Encyclopedia Astronautica
Snark



snark.jpg
Snark
Credit: © Mark Wade
American intercontinental subsonic cruise missile. Developed 1946-1959; deployed only briefly in 1961 before being made obsolete by ICBM's.

In March 1946 the USAAF awarded Northrop development contracts for project MX-775, covering the subsonic Snark and supersonic Boojum long-range cruise missiles (the names derived from Lewis Carroll – back then everyone had a better sense of humor). Tests of the tail-less aerodynamic design began in April 1951. In the meantime the USAF had decided it wanted the Snark to be an intercontinental range cruise missile, and a much larger version of the missile began test in August 1953. The program was dogged with problems in getting the launch right, with the engines, the guidance, with everything – leading Cape Canaveral wags to refer to the ‘Snark infested waters' off the test center. Replacing the planned J71 engine with the J57 solved some of the problems. Flight tests with the stellar-inertial navigation system began in November 1955. However the ‘precision' system could not be made to work properly, with the CEP of test missiles being 20 miles (one errant Snark was only found in the Brazilian rain forest 30 years later). Small consolation was found on one mission when the missile was declared to have the missed the target (off Ascension Island) by 4.7 miles. But it turned out the inertial system was accurate – the island was mislocated on British naval charts. By the time missile had reached an acceptable reliability and performance in December 1959, the USAF was gearing up for deployment of the first Atlas ICBM's, which rendered Snark completely obsolete. Nevertheless one Snark wing went into operational service at Presque Isle,Maine with 30 missiles, serving as a tiny portion of the US subsonic deterrent from February to June 1961.

As was the case of the much more ambitious Navaho, development of missiles in the 1950's was mainly paced by navigation technology. By the time the inertial systems were ready for subsonic missiles, they were also ready for ballistic missiles which made the cruise missiles obsolete. Northrop's main heritage from the program was its electronics division, which produced inertial navigation systems for USAF programs for decades to come.

Failures: 4. Success Rate: 96.61%. First Fail Date: 1950-12-21. Last Fail Date: 1957-06-20. Launch data is: complete. Development Cost $: 400.000 million. Recurring Price $: 9.233 million in 1961 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 1.468 million in 1955 dollars. Standard warhead: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Maximum range: 10,200 km (6,300 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Standard warhead: W39. Warhead yield: 3,750 KT. Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Cruise Thrust: 66.600 kN (14,972 lbf). Cruise Thrust: 6,800 kgf. Maximum speed: 990 kph (610 mph). Initial Operational Capability: 1960. Total Number Built: 30. Total Production Built: 30.

Historical Essay © Andreas Parsch

Northrop SSM-A-3-B-62-SM-62 Snark

The Snark was the only intercontinental surface-to-surface cruise missile ever deployed by the U.S. Air Force, but was operational for only a very short time because it was already made obsolete by the new ICBMs.

In October 1945 the U.S. Army Air Force began an ambitious long-term program to study and develop a large family of guided missiles, and in January 1946, Northrop submitted designs for turbojet-powered long-range cruise missiles. In March 1946, the USAAF awarded Northrop a development contract for project MX-775, covering the subsonic Snark (MX-775A) and the supersonic Boojum (MX-775B). In late 1947, the missile designator SSM-A-3 was assigned to the Snark, while Boojum possibly became the SSM-A-5. Initially the first flight tests of the XSSM-A-3 (Northrop Model N-25) were scheduled for 1949, but because of a reduced project priority and technical difficulties, the first successful launch (after two failures) did not occur before April 1951.

The XSSM-A-3 was powered by an Allison J33-A-31 turbojet, and launched from a rocket-powered sled. It had a radio-command guidance system, and was controlled in flight by commands from a DB-45 director aircraft. The XSSM-A-3 could be recovered with the help of a skid-type landing gear and a drag chute.

During its flight test program in 1951, the XSSM-A-3 validated the basic aerodynamic design of the Snark. However, by that time the USAF had significantly increased range and payload requirements for Snark, which lead to a revised and enlarged design, the Northrop Model N-69. The N-69 was powered by an Allison J71 turbojet, and launched from the ground by two solid-propellant rocket boosters. Also in 1951, the Air Force started to assign aircraft designations to its guided missiles, and the Snark became the B-62. The initial XB-62 models (N-69A and N-69B) were performance test missiles, which validated the basic flight characteristics of the new Snark design. These tests began in August 1953, and although a similar recovery system as in the XSSM-A-3 was used, only few N-69A-Bs survived their missions to fly again. The XB-62 warhead delivery test vehicle (N-69C) began to test the terminal dive characteristics in September 1954. However, initial tests showed that the planned supersonic dive was unfeasable because of control and stability problems. The alternative was to use a detachable nose section which would be separated from the main airframe for a supersonic ballistic drop on the target. Modified N-69C vehicles first tested the new delivery method in September 1955.

In early 1955, the Air Force introduced a new designation system for its guided missiles, and the XB-62 was redesignated as XSM-62. The projected XRB-62 reconnaissance version, which was later cancelled, became the XRSM-62.

The J71 turbojet of the N-69A-B-C showed to be troublesome and not up to specifications. It was therefore replaced by a Pratt & Whitney J57 in subsequent N-69D-E models, which were designated XSM-62A. The N-69D (which was recoverable like the N-69A-B), tested the Snark's guidance system, and first flew in November 1955. The SM-62 was to use a 24-hour (day-night) stellar-inertial navigation system, where the INS information is updated by tracking the relative position of bright stars. The N-69D was the first model to use underwing fuel tanks to test the guidance system at full range. However, the system had numerous reliability and accuracy problems, and all Snark test flights over a distance of more than 3400 km (2100 miles) averaged a CEP of no less than 20 miles! Even the most accurate shot came down more than 7.5 km (4.7 miles) from the target, which was barely acceptable even for a missile with a thermonuclear warhead in the megaton class.

The last test model was the N-69E (possibly designated YSM-62A), which served as the prototype of the production Snark. The N-69E flight program ran from June 1957 to September 1958, and included the first Snark flight to a range of more than 8000 km (5000 miles). Further guidance test flights of N-69D missiles followed until the test program ended in December 1959.

In early 1959, the USAF activated its first (and eventually only) Snark missile wing, and the first SM-62A production missiles, fitted with a W-39 thermonuclear warhead (4 MT), were delivered in May that year. The first SM-62A launch occurred in November 1959, and in February 1961, the unit was declared fully operational with 30 deployed missiles.

The severe reliability and accuracy limitations of the SM-62A, together with its significantly larger vulnerability to air defenses when compared to ballistic missiles, meant that the Snark could never be more than an interim emergency weapon. However, in 1961 the SM-65-CGM-16 Atlas ICBM was already operational and the larger SM-68-HGM-25 Titan in advanced development, making the Snark an obsolete system. Therefore the USAF's only Snark unit was deactivated in June 1961. About 100 N-69-SM-62 missiles of all versions were built.

Specifications

Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for XSSM-A-3, SM-62A:

  XSSM-A-3 SM-62A
Length 15.82 m (51 ft 11 in) 20.93 m (68 ft 8 in)
Wingspan 12.95 m (42 ft 6 in) 12.86 m (42 ft 2.4 in)
Height 3.78 m (12 ft 5 in) 4.52 m (14 ft 10 in)
Weight (w-o booster) 12700 kg (28000 lb) 22500 kg (49600 lb); booster: 5150 kg (11365 lb)
Speed Mach 0.85 Mach 0.94
Ceiling 13700 m (45000 ft) 18300 m (60000 ft)
Range 2500 km (1550 miles) 9650 km (6000 miles)
Propulsion Allison J33-A-31 turbojet; 20.4 kN (4600 lb) Pratt & Whitney J57-P-17 turbojet; 51.1 kN (11500 lb)
Booster: 2x Allegany Ballistics solid-fueled rocket; 580 kN (130000 lb) for 4 s each
Warhead none W-39 thermonuclear (4 MT)
Main Sources

[1] James N. Gibson: "Nuclear Weapons of the United States", Schiffer Publishing Ltd, 1996
[2] Bill Gunston: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rockets and Missiles", Salamander Books Ltd, 1979
[3] Kenneth P.Werrell: "The Evolution of the Cruise Missile", Air University Press, 1985
[4] Fred Anderson: "Northrop. An Aeronautical History", Northrop, 1976


AKA: SM-62.
Status: Retired 1960.
Gross mass: 27,177 kg (59,915 lb).
Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
Height: 20.70 m (67.90 ft).
Diameter: 1.37 m (4.49 ft).
Span: 12.90 m (42.30 ft).
Thrust: 1,156.20 kN (259,924 lbf).
Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).
First Launch: 1953.08.06.
Last Launch: 1960.12.05.
Number: 90 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Snark Intercontinental range subsonic cruise missile. The only intercontinental surface-to-surface cruise missile ever deployed by the US Air Force. Deployed only briefly, but the control and navigation technology developed for it during the 1950's provided the basis for later Northrop navigation systems used in strategic ballistic missiles. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Northrop American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Northrop, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Gunston, Bill,, Rockets and Missiles, Salamander, London, 1979.
  • Nicholas, Ted G., U.S. Missile Data Book, 1983, Seventh Edition, Data Search Associates, Fountain Valley, California, 1982..
  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC2 Snark launch complex. This complex was constructed for the Snark winged missile program, and may have supported some Matador combat training launches in the 1950s. The Air Force accepted the sites in 1953, and the complexes continued to support Snark launches through 5 December 1960. The pad served as a helicopter pad for the Mercury manned program in the early 1960s, and supported tethered aerostat (balloon) programs from 1983 through 1989. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC1 Snark launch complex. This complex was constructed for the Snark winged missile program, and may have supported some Matador combat training launches in the 1950s. The Air Force accepted the sites in 1953, and the complexes continued to support Snark launches through 5 December 1960. The pad served as a helicopter pad for the Mercury manned program in the early 1960s, and supported tethered aerostat (balloon) programs from 1983 through 1989. More...

Associated Stages

Snark Chronology


1953 August 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3391.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 October 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3393.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 February 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3395.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 February 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3396.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 April 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-11111.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 June 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3394-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 July 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-3392-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 September 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69B GM-11113.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 October 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69B GM-11114.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 November 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69B GM-11116.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 December 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69B GM-11115.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 January 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69B GM-13097.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 February 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C GM-13106.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 April 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C GM-13107.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 April 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C GM-13108.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 May 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69A GM-11112.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 July 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C GM-13112.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 August 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C GM-13113.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 October 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10972.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 November 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10977.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 December 9 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10973.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 December 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10974.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 January 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark.
  • Snark Missile test. - . Nation: USA. Summary: USAF Northrop Snark launched from Cape Canaveral on 2,000-mile flight..

1956 January 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10971.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 February 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10978.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 February 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10975.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 July 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 51-17577.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 July 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10976.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 August 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 51-17571.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 September 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10961.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 September 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-17578.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 October 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 52-10979.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). Summary: Full-scale test version of the Snark guided missile (XSM62) successfully recovered for the first time after a flight from Cape Canaveral..

1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69C 51-17572.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 November 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. Launch Pad: LC2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 52-10982.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 December 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8172. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1956 December 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. Launch Pad: LC2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8171.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 January 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 52-10983.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 January 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8173.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 February 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 52-10983?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 February 18 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8175.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 March 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8174.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 March 13 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D Inertial 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 April 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D Inertial 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 April 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8176.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 May 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8178. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 May 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8177.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 June 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3321. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1957 July 17 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3313.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 August 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3323.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 August 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3317.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 September 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3322.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 October 1 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3316.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 October 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3324.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). Summary: Snark intercontinental missile launched from Cape Canaveral first flew 5,000 miles, to a target near Ascension Island..

1957 November 20 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3316-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 December 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3326.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 January 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3327.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 February 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3328.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 March 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3330.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 April 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3329.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 May 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3409.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 May 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3410.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 June 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3413.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 August 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3411.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 August 30 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3412.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 September 19 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69E N-3414.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 October 23 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3318.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 November 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3317.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 December 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3319.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 December 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3308.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 February 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3312-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 March 10 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3320.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 April 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3422.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 April 21 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3320-1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 May 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3423.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 May 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3424.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 July 2 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3320.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 September 25 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3415.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 November 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3417.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 December 11 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3416.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 December 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D N-3317-3.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 February 12 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3425.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 March 3 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3426.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 April 6 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC2. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3427.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 May 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3444.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 June 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3445.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 July 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3446.
  • Category IIE-6, Sta12 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 August 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3448.
  • Category IIE-7, Sta12 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 September 26 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3452.
  • Category IIE-8, Sta12 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 October 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3454.
  • Category IIE-9 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 November 14 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3460.
  • Category IIE-10 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1960 December 5 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark SM-62A N-3458.
  • Category IIE-11, Sta12 operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

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