Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 11A511L



s11a511l.jpg
Soyuz 11A511L
Russian orbital launch vehicle. 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander.

LEO Payload: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.60 degrees.

AKA: Soyuz; SL-4; 11A511L; Sapwood; A-2.
Status: Retired 1971.
Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb).
Payload: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb).
Height: 50.00 m (164.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 4,054.00 kN (911,375 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1970.11.24.
Last Launch: 1971.08.12.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • LK Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Lunar L3 The Soviet program to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • Molniya 8K78M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,770 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,600/6,798 kg. Thrust 976.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,400 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...

Soyuz 11A511L Chronology


1970 November 24 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 379 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 1. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 4,683.78 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4760 . COSPAR: 1970-099A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. LK moon lander test using the T2K version. First use of the Soyuz 11A511L booster modified especially for this purpose. The spacecraft made a series of engine burns, simulating the lunar landing profile. After 3.5 days in orbit, the first burn was made in imitation of a descent to the lunar surface after separation of the Block D lunar crasher stage. The orbit changed from 192 km X 233 km to 196 km X 1206 km orbit; delta V: 263 m/s. After 4 days in orbit, a large manoeuvre was made simulating the ascent from the lunar surface. The orbit was changed from 188 km X 1198 km to 177 km X 14,041 km; delta V: 1518 m/s. These main manoeuvres were followed by a series of small adjustments simulating rendezvous and docking with the LOK. The LK tested out without major problems and decayed from orbit on September 21, 1983.

1971 February 26 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 398 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 2. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,463.78 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4966 . COSPAR: 1971-016A. Apogee: 1,958 km (1,216 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 106.70 min. Second space test of the LK moon lander test using the T2K version. Followed the same programme as Cosmos 379.
    Maneuver Summary:
    189km X 252km orbit to 186km X 1189km orbit. Delta V: 251 m/s
    186km X 1189km orbit to 200km X 10905km orbit. Delta V: 1320 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2832 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1971 August 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 434 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 3. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,296.77 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5407 . COSPAR: 1971-069A. Apogee: 1,253 km (778 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Final LK moon lander test using the T2K version.
    Maneuver Summary:
    188km X 267km orbit to 190km X 1261km orbit. Delta V: 266 m/s
    188km X 1262km orbit to 180km X 11384km orbit. Delta V: 1333 m/s
    Total Delta V: 1599 m/s. Ten years later the spacecraft was due to re-enter over Australia soon after the Skylab scare. The Soviet Union told the people of Australia not to worry, it was only an experimental lunar cabin - the first inadvertent admission that their manned lunar project even existed!

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