Encyclopedia Astronautica
Yakovlev MVKS


Russian SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space. It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaux submitted designs. No details of the Yakovlev design have become available to date.

Status: Design 1986.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Yakovlev MVKS Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...

See also
  • SSTO Category of launch vehicles. Single Stage To Orbit. More...
  • VTOVL The concept of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit Vertical Take-Off Vertical Landing (VTOVL) launch vehicle that would reenter and return to its launch site for turnaround and relaunch was first proposed by Philip Bono in the 1960's. The appealing simplicity of the concept has been offset by the technological risk in developing it. The problem with any single-stage-to-orbit concept is that if the empty weight of the final vehicle has been underestimated it will not be able to deliver any payload to orbit, or even reach orbit. Since weight growth of up to 20% is not unknown in aerospace projects, this is a very real threat which has made both NASA and private investors reluctant to invest the billions of dollars it would take to develop a full-scale flight vehicle. More...
  • Winged In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yakovlev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Yakovlev Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • Butowski, Piotr, "Black Reds", Air Forces Monthly Special, X-Planes, February 1998, p. 35.

Yakovlev MVKS Chronology


1986 January 27 - . LV Family: VKS. Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000; Yakovlev MVKS.
  • Government decree orders design of a Soviet aerospaceplane - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Tu-2000; Yakovlev MVKS; VKS. Summary: In reaction to US X-30 project government decree ordered development of a Soviet equivalent..

1986 July 19 - . LV Family: VKS. Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000; Yakovlev MVKS.
  • Government decree orders development of a Soviet aerospaceplane - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Tu-2000; Yakovlev MVKS; VKS. Summary: The decree of 27 January 1986 was reaffirmed..

1986 September - . LV Family: VKS. Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000; Yakovlev MVKS.
  • MVKS specification issued - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Tu-2000; Yakovlev MVKS; VKS. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space.

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