Encyclopedia Astronautica
Tsiklon-2A



tsyklon.gif
Tsyklon LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle.

On 16 March and 1 August 1961 the Central Committee and Politburo approved development of Chelomei's UR-200 (8K81) universal rocket. The UR-200 was to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT; the US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) nuclear-powered naval intelligence satellite; and the Raketoplan combat re-entry vehicle. Trial flights of the missile began on 4 November 1963.

On October 13, 1964, Khrushchev was ousted from power. The new leadership, under Brezhnev, was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. These included those of Chelomei. An expert commission under M V Keldysh was directed to examine all of Chelomei's projects and make recommendations as to which should be cancelled. Keldysh found that Yangel's R-36 rocket was superior to Chelomei's UR-200 and that the Raketoplan was technically overly ambitious. The UR-200 and Raketoplan were accordingly cancelled, while the IS and US satellites were redesigned for launch by the R-36.

A government decree of 24 August 1965 formalised the decision and the Yangel bureau began design work in 1966. Required modifications to the R-36 were minimal; the IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. The Tsyklon 11K67 first test version was an adaptation of the 8K67 (SS-9 Mod 1) two stage ICBM and flew only briefly (1967 to 1968). It was quickly replaced by the definitive 11K69 Tsyklon 2 launch vehicle. The military project manager was L A Dolnikov. The two-stage vehicle stages were designated 8S671 and 8S672.

LEO Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) to a 185 km orbit at 52.00 degrees. Failures: 1. First Fail Date: 1969-01-25. Last Fail Date: 1969-01-25.

AKA: Tsiklon; SL-11; 11K67; Scarp; F-1.
Status: Retired 1969.
Gross mass: 182,000 kg (401,000 lb).
Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Height: 39.70 m (130.20 ft).
Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Thrust: 2,366.00 kN (531,897 lbf).
Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).
First Launch: 1967.10.27.
Last Launch: 1969.01.25.
Number: 8 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • US-A Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 38 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 102) to 1988.03.14 (Cosmos 1932). The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • IS-A Russian military anti-satellite system. 22 launches, 1967.10.27 (Cosmos 185) to 1982.06.18 (Cosmos 1379). First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. More...
  • IS-P Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1968.04.24 (Cosmos 217) to 1970.10.20 (Cosmos 373). ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself. More...

See also
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Programs
  • RORSAT Soviet military nuclear-reactor powered radar naval reconnaissance satellite network. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-36--1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 122,300/6,400 kg. Thrust 2,651.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. Verniers 4 x RD-68M, 285 kN, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • R-36-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Verniers 4 x RD-69M, 54.3 kN, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle. More...

Tsiklon-2A Chronology


1967 October 27 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 185 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1969-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3013 . COSPAR: 1967-104A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Inclination: 64.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: First test of Istrebitel Sputnik. Only tested engine; no target launched. First launch of Tsykon launch vehicle..

1967 December 27 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 198 - . Payload: US-A no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1968-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3082 . COSPAR: 1967-127B. Apogee: 927 km (576 mi). Perigee: 907 km (563 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 103.40 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor. First satellite to be boosted to 900 km storage orbit..

1968 March 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 209 - . Payload: US-A no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1968-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 3162 . COSPAR: 1968-023C. Apogee: 927 km (576 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.00 min. Summary: RORSAT hardware, representative of production hardware, but using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor..

1968 April 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 217 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1968-04-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3216 . COSPAR: 1968-036A. Apogee: 179 km (111 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Summary: Unsuccessful launch of ASAT target. Satellite did not separate from last rocket stage. Planned launch of interceptor cancelled..

1968 October 19 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 248 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system target. Spacecraft: IS-P. Decay Date: 1980-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3503 . COSPAR: 1968-090A. Apogee: 543 km (337 mi). Perigee: 475 km (295 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: ASAT target. Intercepted repeatedly by Cosmos 249 on 20 October; destroyed by Cosmos 252 on 1 November..

1968 October 20 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 249 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1968-10-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3504 . COSPAR: 1968-091A. Apogee: 2,075 km (1,289 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 111.30 min. ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 248 target on second orbit. Repeatedly approached Cosmos 248, verifying primary and reserve homing and guidance systems. Destroyed itself in test of on-board destruct system. Counted as a failure by Western observers because that target was not destroyed; but this was not an objective of the test. Left 109 fragments in orbit, of which 54 were still in orbit in 1996.

1968 November 1 - . 00:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A.
  • Cosmos 252 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: IS-A. Decay Date: 1968-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3530 . COSPAR: 1968-097A. Apogee: 2,104 km (1,307 mi). Perigee: 535 km (332 mi). Inclination: 62.3000 deg. Period: 112.00 min. Summary: ASAT interceptor. Intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 248 target satellite within one day of launch. Left 139 fragments in orbit, the largest of any ASAT test..

1969 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2A. FAILURE: Payload propulsion system failed; no orbit.. Failed Stage: P.
  • US-A Mass Model - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1969-01-24 . COSPAR: F690125A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: RORSAT hardware, representative of production hardware, but using chemical batteries in place of BES-5 nuclear reactor..

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