Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sputnik 8K71PS

R-7 aft end
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks.

LEO Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 65.00 degrees in 1985 dollars. Flyaway Unit Cost $: 33.000 million.

AKA: Semyorka; R-7; SL-1; 8K71PS; A.
Status: Retired 1957.
Gross mass: 267,000 kg (588,000 lb).
Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Height: 30.00 m (98.00 ft).
Diameter: 2.99 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 9.76 m (32.02 ft).
Thrust: 3,886.00 kN (873,607 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1957.10.04.
Last Launch: 1957.11.03.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Sputnik 1 Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1957.10.04. Tikhonravov's 1.4 metric ton ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, during the International Geophysical Year. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-107-8D74PS Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. Sputnik 8K71PS-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71PS Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Flown 1957-1958. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=306s. More...
  • RD-108-8D75PS Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 912 kN. Sputnik 8K71PS-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=308s. First flight 1957. More...

See also
  • R-7 The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • Luna 8K72-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 990.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds. More...
  • Sputnik 8K71PS-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 94,000/7,495 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...

Sputnik 8K71PS Chronology

1957 October 4 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 1PS.
  • Sputnik 1 - . Payload: PS. Mass: 84 kg (185 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 1. Decay Date: 1958-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 2 . COSPAR: 1957-Alpha-2. Apogee: 945 km (587 mi). Perigee: 227 km (141 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. First artificial satellite; transmitted signals for 21 days. Launching of first ever artificial satellite of the Earth; physical study of the atmosphere; remained in orbit until January 4, 1958. This event began the space race by galvanizing interest and action on the part of the American public to support an active role in space research, technology, and exploration.

1957 November 3 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 2PS.
  • Sputnik 2 - . Payload: PS-2. Mass: 508 kg (1,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 2. Decay Date: 1958-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3 . COSPAR: 1957-Beta-1. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.70 min. Carried dog Laika. Study of the physical processes and conditions of life in outer space. After the surprise public impact of Sputnik 1, the satellite and launch teams were called back from vacation and in one month assembled the satellite (using equipment already developed for dog sounding rocket flights). After the launch, Soviet space officials said that the spacecraft would not return and that the dog had enough food and oxygen to live for up to 10 days. Only 45 years later was it revealed that Laika overheated, panicked and died within 5 to 7 hours of launch. What turned out to be the first space crypt remained in orbit a total of 162 days, then burned up in the atmosphere on April 14, 1958.

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