Encyclopedia Astronautica
Shavit



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Shavit
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Shavit Launch
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Shavit Post-Boost Bu
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Shavit Apogee Kick M
Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3.

NEXT was a variant with an improved upper stage for proposed launch from Wallops Island, USA (launch from Israel is only possible into retrograde orbits since due East launch would be over territory of adjacent countries).

LEO Payload: 160 kg (350 lb) to a 366 km orbit at 143.00 degrees. Failures: 2. Success Rate: 71.43%. First Fail Date: 1998-01-22. Last Fail Date: 2004-09-06. Launch data is: continuing. Launch Price $: 15.000 million in 1999 dollars.

Stage Data - Shavit

  • Stage 1. 1 x RSA-3-1. Gross Mass: 10,215 kg (22,520 lb). Empty Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust (vac): 456.000 kN (102,512 lbf). Isp: 265 sec. Burn time: 52 sec. Isp(sl): 240 sec. Diameter: 1.30 m (4.20 ft). Span: 2.30 m (7.50 ft). Length: 6.30 m (20.60 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: RSA-3-1. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa.
  • Stage 2. 1 x RSA-3-2. Gross Mass: 10,971 kg (24,186 lb). Empty Mass: 1,771 kg (3,904 lb). Thrust (vac): 476.600 kN (107,144 lbf). Isp: 277 sec. Burn time: 52 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 1.30 m (4.20 ft). Span: 1.30 m (4.20 ft). Length: 6.40 m (20.90 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: RSA-3-2. Status: Out of production. Comments: Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Empty mass includes 583 kg for payload shroud, guidance, orientation and spin-up platform that positions stage 3 and payload for final orbital insertion burn.
  • Stage 3. 1 x RSA-3-3. Gross Mass: 2,048 kg (4,515 lb). Empty Mass: 170 kg (370 lb). Thrust (vac): 58.800 kN (13,219 lbf). Isp: 298 sec. Burn time: 94 sec. Diameter: 1.30 m (4.20 ft). Span: 1.30 m (4.20 ft). Length: 2.60 m (8.50 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: RSA-3-3. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Data accurate. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. ARC/Rafael AUS 51 is identical.

AKA: Shaviyt; NEXT.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 23,630 kg (52,090 lb).
Payload: 160 kg (350 lb).
Height: 18.00 m (59.00 ft).
Diameter: 1.35 m (4.42 ft).
Thrust: 412.70 kN (92,779 lbf).
Apogee: 366 km (227 mi).
First Launch: 1988.09.19.
Last Launch: 1990.04.03.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Ofeq 1-2 Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1988.09.19 (Ofeq-1) to 1990.04.03 (Ofeq-2). Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency). More...
  • Ofeq 3 Israeli military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1995.04.05 (Ofeq-3) to 2006.04.25 (EROS-B). Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. More...
  • Ofeq 5 Israeli military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 2002.05.28. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors. More...

Associated Engines
  • RSA-3-3 South Africansolid rocket engine. 51 kN. In production. Israeli AUS-51 rocket motor, built in both Israel and South Africa. Isp=292s. Upper stage engine for RSA-3, RSA-4, Shavit, Shavit 1. First flight 1988. More...
  • RSA-3-1 South Africansolid rocket engine. 500 kN. Out of production. Built in both Israel and South Africa for RSA-3 and Shavit. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Isp=273s. First flight 1988. More...
  • RSA-3-2 South African solid rocket engine. 519 kN. In production. Built in both Israel and South Africa for RSA-3 and Shavit. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Isp=284s. First flight 1988. More...

See also
  • Daniel Israel and South Africa collaborated closely in rocket technology in the 1970's and 1980's. South Africa provided Israel with the uranium and test facilities it needed for its strategic weapons programmes. In exchange Israel provided aerospace technology. This included the capability of building the ten-tonne solid propellant rocket motors designed for the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. These motors were the basis of two space launchers for an indigenous 'R5b' space programme. It seems that South Africa also planned to use these motors in a series of missiles to provide a nuclear deterrent. More...
  • Shavit Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. NEXT was a variant with an improved upper stage for proposed launch from Wallops Island, USA (launch from Israel is only possible into retrograde orbits since due East launch would be over territory of adjacent countries). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • IAI Israeli manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel. More...

Associated Programs
  • Offeq Israeli indigenous satellite series. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function of first Offeqs: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. Later models provided military optical and electronic reconnaissance services. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Wilson, Andrew, editor,, Jane's/Interavia Space Directory, Jane's Information Group, Coulsdon, Surrey, 1992 et al.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J, Hopkins, Joshua B, and Hopkins, Joseph P, International Reference to Space Launch Systems, AIAA, Washington DC, 2004.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Palmachim Israeli coastal missile test site from which the Shavit satellite launch vehicle is also launched. A due-west launch over the Mediterranean is required to avoid overflying Arab countries, resulting in unique orbital inclinations and directions.

    The site was known to have been used for 40 launches from 1987 to 2007. More...


Associated Stages
  • RSA-3-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,215/1,100 kg. Thrust 456.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. More...
  • RSA-3-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,971/1,771 kg. Thrust 476.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Empty mass includes 583 kg for payload shroud, guidance, orientation and spin-up platform that positions stage 3 and payload for final orbital insertion burn. More...
  • RSA-3-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,048/170 kg. Thrust 58.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. Data accurate. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. ARC/Rafael AUS 51 is identical. More...

Shavit Chronology


1988 September 19 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-1 - . Mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1989-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19519 . COSPAR: 1988-087A. Apogee: 1,149 km (713 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 142.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. First Israeli launch; possibly experimental surveillance mission. Experimental satellite 'Offeq-1'. Launch time 0934 GMT. Location: site on the coast south of Tel-Aviv. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field.

1990 April 3 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 2.
  • Ofeq-2 - . Mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1990-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20540 . COSPAR: 1990-027A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 143.2000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Communication experiments. .

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