Encyclopedia Astronautica
Viper



wviper.jpg
Viper
Credit: via Andreas Parsch
American sounding rocket. Single stage sounding rocket developed as a follow-on to the Loki-Dart.

The Space Data Corporation developed the rocket in 1972 to reach increased altitudes for the PWN-12A dart compared to the Super-Loki rocket. The dart contained the ROBINSphere (Radar OBservable INflation Sphere), an inflatable 1-meter-diameter radar reflecting balloon tracked by radar as it descended to reveal winds aloft.

The Viper IIA version had a diameter of 0.18 m and could reach 150 km; the IIIA version a diameter of 0.11 m and an apogee of 120 km.

Failures: 7. Success Rate: 98.54%. First Fail Date: 1960-04-20. Last Fail Date: 1998-01-25. Launch data is: continuing.

Status: Active.
Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Height: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Diameter: 0.11 m (0.36 ft).
Thrust: 102.00 kN (22,930 lbf).
Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).
First Launch: 1960.01.01.
Last Launch: 2002.06.13.
Number: 45 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Viper Single stage sounding rocket developed as a follow-on to the Loki-Dart. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Aerojet American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Aerojet, Sacramento, CA, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Parsch, Andreas, DesignationSystems.Net, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • Poker Flat Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather. More...
  • Kagoshima Japanese launch center for solid fueled sounding rockets and satellite launchers. Limited to two months a year due to disturbance of local fisheries. More...
  • Andoya Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) is the world's northernmost permanent launch facility for sounding rockets and scientific balloons and is responsible for all scientific-related balloon and rocket operations in Norwegian territory. ARR provides complete services for launch, operations, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The range has conducted more than 650 rocket launches and hosted scientists and engineers from more than 70 institutes and universities. More...
  • Alcantara Sounding rocket and orbital launch site. Used for 53 known launches from 1990 to 2007. The launch complex for Brazil's indigenous VLS orbital booster was located here. More...
  • Santiago Ixcuintla Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1991, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude. More...

Associated Stages

Viper Chronology


1960 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper-Arrow V-A.
  • - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 Feb - . Launch Site: Tonopah. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper-Arrow V-A 23.
  • - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 July 11 - . Launch Site: Santiago Ixcuintla. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper.
  • Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SPFLA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1992 April 23 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Aerosole.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1992 June 3 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Aerosole.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1992 July 24 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1992 July 25 - . 12:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1994 August 16 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 17 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 18 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 19 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 19 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 19 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 19 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 19 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 20 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 21 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 22 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 23 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 24 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 24 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 24 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 24 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 24 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 25 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 25 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1994 August 25 - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere.
  • GUARA MET Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1995 March 20 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Aerosole.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1995 April 11 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Aerosole.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1995 May 2 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Aerosole.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1995 May 31 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Aerosole.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1996 February 8 - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Wind.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1997 July 15 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1997 August 4 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Falling Sphere.
  • AND-22 TTS07 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1997 August 7 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Falling Sphere 6.
  • AND-22 TTS08 / TRAMP Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1997 August 10 - . 23:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Falling Sphere 7.
  • AND-22 TTS09 / TRAMP Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1997 August 11 - . 00:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Chaff 3.
  • AND-22 TTC10 / TRAMP Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1997 August 14 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Sphere 8.
  • AND-22 CRISTA TTS11 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1997 August 14 - . 20:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper Chaff 4.
  • AND-22 CRISTA TTC12 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi).

1997 September 8 - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1999 July 16 - . 10:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper MD-FS-20.
  • MIDAS / DROPPS Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NDRE. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

2002 May 10 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper NASA 37.12UE.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

2002 May 16 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper NASA 37.13UE.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

2002 May 16 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper NASA 37.14UE.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

2002 June 13 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper. LV Configuration: Viper NASA 12.51UE.
  • Aeronomy / test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

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