Encyclopedia Astronautica
Tomahawk Sandia



tomaorio.jpg
Tomahawk Sandia
Tomahawk Orion
American sounding rocket. Test and sounding vehicles developed by Sandia using the TE-416 Tomahawk motor.

The TE-416 motor was developed by Thiokol for Sandia, a major contractor to the Atomic Energy Agency. The rocket was used in support of nuclear tests. NASA intended to use the rocket for a series of launches to study the sun during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY). However after four tests NASA decided not to use the rocket. A few years later NASA did a single shot of their 'D-Region Tomahawk' but again did not use it further. The Tomahawk however was used in large numbers by NASA and Sandia as the upper stage on a variety of sounding rockets.

Payload: 20 kg (44 lb) to a 60 km altitude. Failures: 38. Success Rate: 93.15%. First Fail Date: 1963-06-30. Last Fail Date: 1983-09-01. Launch data is: incomplete. Boost Propulsion: Solid.

Status: Retired 1995.
Gross mass: 266 kg (586 lb).
Payload: 20 kg (44 lb).
Height: 5.31 m (17.42 ft).
Diameter: 0.23 m (0.75 ft).
Span: 0.93 m (3.05 ft).
Thrust: 43.80 kN (9,847 lbf).
Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).
First Launch: 1963.06.12.
Last Launch: 1967.12.06.
Number: 17 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Sandia American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Sandia Laboratories, Albequerque, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Alway, Peter, Rockets of the World, Saturn Press, Ann Arbor, 1995.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • Point Mugu US Naval Air Station and major missile testing centre, known to have been used for 2551 launches from 1955 to 2005. The actual total of missile tests is many times greater. More...
  • Tonopah Sounding rocket and test vehicle launch site. Conducted launches in support of US nuclear weapons development programs. Known to have been used for 93 launches from 1957 to 1986, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Johnston Island US military base on this island in the Pacific Ocean. Used for rocket-launched nuclear tests in the 1950's. In the 1960's it was the site for the operational AFP-437 anti-satellite system. The system was retired in 1975. Several sounding rockets were also launched over the years, either in support of nuclear tests or in experiments related to anti-satellite technology. Known to have been used for 124 launches from 1958 to 1975, reaching up to 1158 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Barking Sands Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. Known to have been used for 2320 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...

Associated Stages

Tomahawk Sandia Chronology


1963 June 12 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-1.
  • Seagull (IQSY) test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Summary: Seagull (IQSY). Technology test of NASA version..

1963 June 30 - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk IQSY Tomahawk. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1964 March 10 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-5.
  • Tomahawk-Dart 7" Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1964 September 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk IQSY Tomahawk.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Only successful flight of NASA version. Measured the sun's x-ray output..

1964 October 8 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-37.
  • Darthawk 6.5" Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1964 October 14 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-38.
  • Darthawk 6.5" Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1964 October 20 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-69. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ballistic Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 January 20 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-14.
  • Magnus Stovepipe Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1965 February 2 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-17.
  • Magnus Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1965 February 3 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-47.
  • Magnus Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 106 km (65 mi).

1965 March 1 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-40.
  • Magnus Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1965 March 3 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-39.
  • Darthawk 6.5" Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1965 July 25 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-15.
  • Dart / EMP [or 1966?] test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1966 April 5 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-41. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Despin test - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 July 27 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-96.
  • 9" Ballistic Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 99 km (61 mi).

1967 September 25 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-61.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1967 December 6 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Tonopah. Launch Complex: Tonopah HAD4. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Tomahawk Sandia. LV Configuration: Tomahawk Sandia 152-110.
  • LRL BOX-13 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use