Encyclopedia Astronautica
Scout



scout2.jpg
Scout 2
Credit: ESA
American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions.

The Scout was a four-stage, solid-fuelled rocket developed to provide the United States with a reliable, versatile and cost-effective launch vehicle for a variety of space exploration tasks - orbital, high altitude probe, and high speed re-entry. Developed by NASA, the vehicle was produced by LTV Aerospace's Missiles and Space Division, which also provides systems management. The first US solid-propellant rocket capable of placing payloads in orbit, Scout had important roles in the space programs of NASA and the Department of Defense plus those of the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Germany and the 10-nation European Space Research Organisation (ESRO). Scout was launched in the United States from NASA's Wallops Island, Virginia, and by Air Force crews from the Western Test Range in California. A third site - the Italian San Marco sea-based platform off the east coast of Africa-made possible launches along the equator. Early Scouts were capable of boosting less than 150 kg into a nominal 500-km orbit. Performance was increased by development of a fifth stage velocity package. Prime Contractor: LTV Aerospace Corporation, a subsidiary of Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc. Associate Contractors: Aerojet General (first stage); Thiokol Chemical (second stage); Hercules Powder Company (third stage); United Technology Center (fourth stage); Honeywell (guidance).

Failures: 27. Success Rate: 81.76%. First Fail Date: 1960-04-18. Last Fail Date: 1992-03-18. Launch data is: complete.

Status: Retired 1994.
First Launch: 1960.04.18.
Last Launch: 1994.05.09.
Number: 148 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Transit American navigation satellite. 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). The Transit Navigation System began development in 1958. More...
  • GRAB American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 9 launches, 1960.04.13 (Dummy subsatellite) to 1965.03.09 (Solrad 7B). GRAB, the first US electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite, was not declassified until June 1998. More...
  • S-56 American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1960.12.04 (Explorer (9) S 56) to 1961.02.16 (Explorer 9). 12 foot diameter. balloon; atmospheric density studies. More...
  • Injun American earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1961.06.29 (Injun 1) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 40). Radiation decay data satellite. May also have been a cover for some NRL ELINT satellites. More...
  • S-55 American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 4 launches, 1961.06.30 (Explorer (13) S 55) to 1964.11.06 (Explorer 23). Micrometeoroid research. More...
  • Radio Test Spacecraft American tracking network technology satellite. One launch, 1961.11.01, Mercury-Scout 1. Small satellite was to have verified the readiness of the worldwide Mercury tracking network More...
  • SECOR American earth geodetic satellite. 13 launches, 1962.01.24 (Secor) to 1969.04.14 (SECOR 13). More...
  • Ariel American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1962.04.26 (Ariel 1) to 1979.06.02 (Ariel 6). Ionospheric studies; returned X-ray, ionospheric, cosmic ray data. More...
  • Program 35 American earth weather satellite. 5 launches, 1962.05.24 (P 35-1) to 1963.09.27 (P 35-1). First US weather satellite, classified for many years. Predecessor to the DMSP series of military satellites. More...
  • GRS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1963.06.28. Space gas data. More...
  • ADE American earth atmosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.12.19 (Explorer 19) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 39). 12 foot diameter. balloon; identical to Explorer 9; atmospheric density studies. More...
  • ESRS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.06.25. Environmental Sciences Research Satellite. More...
  • IE American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.08.25, Explorer 20. Ionospheric research. More...
  • Beacon American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.10.10 (Explorer 22) to 1965.04.29 (Explorer 27). Early technology satellite. None reached orbit. More...
  • San Marco Italian earth atmosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1964.12.15 (San Marco 1) to 1988.03.25 (San Marco D/L). Atmospheric density studies. More...
  • IQSY American solar satellite. One launch, 1965.11.19, Explorer 30. Solar radiation data. More...
  • FRANCE French earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1965.12.06. Investigated the properties of the ionized layers of the atmosphere by observation of the propagation of very low frequency waves in the ionosphere. More...
  • OV3 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1966.04.22 (OV3-01) to 1967.12.05 (OV3-06). The OV3 GUS General Utility Satellite were built for the Air Force as part of the OV3 satellite series. More...
  • Owl American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17). More...
  • ESRO European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1967.05.30 (ESRO 2A) to 1972.11.22 (ESRO 4). The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space. More...
  • Solrad American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1968.03.05 (Explorer 37) to 1976.03.15 (Solrad 11B). SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite. More...
  • RM American earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1968.08.16 (RM-18) and 1970.11.09 (RM-1; RMS). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • AZUR German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1969.11.08. German Research Satellite A; examined Van Allen belts, solar particles, aurora. More...
  • OFO American biology satellite. One launch, 1970.11.09. The Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP) contained all apparatus necessary to assure survival of two frogs. More...
  • SAS Italian solar satellite. 3 launches, 1970.12.12 (Explorer 42) to 1975.05.07 (Explorer 53). More...
  • Eole French earth weather satellite. One launch, 1971.08.12. Experimental weather satellite; received meteorological data from balloon network. More...
  • SSS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.11.15, Explorer 45. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. More...
  • MTS American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1972.08.13, Explorer 46. Micrometeoroid tests. More...
  • TIP American navigation satellite. 6 launches, 1972.09.02 (Triad 1) to 1988.06.16 (Nova 2). More...
  • AEROS German earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.12.16 (Aeros 1) and 1974.07.16 (Aeros 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • Miranda British technology satellite. One launch, 1974.03.09. Satellite technology. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years. More...
  • Hawkeye American solar satellite. One launch, 1974.06.03, Explorer 52. Solar wind experiments. Follow-on to Injun. More...
  • ANS Dutch visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1974.08.30. Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; lower than planned orbit. More...
  • DAD American earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1975.12.06 (DAD-B) and (DAD-B). Dual Air Density; air density experiments. More...
  • P 76 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1976.05.22. Communications propagation experiments. More...
  • AEM American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.04.26, HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. More...
  • SAGE American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.02.18. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere. More...
  • Magsat American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.10.30. Measured near-Earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies. More...
  • HILAT American communications satellite. One launch, 1983.06.27. Communications technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication. More...
  • ITV American military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1985.12.13 (USA 13) to (ITV 1 Balloon). Instrumented Target Vehicle - a satellite balloon target for tests of the American F-15 launched ASAT anti-satellite missile. More...
  • Polar Bear American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity. More...
  • MACSAT American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1990.05.09 (Macsat 1; M-1) and (Macsat 2; M-2). More...
  • REX American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.29 (REX) and 1996.03.09 (REX-II). The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions. More...
  • SAMPEX American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.03. More...
  • MSTI American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1992.11.21 (MSTI) to 1996.05.17 (MSTI-3). BMDO technology demonstration; Miniature Seeker Technology Demonstration. More...
  • Radcal American military target satellite. One launch, 1993.06.25. Radar calibration. More...

See also
  • Scout Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Vought American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Vought, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Baker, David, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown, New York, 1981.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Koelle, Heinz Hermann,, Handbook of Astronautical Engineering, McGraw-Hill,New York, 1961.
  • Bramscher, Robert G, "A Survey of Launch Vehicle Failures", Spaceflight, 1980, Volume 22, page 351.
  • Wilson, Andrew, "Scout - NASA's Small Satellite Launcher", Spaceflight, 1979, Volume 21, page 446.
  • Covault, Craig, "US to Bolster Its Capability In Small Launch Vehicles", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1987-12-07, page 73.
  • Gatland, Kenneth, Spacecraft and Boosters, Iliffe Books. London, 1964.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NSSDC System for Information Retrieval and Storage (SIRS),
  • Grimwood, James M., Project Mercury: A Chronology, NASA Special Publication-4001.
  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Serra, Jean-Jacques, Rockets in Europe, Web Address when accessed: here.

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