M-42 and M-44 Buran trisonic ramjet missiles were considered in both manned and unmanned versions.
Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity.
After the cancellation of the ground-launched version of the Buran missile, Myasishchev continued to pursue use of the M-42 cruise stage in aviation research and space exploration. In 1958 he appealed to both Khrushchev and Minister of Defence of Malinovskiy to support continued development. He now proposed an unmanned, air-launched version for high speed research.
At this time Myasishchev was developing the first Soviet supersonic bomber, the M-50. On the basis of this immense delta-winged vehicle Myasishchev proposed the RSS-52 aerospace vehicle. The RSS-52 would consist of the M-52 carrier aircraft, derived from the M-50. The M-52 would have an enormous recess in its fuselage, within which would be carried the M-44 ramjet. The M-44, designed by G D Dermichev, would be a derivative of the cancelled M-42. The M-52 would enter a circuit 1,000 km from base, accelerate to supersonic speed, and then launch the M-44. The M-44 would accelerate to hypersonic velocity, conduct a high speed run of an overwater circuit, and then splash down in the sea. A radio beacon would allow location and recovery of the craft.
In the United States, the X-15 was being developed to answer analogous questions. However due to the expense and technical problems, Myasishchev was unable to convince the leadership to approve the RSS-52.
Status: Cancelled 1957.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb).
Height: 28.00 m (91.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Thrust: 104.00 kN (23,380 lbf).
M-44 Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle. More...
Soviet Strategic Cruise Missiles As in America, in the 1946 assessments of German military technology, the technical problems of the intercontinental ballistic missile seemed far less than a high-speed cruise missile for the same mission. The Soviet Union developed several such missiles, counterparts to the American Navaho. As in America, it turned out that the ICBM was ready before the cruise missiles were - the navigation and propulsion issues of Mach 3 intercontinental flight were much more difficult than those for Mach 22 ballistic flight. As in America, the projects were cancelled, although they contributed greatly to the national technological base. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Myasishchev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Myasishchev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
Matthews, Henry, The Secret Story of the Soviet Space Shuttle, X-Planes Book 1, Beirut, Lebanon, 1994.
Pesavento, Peter, "Russian Space Shuttle Projects 1957-1994", Spaceflight, 1995, Volume 37, page 226.
Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
Gatland, Kenneth W, "A Soviet Space Shuttle?", Spaceflight, 1978, Volume 20, page 322.
Semenov, Yu P, Lozino-Lozinsky, et. al., Mnogorazoviy orbitalniy korabl 'Buran', Mashinostroenne, Moscow, 1995.
1955 May 23 -
- RS ramjet-powered Mach 3 intercontinental aircraft - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tsybin. Summary: P V Tsybinís OKB-256 selected to build the RS ramjet-powered Mach 3 intercontinental reconnaissance/strike aircraft. The aircraft, air-launched from a Tu-95N bomber, was in competition with the V M Myasishchev (OKB-23) RSS-52 system..
1958 During the Year -
- Myasishchev proposed use of the Buran M-42 cruise stage in aviation research - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Myasishchev. Spacecraft: M-44. On the basis of the immense delta-winged M-50 bomber Myasishchev proposed the RSS-52 aerospace vehicle. The M-50 derivative would enter a circuit 1,000 km from base, accelerate to supersonic speed, and then launch the M-44. The M-44 would accelerate to hypersonic velocity, conduct a high speed run of an overwater circuit, and then splash down in the sea. In the United States, the X-15 was being developed to answer analogous questions. However due to the expense and technical problems, Myasishchev was unable to convince the leadership to approve the RSS-52.
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