Encyclopedia Astronautica
Vulkan



vulka160.gif
Vulkan LV
Vulkan Launch Vehicle
Credit: © Mark Wade
vulkanlv.gif
Vulkan LV
Vulkan Launch Vehicle
Credit: © Mark Wade
Super heavy-lift version of Energia with six strap-on boosters, and in-line upper stages and payloads. The concept was put on the back burner when Energia / Buran development begun.

Stage Data - Vulkan

  • Stage 1. 6 x Vulkan 0. Gross Mass: 355,000 kg (782,000 lb). Empty Mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 7,891.010 kN (1,773,970 lbf). Isp: 336 sec. Burn time: 130 sec. Isp(sl): 309 sec. Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Span: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Length: 39.00 m (127.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-170. Status: Study 1975. Comments: Original design of Energia strap-ons, for use with Vulkan booster for manned lunar expedition. Ultimately derived from R-56 of 1961.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Vulkan 1. Gross Mass: 800,000 kg (1,760,000 lb). Empty Mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 7,450.000 kN (1,674,820 lbf). Isp: 452 sec. Burn time: 420 sec. Isp(sl): 351 sec. Diameter: 7.75 m (25.42 ft). Span: 8.00 m (26.20 ft). Length: 52.00 m (170.00 ft). Propellants: Lox/LH2. No Engines: 4. Engine: RD-0120. Status: Study 1975. Comments: Original version of Energia core as used on Vulkan booster, with in-line upper stages and payloads. Developed 1974-1976; cancelled when Energia / Buran development begun.
  • Stage 3. 1 x Vulkan Blok V. Gross Mass: 142,000 kg (313,000 lb). Empty Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 411.000 kN (92,396 lbf). Isp: 460 sec. Burn time: 1,370 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 6.70 m (21.90 ft). Span: 6.70 m (21.90 ft). Length: 16.50 m (54.10 ft). Propellants: Lox/LH2. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-57M. Status: Study 1975. Comments: Upper stage design by KB Saturn for manned lunar expedition, large geosynchronous platform launch.

Status: Development ended 1976.
Gross mass: 3,072,000 kg (6,772,000 lb).
Height: 82.00 m (269.00 ft).
Diameter: 7.75 m (25.42 ft).
Thrust: 49,329.10 kN (11,089,623 lbf).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • LEK Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1973. Lunar lander for the Vulkan surface base. As in the original LK lunar lander, this would be taken to near zero velocity near the lunar surface by the Vulkan Block V 'lunar crasher' rocket stage. More...
  • Lunokhod LEK Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1973. Lunar rover for the Vulkan Lunar Expedition. The rover provided pressurized quarters for 2 crew, allowing trips up to 200 km from the lunar base at a top speed of 5 km/hr. More...
  • LZhM Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-living module. Three story lunar surface residence and laboratory for Vulkan-launched Lunar Expedition. More...
  • LZM Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-Factory Module for the Vulkan surface base. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0120 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1961 kN. Energia core stage. Design 1987. Isp=455s. First operational Russian cryogenic engine system, built to the same overall performance specifications as America's SSME, but using superior Russian technology. More...
  • RD-170 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Energia strap-on. Developed 1973-1985. Isp=337s. First flight 1987. Used one-plane gimablling versus the two-plane gimablling required on the RD-171 of the Zenit launch vehicle. Designed for 10 reuses. More...
  • RD-57M Lyulka lox/lh2 rocket engine. 397 kN. Vulkan Blok V. Development ended 1976. Isp=461s. Version with extendible nozzle. Length 4.06 / 2.61 m. Specific impulse 461 / 448 sec. Area ratio 170 / 87.6. More...

See also
  • Energia The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993. More...
  • Winged In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Stages
  • Vulkan 1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/80,000 kg. Thrust 7,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452 seconds. Original version of Energia core as used on Vulkan booster, with in-line upper stages and payloads. Developed 1974-1976; cancelled when Energia / Buran development begun. More...
  • Vulkan Blok V Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 411.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. Upper stage design by KB Saturn for manned lunar expedition, large geosynchronous platform launch. More...
  • Vulkan 0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,891.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Original design of Energia strap-ons, for use with Vulkan booster for manned lunar expedition. Ultimately derived from R-56 of 1961. More...

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