Encyclopedia Astronautica

Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 5V55RM missile. Maximum target speed 4680 kph.

Development began in 1969 of a common surface-to-air missile with 75 km range for the PVO (designated S-300PMU) and the VMF (Rif). B V Bunkin at NPO Almaz was responsible for development of the system for the PVO and land forces, and V A Bukatov at NPO Altair was responsible for development of the system for the Navy. They both would use the 5V55R missile being developed by Grushin. The naval Rif (Fort) system of the navy used the 5V55RM version of the missile, developed by MKB Fakel. This differed from the 5V55R land version only in details of the launch container.

Rif, capable of attacking six targets simultaneously, was the first mutl-target surface-to-air missile developed in the USSR. The system used a multi-purpose phased-array radar, which also provided the illumination beam for the semi-active radar homing missiles to home in on the target. The system used an electronic computer, capable of tracking six targets simultaneously and guiding two rockets to each target at the same time. The missiles were command-guided until near the target, when their on-board semi-active homing systems took over. The Rif surface-to-air missile was first deployed on type 1144 and 1164 cruisers beginning in 1984.

Radars: MR-750 Top Steer target acquisition radar, D/E band, range 300 km. Top Pair target acquisition radar, C/D band, range 200 km. 3R41 Volna Top Dome target tracking radar, I/J band, range 100 km.

Standard warhead: 133 kg (293 lb). Maximum range: 90 km (55 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Maximum speed: 6,120 kph (3,800 mph). Minimum range: 7.00 km (4.30 mi). Initial Operational Capability: 1984. Floor: 25 m (82 ft).

AKA: SA-N-6; Fort; 3M41; S-300F; Grumble; Rif; 5V55RM.
Location: Moscow, Russian Federation.
Payload: 133 kg (293 lb).
Height: 7.25 m (23.78 ft).
Apogee: 25 km (15 mi).

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Associated Countries
See also
  • Russian SAMs and ABMs Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defence against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defence available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat. More...
  • S-300 Third generation family of surface-to-air missiles developed in the 1970's based on new principles. The same launch system could use either 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles, of both mid- and long-range types. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Altair Russian manufacturer of rockets. Altair Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Grushin Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau named for P D Grushin, Khimki, Russia. More...

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