Encyclopedia Astronautica
UR-100



ur100ba.jpg
UR-100 ICBM
Model of Chelomei's UR-100 ICBM.
Credit: © Mark Wade
8k84back.jpg
8K84 back
Credit: © Mark Wade
8k81tran.jpg
UR-100
UR-100 / 8K84 Missile with sealed transport/launch container
Credit: © Mark Wade
lvsilots.jpg
Missile silo model
Missile silo test model
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country.

Official go-ahead for development of the 8K84 was on 30 March 1963 (Russian sources say the 8K84 missile put into production was not related to Chelomei's original actual UR-100 design. However this correlation came into general acceptance retroactively). The decree called for a silo-launched missile that could be stored in a fuelled condition for at least five years as a 'certified round', ready to be launched at short notice. Submarine-launched and anti-ballistic missile versions of the missile were also to be designed, but no pad-launched variant was envisioned. Chelomei had already been working on the missile for several years, with tests of the planned radio-guidance system starting in 1962. The 15P784 silo was designed by Spetsmash.

Such was the urgency to overcome the massive US superiority in ICBM's, surveys were already underway to identify suitable sites for missile silos accessible by rail spurs. The teams consisted of geologic and geodesic specialists under the leadership of Yevgeniy Yevtigneyev. Their missions were so secret they used the cover and resources of Uralgaz and the leader could only identify himself as a 'general from Moscow'. The teams travelled by train, truck and horse to reach the potential silo locations. Construction of launch silos at the selected locations all over the Soviet Union began in 1964 even before the missile was tested. This was a huge industrial enterprise, the construction of the 1130 silos for the UR-100 and 308 for the R-36 occupying a peak workforce of 650,000 until 1973. Construction of these silos involved a total cost of one billion roubles and the removal of 120 million cubic metres of earth.

There was an enormous amount of completely new technology to be mastered. This included not just the sealed missile (which had to resist corrosive propellants 20,000 times more aggressive than those used previously for many years), but the integrated transport/storage container and silo ejection technique. Production of the missile itself was conducted at three factories -- the Khrunichev facility in Moscow; Factory 166 (later PO Polyot) in Omsk; and Factory 47 (later PO Strela) in Orenburg.

One prototype command point and ten missile silos were built at Baikonur for the flight tests. 60 trials flights were conducted from 19 April 1965 to 27 October 1966, with the first silo launch on 17 July 1965. The first regiments at Bershet and Drovyanaya became operational on 17 July 1966, before the test series was completed. 90 silos were operational by the end of 1966 and the missile and silo were accepted for military service on 21 July 1967.

In field deployment a single hardened command point controlled ten silos. The silos could resist an over-pressure of 20 atmospheres, equivalent to explosion of a one megaton bomb 1300 metres from the silo. Deployment rose to 540 by 1968, 840 by 1970, and 940 in 1961. By 1974 the peak of 1030 UR-100 silos were in operation. By that time 106 UR-100's had been launched in trials flights and another 54 flown from military bases. The last UR-100 was withdrawn from service in 1988. However UR-100's were replaced in their silos by UR-100M's, UR-100K's, UR-100N's, UR-100NU's, and even MR-UR-100's by another manufacturer, proving the worth of the containerised missile concept.

The UR-100 was the first Soviet ICBM with a three minute reaction time - from key turn to lift-off - a huge accomplishment for a liquid propellant vehicle. To make this reaction time possible the vehicle stayed fuelled throughout its guaranteed storage lifetime of five years (extended to first 8, then 10, then 17 years based on in-service tests). This was achieved by encapsulation of the missile in a container in which this missile stayed from production until launch. The container was designed by OKB-52 Filial 2, weighed 14.4 tonnes, had a diameter of 2.7 meters, and a length of 19.5 meters. The missile was mounted on rails within the container and internal plumbing necessary for start-up of the missile was sealed within the container.

The 8S816 first stage and 8S817 second stage were powered by Kosberg and Izotov engines, respectively. Since terminal velocity at the end of second stage burn was only 7.12 km/sec the UR-100 was never adapted for space launches. The missile was produced in three optional configurations (not modifications - only the payload was changed to convert from one configuration to another):

  • ICBM with range up to 11,000 km with a light (770 kg) warhead, re-entry vehicle designed by Kocaryats at VNIITF and warhead by Arazamas-16.
  • MRBM (up to 4000 km) with a heavy (1750 kg) warhead, designed at VNIITF with warhead by Chelyabinsk-70.
  • ABM vehicle 'Taran' with range not less than 2000 km

The guidance system by Kuznetsov and inertial navigation system by Pilyugin were designed to work with any of these configurations and the vehicle could be converted from one to another within 24 hours. Missiles could be programmed for launch plus or minus 30 degrees from their standard corridor. The Palma countermeasures suite by Gerasimenko at NII-108 was fitted to spoof enemy anti-ballistic missile defences.

Propellant tanks were constructed of AMG-6 aluminium alloy. The rocket was normally painted white, and the light warhead version had a strict conic shape. The heavy warhead was longer, but with the same base diameter. The first five launches of the missile from Baikonur used radio-inertial guidance with a radio-command correction system by Ryazinskiy. Later testing gave the military confidence that the pure inertial guidance was precise enough, and the radio receiver was removed in production models.

Work on the Taran ABM version began in 1962-1963. The concept was ingenious, in that offensive missiles could be turned into defensive missiles in response to changes in enemy posture. For use as an ABM the launch complex need some additional equipment and the missile carried a 10 megaton warhead. Incoming missile tracking for Taran would be provided by the TsSO-S radar system located 500 km from Moscow. Taran would be used with the shorter-range A-350 missile developed for the defence of Moscow as part of a layered defence. However Taran could defend, from a single basing area, the most heavily populated area of the Soviet Union, from Leningrad to Moscow. However after the fall of Khrushchev, Chelomei's patron, further work on the Taran system was abandoned.

In total, 12 Strategic Rocket Forces divisions were equipped with the various models of the basic UR-100 (UR-100, UR-100M, UR-100K, UR-100U). Production of these versions extended from 1964 to 1974. There were a total of 162 test and operational test launches of these models. Of these, 67 were tests of the UR-100U. UR-100 artefacts may be found at Orevo, which has a complete sectioned missile, and Baikonur, which has models and photographs.

Failures: 21. Success Rate: 92.55%. First Fail Date: 1965-05-20. Last Fail Date: 1975-09-29. Launch data is: incomplete. Standard warhead: 770 kg (1,690 lb). Maximum range: 11,000 km (6,000 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Standard RV: 15F842. Warhead yield: 500 KT. CEP: 1.40 km (0.80 mi). Alternate warhead: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Maximum range with alternate warhead: 4,000 km (2,400 mi). Number Alternate Warheads: 1. Alternate warhead yield: 1,100 KT. Alternate warhead CEP: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Boost Propulsion: Storable liquid rocket, N2O4/UDMH. Cruise engine: 8D423. Initial Operational Capability: 1966. Total Number Built: 790.

Stage Data - UR-100

  • Stage 1. 1 x UR-100 Stage 1. Gross Mass: 32,799 kg (72,309 lb). Empty Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust (vac): 868.800 kN (195,314 lbf). Isp: 310 sec. Burn time: 102 sec. Isp(sl): 280 sec. Diameter: 1.60 m (5.20 ft). Span: 1.60 m (5.20 ft). Length: 10.00 m (32.00 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 4. Engine: RD-0216. Other designations: 8K84 Stage 1. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, sea level thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo.
  • Stage 2. 1 x UR-100 Stage 2. Gross Mass: 8,611 kg (18,984 lb). Empty Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust (vac): 131.448 kN (29,551 lbf). Isp: 325 sec. Burn time: 184 sec. Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft). Span: 1.30 m (4.20 ft). Length: 6.69 m (21.95 ft). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. No Engines: 1. Engine: 8D423. Other designations: 8K84 Stage 2. Status: Out of Production. Comments: Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo.

AKA: RS-10; UR-100; SS-11 Mod.1; 8K84; Sego; 15P784; 15A10.
Status: Retired 1984.
Gross mass: 41,410 kg (91,290 lb).
Payload: 770 kg (1,690 lb).
Height: 16.93 m (55.53 ft).
Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
Span: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
Thrust: 785.00 kN (176,475 lbf).
Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).
First Launch: 1965.01.01.
Last Launch: 1975.01.01.
Number: 167 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • 8D423 Izotov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 131 kN. Production from 1964. Isp=325s. Single chamber engine for UR-100 stage 2. Gas generator cycle with two large turbine exhaust pipes. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-0215 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2450 kN. Developed 1962-65 for heavy Chelomei launcher (UR-900?) stage 1. Isp=310s. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0217 for tank pressurization and three RD-0216. Hardware not hot-tested. More...
  • RD-0216 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 219 kN. UR-100 stage 1. Isp=313s. Staged combustion cycle. Includes tank pressurization system (RD-0217 without tank press.). First launch November 1963, manufactured until 1974, operational until 1991. First flight 1965. More...

See also
  • UR-100 The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Placard, TsNIIMASH Museum,
  • Kiselev, Anatoly I, introduction, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, 1996.
  • Afanasyev, Igor, "35 let RN Proton", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 5, page 40.
  • Pervov, Mikhail, Raketnoye Oruzhiye RVSN, Violanta, Moscow, 1999..
  • Karpenko, A V, Utkin, A F and Popov,A D, Otechestvenniye strategischeskiye raketnoye kompleks, Sankt-Peterburg: Nevskii bastion; Gangut 1999..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • 8S816 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 32,799/3,000 kg. Thrust 868.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, sea level thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo. More...
  • 8S817 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,611/900 kg. Thrust 131.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo. More...

UR-100 Chronology


1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 April 19 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC130. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. LV Configuration: UR-100 U106416-01.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 May 20 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 June 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. LV Configuration: UR-100 229420-01. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. Launch Pad: LC131?. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 September 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 November 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 November 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 December 19 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 April 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 June 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 August 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 October 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • SLI Last operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 June 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 September 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 September 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1975 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: UR-100. Launch Vehicle: UR-100.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

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