas Kladiva - Thomas Kladiva
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Jupiter C launch
Credit: NASA
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Jupiter Cc
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Redstone engine
Credit: NASA
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Jupiter C
Credit: NASA
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Wresat
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Sparta
Sparta - COSPAR 1967-118
Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space.

In November 1944 the US Army funded General Electric Malta under Project Hermes to develop German rocket technology. The GE team made only desultory progress, and with the outbreak of the Korean War the Army discovered an urgent need to field a ballistic missile. The program was shifted to von Braun's German team in New Mexico in 1950, then in 1951 von Braun's team and the project were shifted to the Redstone Arsenal in Alabama. Von Braun's team completed design of the 400 km (250 mile) range missile in 1952. The Redstone combined proven V-2 technology (aerodynamic fins, exhaust diverters for pitch control, liquid oxygen/alcohol propellant) with some new concepts (inertial navigation, separable warhead). The rocket was powered by a version of the Rocketdyne XLR43-NA-1 engine, an evolution of the V-2's powerplant for the USAF Navaho program. As was von Braun's practice, his team built the prototype rockets, with production being handled by an outside contractor. The first test launch was in August 1953, the first Chrysler production missile flew in July 1956, and Redstone became operational with US Army units in Germany in June 1958. Redstone missiles were used to test technology for von Braun's Jupiter IRBM program, designated Jupiter A and Jupiter C, to the eternal confusion of space journalists. Redstone played a vital role in the space race. A Jupiter C put the first American satellite into orbit in 1958 after the Navy's Vanguard (powered by a GE Malta engine) failed. Redstone was also used to put the first Americans into space on two suborbital Mercury-Redstone missions. The military Redstone was retired in 1964, replaced by the much more operationally suitable solid-propellant Pershing. Surplus missiles were used as anti-ballistic missile targets and transferred to Australia, where they put that country's first satellite into orbit.

Redstone could carry the heavy W-39 4 MT W-39 nuclear warhead to a range of 325 km (175 nm) with a CEP of 300 m (1000 ft). It was certainly capable, as demonstrated by Jupiter A, of carrying lighter military payloads to much greater ranges, but during initial development only the Air Force was allowed to develop long-range missiles. The Redstone's drawback was the extensive logistics required for launch. Although mobile, a Redstone battalion comprised 20 heavy vehicles. After reaching a launch position, it took eight hours to survey the site, assemble the missile, mount it on the launch table, align the inertial navigation system, and check it out for launch. Once a launch order was given, it took another 15 minutes to fill the oxidizer tank with cryogenic liquid oxygen before the launch button could be pushed.

Failures: 47. Success Rate: 53.00%. First Fail Date: 1953-08-20. Last Fail Date: 1966-11-28. Launch data is: complete. Development Cost $: 92.500 million. Recurring Price $: 4.934 million in 1959 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 1.994 million in 1956 dollars. Standard warhead: 3,580 kg (7,890 lb). Maximum range: 320 km (190 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Standard warhead: W39. Warhead yield: 3,750 KT. Boost Propulsion: Liquid rocket, Lox/Kerosene. Maximum speed: 5,650 kph (3,510 mph). Initial Operational Capability: 1958. Total Number Built: 120. Total Development Built: 35. Total Production Built: 85.

Stage Data - Redstone

  • Stage 1. 1 x Redstone. Gross Mass: 28,440 kg (62,690 lb). Empty Mass: 3,125 kg (6,889 lb). Thrust (vac): 414.340 kN (93,147 lbf). Isp: 265 sec. Burn time: 155 sec. Isp(sl): 235 sec. Diameter: 1.77 m (5.80 ft). Span: 4.19 m (13.74 ft). Length: 17.58 m (57.67 ft). Propellants: Lox/Alcohol. No Engines: 1. Engine: A-6. Status: Out of Production.

Historical Essay © Andreas Parsch

Chrysler SSM-A-14-M8-PGM-11 Redstone

The Redstone was the U.S. Army's first operational MRBM (Medium Range Ballistic Missile). Although its service life as a weapon was relatively short, it played a major role in the early American space program.

In November 1944, the Army contracted General Electric to study and develop long-range guided missiles under the general name of Hermes. The Hermes program consisted of many different projects, and also included the Hermes C1 for a ballistic surface-to-surface missile in the 800 km (500 miles) range class. However, because of limited funding and higher priority assigned to other Hermes projects, progress on the C1 was slow. This changed in 1950, when the Korean War led to a sharp increase in military spending, and responsibility for the Hermes C1 project was transferred from G.E. to the Army's Guided Missile Center. At that time, the formal designation of SSM-G-14 was assigned to the Hermes C1 missile. In early 1951, the payload requirements for the missile were significantly increased, reducing the planned range to 400 km (250 miles). Im mid-1951, the program was transferred again, to the Army's Redstone Arsenal, and the missile designator was changed to SSM-A-14. It was not until April 1952, that the name Redstone was officially assigned, after the names Ursa and Major had also been used briefly.

Major design work on the Redstone was finished during 1952, and in October that year, Chrysler received a contract for production of the missile. The SSM-A-14 incorporated some firsts in missile technology, like an all-inertial guidance system. and a separable warhead section to reduce drag (and thereby increase range) during reentry. It used a single North American Rocketdyne NAA75-110 liquid-fueled rocket engine (also known as A-6), a development of the XLR43-NA-1 engine. In August 1953, the first successful flight of an XSSM-A-14 occurred, and in 1955, Chrysler began the production of Redstone missiles. Many Redstone test missiles were converted to Jupiter A and Jupiter C test missiles to support the SM-78-PGM-19 Jupiter IRBM program. The first production missile flew in July 1956, and by June 1958, the first fully operational Redstone unit had been deployed to West Germany. By that time, the designation Guided Missile, Field Artillery, M8 had been assigned to the Redstone. Non-flying dummy missiles used as trainers were designated XM9.

The Redstone was a capable MRBM, which could lift its 4 MT W-39 thermonuclear warhead to a range of 325 km (175 nm) with an accuracy of about 300 m (1000 ft) CEP. Howerver, a Redstone battalion was very cumbersome to move, consisting of almost 20 heavy vehicles. When a launch site was reached, its exact position had to be determined, the launch pad had to be leveled, and the three sections of the missile had to be assembled and erected. All this took more than 8 hours to complete. After receiving the launch order, fueling would need another 15 minutes, before the Redstone could finally be launched.

In June 1963, the M8 and XM9 missiles were redesignated as PGM-11A and PTM-11B, respectively. At that time, phase-out of the Redstone had already begun, and in late 1964, the PGM-11 was no longer in U.S. Army service. The Redstone was replaced by the much more advanced and far easier to use solid-fueled MGM-31 Pershing MRBM. In total, about 120 Redstone missiles were produced by Chrysler between 1955 and 1960.

The Redstone was an important rocket in the early U.S. space program. It formed the base of the Jupiter C, which was the launcher for the first American satellite, and it was used in the very important Mercury-Redstone program of suborbital flights, which led directly to the first U.S. manned orbital space flight with a Mercury-Atlas rocket.

Specifications

Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for PGM-11A:

Length 21.1 m (69 ft 4 in)
Finspan 3.66 m (12 ft)
Diameter 1.78 m (70 in)
Weight 27800 kg (61300 lb)
Speed Mach 5.5
Ceiling 92 km (57 miles)
Range 325 km (175 miles)
Propulsion North American Rocketdyne NAA75-100 (A-6) liquid-fueled rocket; 347 kN (78000 lb)
Warhead W-39 thermonuclear (4 MT)
Main Sources

[1] James N. Gibson: "Nuclear Weapons of the United States", Schiffer Publishing Ltd, 1996
[2] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979
[3] Redstone Arsenal Historical Information Website


AKA: Hermes C; PGM-11A; Redstone; SSM-A-14.
Status: Retired 1967.
Gross mass: 27,980 kg (61,680 lb).
Payload: 3,580 kg (7,890 lb).
Height: 21.13 m (69.32 ft).
Diameter: 1.83 m (6.00 ft).
Span: 3.66 m (12.00 ft).
Thrust: 367.50 kN (82,617 lbf).
Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).
First Launch: 1953.08.20.
Last Launch: 1965.12.01.
Number: 53 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Explorer A American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1958.02.01 (Explorer 1) to 1958.03.26 (Explorer 3). Discovered Van Allen radiation belts. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • Explorer B American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1958.07.26, Explorer 4. Mapped project Argus radiation. More...
  • Adam American manned spacecraft. Study 1957. In early 1958 Wernher von Braun proposed launching an American aboard an Army Redstone on a suborbital mission into space before the end of 1959 at a cost of under $12 million. More...
  • Explorer C American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1958.08.24, Explorer 5. More...
  • Beacon 1 American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1958.10.23 (Beacon 1) and 1959.08.15 (Beacon 2). More...
  • Mercury American manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). America's first man-in-space project. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the orbital payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas. More...
  • Wresat Australian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1967.11.29. Australian Weapons Research Establishment Satellite, launched using surplus US Army Redstone missile, that obtained solar radiation, upper atmosphere data. More...

Associated Engines
  • A-6 Rocketdyne Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 414.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=265s. Used on Redstone launch vehicle. First flight 1953. Developed from the XLR43-NA-1, an American version of the V-2 single-chamber engine tested in 1945. More...

See also
  • A4 The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets. More...
  • Redstone Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Von Braun American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Von Braun, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautical and Astronautical Events of 1961 Report of NASA to the Committee on Science and Astronautics US House of Representatives 87th Cong 2d Sess, NASA, 1962. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Baker, David, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown, New York, 1981.
  • Koelle, Heinz Hermann,, Handbook of Astronautical Engineering, McGraw-Hill,New York, 1961.
  • Swenson, Grimwood, Alexander, Charles C, This New Ocean, Government Printing Office, 1966. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Ordway, Frank, and Sharpe, Mitchell, The Rocket Team, Collector's Guide Publishing, Ontario, Canada, 2000.
  • Bramscher, Robert G, "A Survey of Launch Vehicle Failures", Spaceflight, 1980, Volume 22, page 351.
  • Bilstein, Roger E, Stages to Saturn, US Government Printing Office, 1980.
  • Nicholas, Ted G., U.S. Missile Data Book, 1983, Seventh Edition, Data Search Associates, Fountain Valley, California, 1982..
  • Cassutt, Michael and Slayton, Deke, Deke! U.S. Manned Space: from Mercury to the Shuttle, Tom Doherty Associates, New York, 1994.
  • Grimwood, James M., Project Mercury: A Chronology, NASA Special Publication-4001.
  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • White Sands White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. White Sands, a true desert area, was even more unpopulated than Roswell. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range. The first launch of a Tiny Tim rocket was on 26 September 1945. On 11 October a Tiny Tim boosted a WAC Corporal rocket from the tower. This was the first use of Launch Complex 33, later to be used for V-2, Nike, Viking, Corporal, Lance and Multiple Launch Rocket System testing. More...
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • San Nicolas Military facility on the California Channel Islands, used for rocket launches in support of other missile tests from Vandenberg or Point Mugu. Known to have been used for 35 launches from 1957 to 2004, reaching up to 443 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Johnston Island US military base on this island in the Pacific Ocean. Used for rocket-launched nuclear tests in the 1950's. In the 1960's it was the site for the operational AFP-437 anti-satellite system. The system was retired in 1975. Several sounding rockets were also launched over the years, either in support of nuclear tests or in experiments related to anti-satellite technology. Known to have been used for 124 launches from 1958 to 1975, reaching up to 1158 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC4 Redstone, Matador, Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 4 in 1952. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989. More...
  • Fort Wingate Military testing range. In use from 1958 to present. Known to have been used for 71 major launches from 1960 to 2002, reaching up to 250 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC6 Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. Pad 6 supported its first Redstone launch on 20 April 1955, three months before the complex was finally accepted by the U.S. Government. In addition to Redstone and Jupiter launches, the complex supported Explorer and Pioneer missions and all six Redstone /Mercury suborbital flights. On 31 January 1964, Complexes 5 and 6 were reassigned to become part of the USAF Space Museum. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC5 Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. Pad 5 supported its first Jupiter A launch on 19 July 1956. In addition to Redstone and Jupiter launches, the complex supported Explorer and Pioneer missions and all six Redstone /Mercury suborbital flights. On 31 January 1964, Complexes 5 and 6 were reassigned to become part of the USAF Space Museum. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC26A Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. The LC-26 dual launch pad complex was constructed for the U.S. Army's Redstone and Jupiter missile programs in 1956-1957. At least 36 Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter C and Juno II launches were conducted 1957-1964. More...
  • White Sands LC36 Terrier, Redstone, Nike, Little Joe II, Honest John, Black Brant, Storm, Aries, Apollo LES launch complex. Originally designated Army Launch Area 2, LC36 was later a LC36 was a NASA facility that supported tests of the Apollo Launch Escape System. It was also used to launch NASA sounding rocket missions. The complex included a blockhouse, launch control equipment, and launchers with environmental shelters. These launchers included:
    • An 11-m rail with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 15-m rail with 11,000 kg capacity
    • A 50-m tower with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 1.2-m diameter stool with 23,000 kg capacity
    • A 9-m rail with 7000 kg capacity.
    More...

Associated Stages
  • Jupiter C Lox/Hydyne propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,430/3,890 kg. Thrust 416.18 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Redstone missile, stretched, modified with different propellants to serve as first stage of IRBM nose cone/orbital test vehicle. More...

Redstone Chronology


November 1943 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Development of ballistic missiles authorized. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Gen. H. H. Arnold, Chief of Air Staff, directed and authorized emphasis on research, development, and procurement of guided missiles, as indicated by known German advances..

1944 November 20 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Project Hermes - . Nation: USA. Ordnance Department entered into a research and development contract with the General Electric Company for study and development of long-range missiles that could be used against ground targets and high-altitude aircraft. This was the beginning of the Hermes project.

1946 June 1 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes C1 - . Nation: USA. Summary: General Electric began a feasibility study of the Hermes C1 which later formed the basis for early Redstone missile research..

1947 January 23 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes telemetry system test. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Telemetry operated successfully in a V-2 firing at WSPG, Army Ordnance's Hermes telemetry system..

1948 September 15 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes project extended to cover satellite launch. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Committee on Guided Missiles of the Research and Development Board approved recommendation that Army Hermes project "be given the task of providing the National Military Establishment with a continuing analysis of the long-range rocket problem as an expansion of their task on an earth satellite vehicle."

1949 June 1 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone Arsenal selected for rocket research. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Redstone Arsenal was reactivated from standby status as the site of the Ordnance Rocket Center..

1949 October 28 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Von Braun team moved to Huntsville. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: The Secretary of the Army approved the transfer of the Ordnance Research and Development Division, Sub-Office (Rocket) at Fort Bliss, Texas, to Redstone Arsenal. Among those transferred were Dr. Wernher von Braun and his team of German scientists..

1950 July 10 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes production version studied. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Office, Chief of Ordnance directed that the Ordnance Guided Missile Center conduct a preliminary study of the technical requirements and possibilities of developing a 500-mile tactical missile that would be used principally in providing support for the operations of the Army Field Forces.

1950 September 11 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes work transferred from General Electric to Von Braun team. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Ordnance Department directed that the Hermes contract with General Electric Company be amended to transfer responsibility for the Hermes C1 project to the Ordnance Guided Missile Center..

1951 July 10 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes work transferred to Redstone arsenal. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: The Office, Chief of Ordnance formally transferred the responsibility for conducting the research and development phase of the HERMES Cl project to Redstone Arsenal.

1951 October 31 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes project transferred to Redstone Arsenal. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Responsibility for Hermes II transferred to Army Ordnance Guided Missile Center at Redstone Arsenal; Hermes II redesignated the RVA-A-3 test vehicle..

1952 April 1 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Contractor to build Redstone rocket. - . Nation: USA. The Office, Chief of Ordnance (OCO) disapproved Redstone Arsenal's proposed development plan for what would become the Redstone missile. The arsenal had intended to implement the manufacturing program for these missiles by creating an assembly line in its own development shops. The OCO, however, required that the development effort be done by a prime contractor. Nonetheless, delays in the acquisition of production facilities for the prime contractor caused Redstone Arsenal to fabricate and assemble the first 12 Redstone missiles along with missiles 18 through 29.

1952 April 8 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone rocket named. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: The Redstone missile system officially received its popular name. Previously, this missile was known at various times and places as the Hermes C1, Major, Ursa, XSSM-G-14, and XSSM-A-14..

1952 October 1 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Chrysler receives Redstone contract. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Chrysler Corporation issued a letter order contract to proceed with active work as the prime contractor on the Redstone missile system. This contract was definitized on 19 Jun 53. .

1953 August 20 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-1. FAILURE: Control System malfunction followed by Power Plant malfunction at approximately 80 sec. Ground cut-off command given... Failed Stage: G.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). Summary: Redstone missile No. 1 was fired by Army Redstone Arsenal personnel at AFMTC, Cape Canaveral. Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 240,000 m..

1954 January 27 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-2.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 8,400 m..

1954 May 5 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-3. FAILURE: Ejector burnout immediately following lift-off.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 277,000 m..

1954 August 18 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-4. FAILURE: Steam generator regulator malfunction caused drop in combustion pressure..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 19,200 m..

1954 September 29 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone contract awarded. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Army Ordnance awarded contract for Redstone missile to Chrysler Corp..

1954 November 17 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-6. FAILURE: Ground programmed yaw maneuver caused missile control loss at 80 sec causing power plant erratic behavior. Human error in selection of yaw maneuver impulse.. Failed Stage: G.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 166,300 m..

1954 December 31 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Hermes program terminated. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Army Ordnance terminated the Hermes project, during which development of high-performance liquid-fuel rocket and first stabilized platform inertial guidance equipment had been accomplished..

1955 February 9 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC4. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-8. FAILURE: Separation bolt No. 3 failure. Inverter frequency shift.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 23,400 m..

1955 April 20 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-9. FAILURE: Guidance system malfunction at 310 sec due to air pressure loss. ST-80 lateral guidance only..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 7,000 m..

1955 May 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Project Orbiter plans. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Project Orbiter Conference was held at Redstone Arsenal and at Cape Canaveral..

1955 May 25 - . 04:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-10. FAILURE: Guidance system malfunction at 155, sec due to wiring error..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 17,200 m..

1955 June 15 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • First Redstone production contract. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Chrysler Corporation received the first industrial contract for the Redstone..

1955 August 31 - . 00:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-7. FAILURE: Excessive temperature in tail section caused malfunction of jet vane control..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 540 m..

1956 April 15 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • First Redstone batallion formed. - . Nation: USA. Summary: The first Redstone missile battalion, the 217th Field Artillery Missile Battalion, was formally activated at Redstone Arsenal..

1956 April 23 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Army proposes Redstone satellite launch. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Army informed the OSD that a Jupiter missile could be fired in an effort to orbit a small satellite in January 1957..

1957 September 9 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • First US Army heavy missile group. - . Nation: USA. Summary: The 40th Field Artillery Missile Group, the first heavy missile group organized in the U.S. Army, was transferred from Fort Carson, Colorado, to Redstone Arsenal..

1957 November 7 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Eisenhower enunciates science policy. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Eisenhower. President Eisenhower in major address on science and security announced that scientists had solved the problem of ballistic missile reentry and showed the nose cone of an Army Jupiter-C missile which was intact after a flight through space. He announced the creation of the office of Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and the appointment of James R. Killian, president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to the new post.

1958 February 12 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-46.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Successfully fired at 1954 hours EST from AMR. The flight was successful in that all missions were accomplished, with the exception of the Hardtack adaptation kit mission. Impact was 258 meters over and 172 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, a radial miss distance of 310 meters. The primary objectives of the test were to test the warhead and fuse system and the guidance system. Missed aimpoint by 310 m.

1958 February 27 - . 19:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-43.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Successfully fired at 1459 hours EST from the AMR. The flight was successful in that all missions were accomplished. Impact was 461 meters over end 64 meters to the left of the predicted impact point, a radial miss distance of 466 meters. Missed aimpoint by 245 m.

1958 March 27 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • ARPA assigned space project role. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Eisenhower; McElroy. President Eisenhower gave his approval to the plans for outer space exploration announced by Secretary of Defense Neil H. McElroy. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was to undertake several space projects including the launching of certain earth satellites and five space probes as a part of this country's contribution to the IGY program. The Air Force Ballistic Missile Division was authorized by ARPA to carry out three lunar probes with a Thor-Vanguard system, and lunar probes utilizing the Jupiter-C rocket were assigned to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.

1958 May 17 - . 00:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-1002.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 578 m..

1958 June 1 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • First Redstone deployment to Europe. - . Nation: USA. Summary: The Redstone became the first large U.S. ballistic missile to be deployed overseas, joining the NATO Shield Force. .

1958 June 3 - . 04:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-1004.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 409 m..

1958 June 25 - . 03:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-48. FAILURE: Human error - thrust controller not connected..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Successfully fired at 2059 hours EST from AMR. The flight was a success in that all missions were accomplished with the exception of failure of the thrust governor. This failure was caused by human error before firing which caused excess velocity, thereby exceeding the predicted impact point by 8.36 nm. Programmed range to impact was 137.31 nm. All other missions were satisfactorily completed. Missed aimpoint by 14,917 m.

1958 August 1 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island LC1. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-50. FAILURE: Failure of tilt program device at lift-off causing vertical night flight did not preclude subsequent system operations and successful mission accomplishment..
  • Hardtack Teak Nuclear test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi). Teak was a rocket-launched test of a live W-39 nuclear warhead. Purpose was to measure the effects of high altitude nuclear explosions in order to design warheads for the Nike-Zeus anti-ballistic missile system. The Hardtack Configuration Redstone shot the 3.8 megaton warhead to an altitude of 77.8 km. This was the first rocket-launched nuclear test by the United States.

1958 August 12 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island LC2. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-51. FAILURE: Guidance system malfunction at 70 seconds which did not preclude subsequent system operations and successful mission accomplishment..
  • Hardtack Orange Nuclear test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 41 km (25 mi). Orange was a rocket-launched test of the W-39 warhead. Purpose was to measure the effects of high altitude nuclear explosions in order to design warheads for Nike-Zeus anti-ballistic missile system. The Hardtack Configuration Redstone shot the 3.8 megaton warhead to an altitude of 43 km.

1958 September 17 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-56. FAILURE: Programmed maneuver at re-entry and impact in deep water. Accurate survey not possible. CC-57.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 990 m..

1958 October 24 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone static firing at White Sands. - . Nation: USA. Summary: The Redstone underwent static firing at White Sands Missile Range, the first time such a test had been conducted there..

1958 November 6 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-57. FAILURE: Boost phase normal. Space phase malfunction..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Redstone final development test. Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 5,010 m..

1959 January 19 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1010. FAILURE: Human error in connecting separation system..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 1,189 m..

1959 February 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1011. FAILURE: Improper setting of thrust controller and malfunction of tilt program at 17 sec.. Failed Stage: G.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 17,942 m..

1959 March 10 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1016.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Army Redstone ejected miniature TV camera which transmitted pictures of its target impact area. Missed aimpoint by 144 m..

1959 May 12 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1013. FAILURE: Known initial laying error of approximately 26 min..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 1,091 m..

1959 July 22 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-2003. FAILURE: Control system malfunction during re-entry at 380 sec..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 684 m..

1959 August 5 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-2004. FAILURE: Pre-launch tanking error caused early cut-off by fuel depletion..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 2,707 m..

1959 September 18 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1018.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 228 m..

1960 January 26 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2011.
  • Capsule operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test with capsule. Missed aimpoint by 277 m..

1960 March 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3?. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2014.
  • T-1 Capsule operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test with T-1 Capsule. Missed aimpoint by 295 m..

1960 March 22 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2020. FAILURE: Control system malfunction during re-entry at 373 sec..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 315 m..

1960 April 15 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2021.
  • T-1 Capsule - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 17 m..

1960 June 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. Launch Pad: ALA3. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2022.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 336 m..

1960 July 6 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1019.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 176 m..

1960 August 10 - . 01:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2023. FAILURE: Erroneously destroyed during boost by range personnel.. Failed Stage: G.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). Summary: Missile test failure..

1960 October 6 - . 03:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2037. FAILURE: Control system malfunction during re-entry at 375 sec..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 221 m..

1961 January 22 - . 02:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2038. FAILURE: Control system malfunction during re-entry at 370 sec..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 788 m..

1961 March 9 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2040. FAILURE: Control system malfunction during re-entry at 374 sec..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 358 m..

1961 May 18 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2042.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 304 m..

1961 June 27 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2043. FAILURE: Air vane actuator malfunction at 262 sec..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 1,044 m..

1961 July 6 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1005.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 266 m..

1961 August 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1009. FAILURE: Human error in laying launch azimuth. Drop in inter-compartment pressure suspected..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 5,085 m..

1961 September 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1006.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 196 m..

1961 October 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1012.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 197 m..

1961 December 15 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1008.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 82 m..

1962 June 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1014.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 378 m..

1962 July 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1017.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 390 m..

1962 August 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1015. FAILURE: Human error in repair of pitch .potentiometer..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 3,191 m..

1962 August 1 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 1007.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 167 m..

1963 August 5 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2033.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 216 m..

1963 August 19 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2008.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 267 m..

1963 September 10 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2015. FAILURE: Control system malfunction immediately prior to impact..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 4,393 m..

1963 September 23 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2044.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 63 m..

1963 October 5 - . Launch Site: Fort Wingate. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone 2005.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Successful missile test. Missed aimpoint by 131 m..

1964 June 25 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone obsolete. - . Nation: USA. Summary: The Redstone missile was classified as obsolete. .

1964 October 30 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone leaves Army service. - . Nation: USA. Summary: In a ceremony on the parade field at Redstone Arsenal, the Redstone missile was ceremonially retired..

1964 December 1 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone support contract terminated. - . Nation: USA. Summary: The initial Redstone production contract awarded to Chrysler in October 1952 was closed out..

1965 November 29 - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Project Defender Redstone launch. - . Nation: USA. Summary: Redstone launched as ballistic missile target and was successfully intercepted by a US Navy Terrier surface-to-air missile launched from Point Mugu, California..

1965 November 30 - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • DAT-371 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; DARPA. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Redstone launched as ballistic missile target for a US Navy Terrier surface-to-air missile launched from Point Mugu, California. It was reported that there were two Redstone launches as part of Project Defender from November 30 to December 13, 1965, but details of the second launch are not known.

1965 December 1 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: San Nicolas. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone CC-2036.
  • DAT-371 Target - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

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