Encyclopedia Astronautica
Start



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Start
Start 1995
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Start
Credit: © Mark Wade
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ICBM-Derived LVs
The range of launch vehicles derived from decommissioned ballistic missiles offered for sale by Russia after the cold war.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned SS-25 ICBM's (differs from ICBM/basic Start-1 in having second stage used twice, in tandem, for increased payload). Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 60 tonnes.

LEO Payload: 645 kg (1,421 lb) to a 300 km orbit at 30.00 degrees. Payload: 570 kg (1,250 lb) to a 400 km orbit. Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 1995-03-28. Last Fail Date: 1995-03-28. Launch Price $: 10.500 million in 1999 dollars.

Stage Data - Start

  • Stage 1. 1 x Start-1. Gross Mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Empty Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust (vac): 980.000 kN (220,310 lbf). Isp: 263 sec. Burn time: 60 sec. Isp(sl): 238 sec. Diameter: 1.61 m (5.28 ft). Span: 1.61 m (5.28 ft). Length: 8.50 m (27.80 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-1. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Start-2. Gross Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Empty Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust (vac): 490.000 kN (110,150 lbf). Isp: 280 sec. Burn time: 64 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 1.55 m (5.08 ft). Span: 1.55 m (5.08 ft). Length: 6.00 m (19.60 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-2. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated except stage gross mass.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Start-2. Gross Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Empty Mass: 1,500 kg (3,300 lb). Thrust (vac): 490.000 kN (110,150 lbf). Isp: 280 sec. Burn time: 64 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 1.55 m (5.08 ft). Span: 1.55 m (5.08 ft). Length: 6.00 m (19.60 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-2. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated except stage gross mass.
  • Stage 4. 1 x Start-3. Gross Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Empty Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust (vac): 245.000 kN (55,078 lbf). Isp: 280 sec. Burn time: 56 sec. Isp(sl): 220 sec. Diameter: 1.50 m (4.90 ft). Span: 1.50 m (4.90 ft). Length: 3.00 m (9.80 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-3. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated.
  • Stage 5. 1 x Start-4. Gross Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Empty Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Thrust (vac): 9.800 kN (2,203 lbf). Isp: 295 sec. Burn time: 207 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 1.40 m (4.50 ft). Span: 1.40 m (4.50 ft). Length: 2.50 m (8.20 ft). Propellants: Solid. No Engines: 1. Engine: MIHT-4. Status: In Production. Comments: All estimated.

AKA: Topol; RT-2PM; SL-18; 15Zh58; L-1.
Status: Retired 1995.
Gross mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb).
Payload: 645 kg (1,421 lb).
Height: 28.90 m (94.80 ft).
Diameter: 1.61 m (5.28 ft).
Thrust: 887.44 kN (199,504 lbf).
Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).
First Launch: 1995.03.28.
Number: 1 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • EKA Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.03.28. Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite. More...
  • Gurwin Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.03.28 (Gurwin 1) and 1998.07.10 (Gurwin Techsat 1B). Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel. More...

Associated Engines
  • MIHT-1 MIHT solid rocket engine. 980.6 kN. Start-1. In production. Used in Start-1. Estimated values. Isp=263s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-2 solid rocket engine. 490.3 kN. Start-2. In production. Used in Start-2. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-3 MIHT solid rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Start-3. In production. Used in Start-3. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-4 MIHT solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Start-4. In production. Used in Start-4. Estimated values. Isp=295s. First flight 1993. More...

See also
  • Topol Containerised all-solid propellant Nadiradze ICBM designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Nadiradze Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Nadiradze, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Associated Stages
  • MIHT-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated More...
  • MIHT-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/300 kg. Thrust 9.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Start-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Start-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,000/1,500 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated except stage gross mass More...

Start Chronology


1995 March 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC158. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start. FAILURE: Fell in Sea of Okhotsk.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gurwin 1 - . Payload: TECHSAT-1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: RVSN. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gurwin. Decay Date: 1995-03-28 . COSPAR: F950328A.
  • EKA - . Payload: EKA-2. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: EKA. COSPAR: F950328B. Summary: Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite..
  • Oscar 29 - . Payload: ENB UNAMSAT A. Nation: Mexico. Agency: RVSN. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. COSPAR: F950328C. Summary: UNAMSAT was an AMSAT Microsat class amateur radio satellite built by UNAM, the Autonomous University of Mexico..

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