Encyclopedia Astronautica
Titan



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Titan Geneology
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 1
Credit: via Andreas Parsch
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Titan 1
Credit: US Air Force
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Titan 1
Credit: US Air Force
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Winged Titan
Credit: via Mark C Goll
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Titan 2 Gemini
The Titan 2 ICBM was used for launch of the Gemini manned spacecraft.
Credit: NASA
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Titan 2 SLV
Credit: NASA
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Titan 2 Gemini
The Titan 2 ICBM was used for launch of the Gemini manned spacecraft.
Credit: NASA
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Titan 2 Large
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 2 Small
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3A
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3A Large
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan LVs Small
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 23B
Titan 23B - COSPAR 1977-019
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Titan 34B
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3B
Titan 3B - COSPAR 1969-007
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Titan 3C
Titan 3C - COSPAR 1966-099
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Titan 3C
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3 Early
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3 Small
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3 LV with X-20
The original mission of the Titan 3 booster was to launch the X-20 Dynasoar manned spaceplane into orbit.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3 with X-20
Titan 3 with X-20 Large
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3D
Titan 3D - COSPAR 1978-060
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Titan 3D
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 3E
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 34D
Titan 34D - COSPAR 1986-0F3
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Titan 34D
Titan 34D - COSPAR 1982-016
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Titan 34D
Credit: © Mark Wade
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IUS
Credit: NASA
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Commercial Titan
Commercial Titan with Mars Observer
Credit: Lockheed Martin
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Titan3E
Credit: NASA
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Titan 4
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 4 Large
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Titan 4 Launch
Credit: Lockheed Martin
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Titan LVs Large
Credit: © Mark Wade
American orbital launch vehicle. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space.

The reasons given for developing the booster in parallel with the NASA Saturn I of the same class were that the solid fuel boosters and storable (although corrosive and toxic) liquid propellants of the core provided a vehicle with improved readiness compared to the Saturn. However USAF 'ownership' (no NASA claims of priority) and the NIH (Not Invented Here) syndrome were probably more important factors.

Whatever the controversies at its genesis, the Titan has outlived the Saturn and will continue in use in the 21st century. It was originally conceived as a carrier of manned military spacecraft - first the X-20A Dynasoar, then the Gemini B and Manned Orbiting Laboratory, and finally lifting body spaceplanes in support of MOL follow-on space stations. All of these projects were cancelled in turn. Titans have been used instead to launch unmanned military spacecraft, ranging from heavy photoreconnaisance platforms in low earth orbit to geosynchronous communications, missile launch detection, and ELINT satellites.

After NASA junked the Saturn launch vehicle family in the mid-1970's, and the Challenger disaster in the 1980's, Titans were used for launching NASA deep-space probes. Whatever trouble NASA managed to get itself into, the Titan was still there to keep its planetary exploration program going.

Failures: 41. Success Rate: 88.92%. First Fail Date: 1959-05-15. Last Fail Date: 1999-04-30. Launch data is: complete.

Status: Retired 2005.
First Launch: 1959.02.06.
Last Launch: 2005.10.19.
Number: 370 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Avco Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. AVCO's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 690 kg, 2. More...
  • Bell Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Bell's preferred concept for the Air Force initial manned space project was the boost-glide vehicle they had been developing for the Dynasoar program. More...
  • Goodyear Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Goodyear's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 2.1 m diameter spherical vehicle with a rearward facing tail cone and ablative surface. More...
  • Martin Project 7969 American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Martin's proposal for the Air Force manned space project was a zero-lift vehicle launched by a Titan I with controlled flight in orbit. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 240 km orbit for a 24 hour mission. More...
  • Mercury Mark I American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Proposed derivatives of the basic one-crew Mercury capsule for investigation of earth orbit rendezvous, lifting re-entry and land landing. More...
  • Gemini American manned spacecraft. 12 launches, 1964.04.08 (Gemini 1) to 1966.11.11 (Gemini 12). It was obvious to NASA that there was a big gap of three to four years between the last Mercury flight and the first scheduled Apollo flight. More...
  • Gemini LOR American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Original Mercury Mark II proposal foresaw a Gemini capsule and a single-crew open cockpit lunar lander undertaking a lunar orbit rendezvous mission, launched by a Titan C-3. More...
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • G4C American space suit, operational 1964. Dave Clark G4C flight suits were designed for wear by Gemini astronauts. More...
  • ERS American earth magnetosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1962.09.17 (TRS) to 1967.04.28. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles. More...
  • Gemini-Centaur American manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. In the first Gemini project plans, it was planned that after a series of test dockings between Gemini and Agena rocket stages, Geminis would dock with Centaur stages for circumlunar flights. More...
  • SSF American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 54 launches, 1963.03.18 (P-11 No. 1) to 1989.08.08 (USA 41). More...
  • Dynasoar American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1963. The X-20A Dyna-Soar (Dynamic Soarer) was a single-pilot manned reusable spaceplane, really the earliest American manned space project to result in development contracts. More...
  • Gemini Transport American logistics spacecraft. Study 1963. This Gemini Transport version was proposed as a Gemini program follow-on in 1963. With the extended reentry module, this was the ancestor of the Big Gemini spacecraft of the late 1960's. More...
  • Gemini Ferry American manned spacecraft. Study 1963. The Gemini Ferry vehicle would have been launched by Titan 3M for space station replenishment. More...
  • OV1 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 27 launches, 1965.01.21 (OV1-1) to 1971.08.07 (OV1-21P). More...
  • LES American communications technology satellite. 8 launches, 1965.02.11 (LES 1) to 1976.03.15 (LES 9). More...
  • LCS American military target satellite. 3 launches, 1965.05.06 (LCS 1) to 1971.08.07 (LCS 4). Aluminum sphere used for radar calibration. More...
  • Gemini - Double Transtage American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. In June 1965 astronaut Pete Conrad conspired with the Martin and McDonnell corporations to advocate an early circumlunar flight using Gemini. More...
  • G5C American space suit, operational 1965. This David Clark lightweight suit was developed for long duration project Gemini missions. It was designed to be easily removed during flight and to provide greater comfort than the standard Gemini space suit. More...
  • OV2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1965.10.15 (OV2-01) to 1968.09.26 (OV2-05). OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights. More...
  • Extended Mission Gemini American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A McDonnell concept for using Gemini for extended duration missions. The basic Gemini would dock with an Agena upper stage. More...
  • Gemini Satellite Inspector American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A modification of Gemini to demonstrate rendezvous and inspection of noncooperative satellites was proposed. The Gemini would rendezvous with the enormous Pegasus satellite in its 500 x 700 km orbit. More...
  • GGTS American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1966.06.16. Gravity gradient stabilization tests. More...
  • IDCSP American military communications satellite. 35 launches, 1966.06.16 (IDCSP 1-1) to 1968.06.13 (IDCSP 4-8). More...
  • KH-8 American military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1966.07.29 (OPS 3014) to 1984.04.17 (OPS 8424). Longest-lived and last US film-return reconnaissance satellite. Ground resolution 0.5 m. Film returned in two capsules. Typical life 50 days. More...
  • OV4 American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1966.11.03 (OV4-03) to (OV4-01T). Whispering gallery experiments. More...
  • MOL American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere. More...
  • Gemini Paraglider American manned spacecraft. Study 1966. The paraglider was supposed to be used in the original Gemini program but delays in getting the wing to deploy reliably resulted in it not being flown. More...
  • Rescue Gemini American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1966. A version of Gemini was proposed for rescue of crews stranded in Earth orbit. This version, launched by a Titan 3C, used a transtage for maneuvering. More...
  • Winged Gemini American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. Winged Gemini was the most radical modification of the basic Gemini reentry module ever considered. More...
  • OV5 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 8 launches, 1967.04.28 (OV5-03) to 1969.05.23 (OV5-09). OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. More...
  • Advanced Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1967.04.28 (Vela 7) to 1970.04.08 (Vela 11). More...
  • DODGE American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1967.07.01. The Navy's 195 kg DODGE (Department Of Defense Gravity Experiment) satellite had the primary mission to explore gravity gradient stabilization at near synchronous altitude. More...
  • IS-A Russian military anti-satellite system. 22 launches, 1967.10.27 (Cosmos 185) to 1982.06.18 (Cosmos 1379). First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. More...
  • Solrad American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1968.03.05 (Explorer 37) to 1976.03.15 (Solrad 11B). SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite. More...
  • TACSAT American communications technology satellite. First launch 1969.02.09. TACSAT was designed to experimentally test and develop tactical communications concepts for all US military services. More...
  • Gemini B AM American manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1969. Adapter module for Gemini B, the engines serving as both abort motors during ascent to orbit and for retrofire on return to earth. Abort/deorbit propulsion. More...
  • Gemini B RM American manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1969. Gemini was extensively redesigned for the MOL Manned Orbiting Laboratory program. The resulting Gemini B, although externally similar, was essentially a completely new spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • DSP American military early warning satellite. 23 launches, 1970.11.06 (IMEWS 1) to 2007.11.11 (USA 176). An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch. More...
  • Jumpseat American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 7 launches, 1971.03.21 (Jumpseat 1) to 1983.07.31 (Jumpseat 7). Jumpseat signals intelligence satellites were launched by Titan 3B or 34B into highly elliptic Molniya-type orbits. More...
  • SESP American military technology satellite. 3 launches, 1971.06.08 (SESP 70-1) to 1976.07.08 (SESP 74-2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • KH-9 American military surveillance satellite. 26 launches, 1971.06.15 (KH-9 no. 01 (Big Bird)) to 1986.04.18 (SRV-4). Popularly known as 'Big Bird'. Titan 3C-class film-return reconnaissance satellite. More...
  • DSCS II American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1971.11.03 (DSCS II-01) to 1982.10.30 (DSCS II-15). DSCS provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. More...
  • NOSS American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 22 launches, 1971.12.14 (OPS 7898 P/L 1) to 1993.08.02 (TLD). Ocean surveillance; aka White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; PARCAE. More...
  • Viking American Mars lander. 5 launches, 1974.02.11 (Viking Dynamic Simulator) to 1975.09.09 (Viking 2 Lander). First successful soft landings made at two locations on the Martian surface and returned the first images from the surface. More...
  • Sphinx American military technology satellite. One launch, 1974.02.11. Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment. Research payload carried on test flight of Titan 3E booster. More...
  • ATS-6 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1974.05.30, ATS 6. In addition to its technology experiments, ATS-6 became the world's first educational satellite. More...
  • X-24C American manned spaceplane. Cancelled 1977. Two X-24C NHFRF (National Hypersonic Flight Research Facility) aircraft were to be built under a $ 200 million budget. More...
  • Helios German solar satellite. 2 launches, 1974.12.10 (Helios 1) and 1976.01.15 (Helios 2). Solar probe. Launched by the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Heliocentric orbit 190 days, 0.309 x 0.985 AU x 0 deg. More...
  • NOSS-Subsat American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 27 launches, 1976.04.30 (SSU 1 (NOSS 1)) to 1996.05.12 (USA 121). Detected the location of naval vessels using radio interferometry. More...
  • SDS American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1976.06.02 (SDS no. 1) to 1987.02.12 (USA 21). SDS satellites, put into Molniya-type orbits, provided data relay services for optical reconnaissance and other military spacecraft. More...
  • KH-11 American military surveillance satellite. 9 launches, 1976.12.19 (KH-11 no. 1) to 1988.11.06 (USA 33). Also known as Kennan, Program 1010. Used systems developed for KH-10 Manned Orbiting Laboratory. More...
  • Voyager American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1977.08.20 (Voyager 2) and 1977.09.05 (Voyager 1). The twin Voyager spacecraft were designed to perform close-up observations of the atmospheres, magnetospheres, rings, and satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. More...
  • ECS/OTS European communications satellite. 20 launches, 1977.09.13 (OTS 1) to 2001.02.07 (Skynet 4F). More...
  • Chalet American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1978.06.10 (Chalet 1) to 1989.05.10 (USA 37). Geosynchronous orbit signals intelligence satellite series that replaced Canyon. Also called Program 366 and Vortex. More...
  • Tiros N American earth weather satellite. 6 launches, 1978.10.13 (Tiros N) to 2002.06.24 (NOAA 17). Tiros N was part of the ongoing US series of polar-orbiting weather satellites. These were preceded by the TIROS series and the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series. More...
  • DSCS III American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1982.10.30 (DSCS III-01) to 2003.08.29 (USA 170). DSCS satellites provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. More...
  • DMSP Block 5D-2 American earth weather satellite. 9 launches, 1982.12.21 (AMS 5) to 1997.04.04 (USA 131). DMSP 5D-2 was the military's sixth generation of weather satellites. More...
  • HL-20 American manned spaceplane. Study 1988. The HL-20 was a NASA Langley design for a manned spaceplane as a backup to the space shuttle (in case it was abandoned or grounded) and as a CERV (Crew Emergency Return Vehicle) for the Freedom space station. More...
  • Singleton American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1988.09.05 (USA 32) to 1992.04.25 (USA 81). Signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit. More...
  • Lacrosse American military side-looking radar all-weather surveillance radar satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.12.02. More...
  • HS 393 American communications satellite. 7 launches, 1989.03.06 (JCSAT 1) to 1991.10.29 (Intelsat 6A F-1). Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. At the time, these were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built. More...
  • SDS-2 American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1989.08.08 (USA 40) to 1996.07.03 (USA 125). More...
  • Misty American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1990.02.28 (USA 53) to 1999.05.22 (USA 144). More...
  • NOSS-2 American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 5 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 59) to 1996.05.12 (USA 122). New generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. More...
  • NOSS-2 subsatellite American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 60) to 1991.11.08 (USA 77). More...
  • CRAF American comet probe. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The CRAF spacecraft (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) was to have rendezvoused with the Comet Kopff and flown alongside the comet for at least three years. More...
  • Star Lite American military anti-satellite system. Study 1991. In 1991 the Star Lite space laser experiment was made public. Star Lite would weigh half that of the previously planned Zenith Star with a launch mass of 16. More...
  • Mars Observer American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1992.09.25. Mars Observer was a NASA mission to study the surface, atmosphere, interior and magnetic field of Mars from Martian orbit. More...
  • Improved Crystal American military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1992.11.28. Improved CRYSTAL was an optical reconnaissance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Prime contractor was thought to be Lockheed. More...
  • ERTA Russian space tug. Study 1992. ERTA (Elecktro-Raketniy Transportniy Apparat) was a nuclear-electric space tug designed to be boosted on medium boosters and provide both propulsion and electrical power for unmanned planetary probes. More...
  • Landsat 6 American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1993.10.05. Landsat 6 was designed to continue the Landsat program and carried an improved suite of instruments. More...
  • ISAS Interstage Adapter Subsystem, consisting of the STAR-37M solid rocket motor, the Interstage Adapter for Clementine, and radiation detectors. It transmitted radiation data on the Van Allen Radiation belts for three months. American military technology satellite. One launch, 1994.01.25. More...
  • Clementine American lunar orbiter. One launch, 1994.01.25. Clementine was jointly sponsored by BMDO and NASA as the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE). More...
  • Milstar American military communications satellite. 6 launches, 1994.02.07 (USA 99) to 2003.04.08 (USA 169). Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users. More...
  • Trumpet American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.03 (USA 103) to 1997.11.08 (USA 136). More...
  • Mercury ELINT American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.08.27 (USA 105) to 1998.08.12 (Mercury ELINT). Class of heavy signals intelligence satellites introduced at the end of the 1990's. More...
  • Advanced Orion American military naval signals intelligence and reconnaisance satellite. Highly classified, operational, first launch 1995.05.14. More...
  • TiPS American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.12 (USA 123) to 1998.10.03 (USA 141). The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project. More...
  • Huygens European outer planets probe. One launch, 1997.10.15. Titan landing probe; attached to Cassini spacecraft. More...
  • Cassini American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1997.10.15 (Cassini) and (Huygens). The Cassini spacecraft was a scientific platform designed to perform an in-depth study of the Saturnian system. More...
  • HL-42 American manned spaceplane. Study 1997. The HL-42 was a reusable, lifting body manned spacecraft designed to be placed into low-Earth orbit by an expendable booster. More...
  • QuikScat American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1999.06.20. Built under a NASA rapid delivery contract. Carried the SeaWinds scatterometer for remote sensing of ocean winds. More...
  • DMSP Block 5D-3 American earth weather satellite. 4 launches, 1999.12.12 (USA 147) to 2009-10-18. Military spacecraft similar in design to the civilian NOAA weather satellites. More...

See also
  • Titan The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Martin American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956), Denver, CO, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Krebs, Gunter, Gunter's Space Page, University of Frankfurt, 1996. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Ertel , Ivan D; Morse , Mary Louise; et al, The Apollo Spacecraft Chronology Vol I - IV NASA SP-4009, NASA, 1966-1974. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautical and Astronautical Events of 1961 Report of NASA to the Committee on Science and Astronautics US House of Representatives 87th Cong 2d Sess, NASA, 1962. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Gatland, Kenneth, Manned Spacecraft, Macmillan, New York, 1968.
  • Baker, David, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown, New York, 1981.
  • Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
  • Gatland, Kenneth, Missiles and Rockets, Macmillan, New York, 1975.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Turnill, Reginald,, The Observer's Spaceflight Directory, Frederick Warne, London, 1978.
  • Wilson, Andrew, editor,, Jane's/Interavia Space Directory, Jane's Information Group, Coulsdon, Surrey, 1992 et al.
  • Sorokin, Vladislav, "'Yantarnaya istoriya'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 17, page 57.
  • Geiger, Jeffrey, Vandenberg AFB Chronology, 30 Space Wing Web, August 1995. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Bramscher, Robert G, "A Survey of Launch Vehicle Failures", Spaceflight, 1980, Volume 22, page 351.
  • Vis, Bert, "Shuttle Weather Watch", Spaceflight, 1996, Volume 38, page 170.
  • Pealer, Donald, "Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL)", Quest, Also 1996, Volume 5, Issue 2, page 16, 1995, Volume 4, Issue 4, page 28.
  • McDowell, Jonathon, "US Reconnaissance Satellite Programs Part 2", Quest, 1995, Volume 4, Issue 4, page 49.
  • Hobbs, Marvin, Fundamentals of Rockets, Missiles, and Spacecraft, John F Rider, 1961..
  • Titan Marketing Brochure, Martin Company, 1967.
  • Lockheed Martin Coporation, Atlas Family Fact Sheets, September 1998.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Nicholas, Ted G., U.S. Missile Data Book, 1983, Seventh Edition, Data Search Associates, Fountain Valley, California, 1982..
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kamanin, N P, Skritiy kosmos, Infortext, Moscow, 1995.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J, Hopkins, Joshua B, and Hopkins, Joseph P, International Reference to Space Launch Systems, AIAA, Washington DC, 2004.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Godwin, Robert, editor, Dyna-Soar: Hypersonic Strategic Weapons System, Collector's Guide Publishing, Ontario, Canada, 2003..
  • Medaris, John B, with Gordon, Arthur, Countdown for Decision, Paperback Library, June, 1961..

Titan Chronology


1958 June 16 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Dynasoar Phase I contracts announced. - . Nation: USA. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Phase I contracts for the Dyna-Soar boost-glide orbital spacecraft are awarded by the USAF to two teams of contractors: one headed by Boeing (Aerojet, General Electric, Ramo-Wooldridge, North American, and Chance Vought), and one headed by Martin (Bell, American Machine & Foundry, Bendix, Goodyear, and Minneapolis-Honeywell). Under the $ 9 million one-year contracts each team was to refine its design, leading to a competitive down-select.

1959 June 1 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Dyna-Soar contractors Boeing and Martin selected. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Dyna-Soar source selection board completed its evaluation of the proposals of the Boeing Airplane Company and the Martin Company. The board recommended the development of the Boeing glider but also favored the employment of the orbtal Titan C booster offered by Martin.

1960 June 8 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Martin to develop the Dyna-Soar booster airframe. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: The Air Force gave the Martin Company responsibility for the development of the Dyna-Soar booster airframe..

1960 June 27 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Aero-Jet to develop booster engines for the Dyna-Soar system. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: The Air Force authorized the Aero-Jet General Corporation to develop booster engines for the Dyna-Soar system..

1960 November 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Titan II instead of Titan I for Dyna-Soar. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force requested ARDC to examine the feasiblity of employing Titan II instead of Titan I for Dyna-Soar suborbital flights..

1961 January 12 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Titan II to be the Dyna-Soar suborbital Step I booster. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Air Force headquarters announced that Titan II would be the suborbital Step I booster..

1961 December 5 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Recommendation that the weapon system of the Titan II, with minimal modifications, be approved for the Mercury Mark II rendezvous mission. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: McNamara. Spacecraft: Gemini. On the basis of a report of the Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator, and John H. Rubel, Department of Defense Deputy Director for Defense Research and Engineering, recommended to Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara that the weapon system of the Titan II, with minimal modifications, be approved for the Mercury Mark II rendezvous mission. The planning group had first met in August 1961 to survey the Nation's launch vehicle program and was recalled in November to consider Titan II, Titan II-1/2, and Titan III. On November 16, McNamara and NASA Administrator James E. Webb had also begun discussing the use of Titan II.

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