Encyclopedia Astronautica
Zenit-2



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Zenit-2
Zenit in assembly hall
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency
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Zenit-2
Zenit pad at Baikonur
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency
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Zenit LV
Credit: © Mark Wade
Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union.

LEO Payload: 13,740 kg (30,290 lb) to a 200 km orbit at 51.40 degrees. Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) to a 800 km SSO. Failures: 6. Success Rate: 82.86%. First Fail Date: 1985-04-13. Last Fail Date: 1997-05-20. Launch Price $: 45.000 million in 1994 dollars.

Stage Data - Zenit-2

  • Stage 1. 1 x Zenit-1. Gross Mass: 354,300 kg (781,000 lb). Empty Mass: 28,600 kg (63,000 lb). Thrust (vac): 8,181.129 kN (1,839,191 lbf). Isp: 337 sec. Burn time: 150 sec. Isp(sl): 311 sec. Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Span: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Length: 32.90 m (107.90 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-171. Status: In Production. Comments: Modification of same stage used as strap-on for Energia launch vehicle.
  • Stage 2. 1 x Zenit-2. Gross Mass: 90,600 kg (199,700 lb). Empty Mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust (vac): 912.000 kN (205,025 lbf). Isp: 349 sec. Burn time: 315 sec. Isp(sl): 0.0000 sec. Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Span: 3.90 m (12.70 ft). Length: 11.50 m (37.70 ft). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene. No Engines: 1. Engine: RD-120. Status: In Production.

AKA: SL-16; 11K77; J-1.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 459,000 kg (1,011,000 lb).
Payload: 13,740 kg (30,290 lb).
Height: 57.00 m (187.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft).
Thrust: 7,300.00 kN (1,641,100 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1985.04.13.
Last Launch: 2004.06.10.
Number: 35 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • MicroSat SSTL British technology satellite. 3 launches, 1981.10.06 (CERISE) to 1990.01.22 (Oscar 14). Original version of the Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406). More...
  • OK-M Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. 1980's design for a spaceplane, smaller than Buran, to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks. More...
  • Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Koltso Russian military target satellite. One launch, 1986.10.22, Cosmos 1786. Calibration mission. Tentatively identified as third generation replacement for Taifun-2, perhaps to have been launched by the Tsyklon 3 launch vehicle. More...
  • Orlets-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1986.10.22 (GVM) to 2000.09.25 (Cosmos 2372). More...
  • Uragan Space Interceptor Russian manned combat spacecraft. 2 launches, 1987.08.01 (Cosmos 1871) to 1987.08.28 (Cosmos 1873). Russian sources continue to maintain that the Uragan manned spaceplane project never existed. More...
  • Badr Pakistani communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1990.07.16 (Badr-A) to 2008.07.07 (Badr B). Pakistani experimental series with a variety of payloads. More...
  • Tubsat German communications technology satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Tubsat-A) to 2007.01.10 (Maroc-Tubsat). Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. More...
  • Gurwin Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.03.28 (Gurwin 1) and 1998.07.10 (Gurwin Techsat 1B). Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel. More...
  • GFZ-1 German earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1995.04.19 (GFZ-1) and 1998.07.10 (WESTPAC). GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. More...
  • Globalstar American communications satellite. 72 launches, 1998.02.14 (Globalstar FM1) to 2007.10.20 (Globalstar D). The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications. More...
  • Safir German civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 1998.07.10. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen. More...
  • VKK Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1998. A Russian concept of the 1990's harking back to Chelomei's Raketoplan of three decades earlier. A manned aircraft would be protected during launch and re-entry by an expendable aeroshell heat shield. More...
  • Okean-O Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1999.07.17. More...
  • Reflektor Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The 8 kg Reflektor was built by NII KP in Russia for space debris studies in a joint experiment with the Air Force Research Lab. More...
  • Meteor-3M Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. More...
  • Kompas Russian earth seismology satellite. 2 launches, 2001.12.10 (Kompas) and 2006.05.26 (Kompas). More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-8 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 78.4 kN. Zenit stage 2 attitude control engine. In Production. Isp=342s. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine operated in a staged combustion scheme with afterburning of the generator gas. Development began in 1976. More...

See also
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Programs
  • Fasat Test satellite built by Surrey Satellite for the Chilean Air Force. More...
  • Orlets Sixth-generation reconnaisance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited. More...
  • Resurs Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. More...
  • TMSAT Uosat Microbus-class payload built by Surrey Satellite for the Thai Microsatellite Company of Bangkok. Conducted a dual Earth observation and data communications mission. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • Zenit-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 354,300/28,600 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Modification of same stage used as strap-on for Energia launch vehicle. More...
  • Zenit-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,600/9,000 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. More...

Zenit-2 Chronology


1976 March 16 - . LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Zenit launch vehicle authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Creation of a Universal Space Missile Complex 11K77 'Zenit'--approval of work on the Zenit launcher' was issued..

1985 April 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • R&D suborbital Zenit launch vehicle test failure - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS.

1985 June 21 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. Launch Pad: LC45/pad?. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Zenit launch vehicle test - . Payload: Mass Model. Nation: USSR. Agency: VKS. Program: Tselina. Decay Date: 1985-06-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 15842 . COSPAR: 1985-053A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Intended to be suborbital, but some debris reached orbit. Rocket debris decayed by 6/28/85..

1985 October 22 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1697 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 3 (Mass Model). Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 16181 . COSPAR: 1985-097A. Apogee: 853 km (530 mi). Perigee: 843 km (523 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Summary: First launch of new Tselina-2 ELINT satellite on Zenit-2 launch vehicle..

1985 December 28 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. Launch Pad: LC45/pad?. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage failed to ignite. Partial Failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Cosmos 1714 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. Decay Date: 1986-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 16434 . COSPAR: 1985-121A. Apogee: 850 km (520 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Summary: Tselina-2 ELINT satellite placed in unusable orbit due to second stage failure..

1986 July 30 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1767 - . Payload: Mass Model. Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Decay Date: 1986-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 16883 . COSPAR: 1986-056A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Instrumented Tselina-2 mock-up, with mass to test maximum payload capacity of Zenit launch vehicle. Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1986 October 22 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1786 - . Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Koltso. Decay Date: 1988-03-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 17042 . COSPAR: 1986-080A. Apogee: 1,054 km (654 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 96.70 min. Summary: Radar calibration mission..
  • GVM - . Payload: Orlets-2 Mass Model. Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Orlets. Spacecraft: Orlets-2. Decay Date: 1988-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 17043 . COSPAR: 1986-080B. Apogee: 2,501 km (1,554 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 112.53 min. Summary: Mass model of Orlets-2 reconnaissance satellite..

1987 February 14 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1820 - . Payload: Orlets-2 Mass Model. Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Orlets. Spacecraft: Orlets-2. Decay Date: 1987-03-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 17523 . COSPAR: 1987-016A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Launch vehicle test. Mass model of Orlets-2 reconnaissance satellite..

1987 March 18 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1833 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 5 (Mass Model). Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 17589 . COSPAR: 1987-027A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1987 May 13 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1844 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 6. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 17973 . COSPAR: 1987-041A. Apogee: 851 km (528 mi). Perigee: 844 km (524 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1987 August 1 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1871 - . Payload: Uragan boilerplate or Orlets-2 Mass Model. Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-08-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 18259 . COSPAR: 1987-065A. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 97.0000 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Summary: Considered by some observors as possible spite test of Uragan space interceptor boilerplate mass model, just prior to project cancellation.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1987 August 28 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1873 - . Payload: Uragan boilerplate or Orlets-2 Mass Model. Mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 18318 . COSPAR: 1987-071A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Considered by some observors as possible spite test of Uragan space interceptor boilerplate mass model, just prior to project cancellation.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1987 September - . LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Uragan spaceplane allegedly cancelled - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Uragan Space Interceptor. Uragan was said to have been cancelled before the first flight of the Buran shuttle. Possibly the cancellation of US Shuttle polar orbit military missions from Vandenberg after the Challenger explosion eliminated the space interceptor's mission. Or perhaps it never existed and was merely the subject of a very successful disinformation campaign. Adding even more confusion is that it is now known that at least two spaceplanes - Chelomei's LKS, for launch on Proton, and Molniya's OK-M, for launch on Zenit, were being designed concurrently with Buran. And the official history of the MiG OKB, states cryptically that after completion of the 105-11 flight tests development of the spaceplane continued....

1988 May 15 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1943 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 7. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 19119 . COSPAR: 1988-039A. Apogee: 851 km (528 mi). Perigee: 837 km (520 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.80 min.

1988 November 23 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 1980 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 8. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 19649 . COSPAR: 1988-102A. Apogee: 849 km (527 mi). Perigee: 841 km (522 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.80 min.

1990 May 22 - . 05:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/2. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2082 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 9. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 20624 . COSPAR: 1990-046A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1990 October 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/2. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: First stage engine exploded after 3 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 10. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. COSPAR: F901004A.

1991 August 30 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage exploded due to heating problems in main engine.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 11. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. COSPAR: F910830A.

1992 February 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction due to heating problems in main engine.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Tselina-2 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 12. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: UNKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. COSPAR: F920205A.

1992 November 17 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2219 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 13. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22219 . COSPAR: 1992-076A. Apogee: 854 km (530 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1992 December 25 - . 05:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2227 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 14. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22284 . COSPAR: 1992-093A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1993 March 26 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2237 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 15. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22565 . COSPAR: 1993-016A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1993 September 16 - . 07:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2263 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 16. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22802 . COSPAR: 1993-059A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1994 April 23 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2278 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 17. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23087 . COSPAR: 1994-023A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1994 August 26 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2290 - . Payload: Orlets-2 no. 1. Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Orlets. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-2. Decay Date: 1995-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 23218 . COSPAR: 1994-053A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.25 min. Summary: Only flight of Orlets-2 long-duration military reconnaissance satellite with 22 film-return capsules..

1994 November 4 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 3 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 3. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 23342 . COSPAR: 1994-074A. Apogee: 663 km (411 mi). Perigee: 660 km (410 mi). Inclination: 98.0300 deg. Period: 97.98 min. Studied natural resources. It carried the German Safir-R1 communications experiment as a secondary attached payload. Expected life 3 to 5 years. The spacecraft mass of 1,907 kg was slightly higher than earlier models. The principal Earth observation sensors were MSU-SK and MSU-E instruments along with an experimental PVM-E local vertical sensor .

1994 November 24 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2297 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 18. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23404 . COSPAR: 1994-077A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0100 deg. Period: 101.96 min.

1995 October 31 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2322 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 19. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23704 . COSPAR: 1995-058A. Apogee: 854 km (530 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1996 September 4 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2333 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 20. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 24297 . COSPAR: 1996-051A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 849 km (527 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Summary: New heavy ELINT class..

1997 May 20 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Strut in first stage engine failed at T+48 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Heavy ELINT - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 21. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. COSPAR: F970520A.

1998 July 10 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 4 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 4. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: VNIIEM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 25394 . COSPAR: 1998-043A. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. In addition to its remote sensing equipment, the satellite carried the Belgian LLMS (Little LEO Messaging System) communications payload for the IRIS system. The launch was critical in restoring confidence in the Zenit vehicle prior to planned commercial launches of Globalstar satellites from Baikonur and the first Sea Launch flights using a three-stage Zenit from a California-based floating launch platform. Expected life 3 to 5 years.
  • Gurwin Techsat 1B - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Technion. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gurwin. USAF Sat Cat: 25397 . COSPAR: 1998-043D. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 817 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Built by Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. Replaced earlier Russian-launched Techsat which failed to orbit in 1995..
  • WESTPAC - . Mass: 24 kg (52 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: WPLTN. Manufacturer: RKA; EOS. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: GFZ-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25398 . COSPAR: 1998-043E. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Formerly known as WPLTN-1, this geodesy satellite was a copy of Potsdam's GFZ-1 satellite, a sphere covered with laser retroreflectors, with a different `Fizeau' corner cube design. It serves as a target for the Western Pacific Laser Tracking Network (WPLTN) and is a joint project of Electro Optic Systems of Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia, and the Russian Space Agency. Diameter is 0.24m.
  • SAFIR-2 - . Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Safir. USAF Sat Cat: 25399 . COSPAR: 1998-043F. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Summary: Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen..
  • Fasat-Bravo - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Chile. Agency: FACh. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Fasat. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 25395 . COSPAR: 1998-043B. Apogee: 820 km (500 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Customer: Chilean Air Force (FACH). Chile's second satellite carrying store and forward and Earth observation payloads, replacing those lost on FASat-Alpha. Still operational as of 2000.. Additional Details: here....
  • TMSAT - . Payload: Thai-Paht. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Thailand. Agency: FACh. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: TMSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 25396 . COSPAR: 1998-043C. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 816 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Customer: Thailand (Thai Microsatellite Company and MUT). Thailand's first microsatellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward and Earth observation payloads. Still operational as of 2000. Additional Details: here....

1998 July 28 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2360 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 22. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 25406 . COSPAR: 1998-045A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1999 July 17 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 17L.
  • Okean-O - . Payload: Okean-O no. 1. Mass: 4,360 kg (9,610 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O. USAF Sat Cat: 25860 . COSPAR: 1999-039A. Apogee: 649 km (403 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. First of a new generation of larger Okean oceanographic satellites, carried a side-looking radar (RSL-BO), and a set of visible and infrared scanners and radiometers. It is built by the Ukrainian Yuzhnoye company and is a joint project of the Russian Aviation/Space Agency (RAKA) and the Ukrainian National Space Agency (NKAU).

2000 February 3 - . 09:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 45025801.
  • Cosmos 2369 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 26069 . COSPAR: 2000-006A. Apogee: 860 km (534 mi). Perigee: 849 km (528 mi). Inclination: 70.9965 deg. Period: 101.95 min. Summary: ELINT satellite..

2000 September 25 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2372 - . Mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-2. Duration: 269.00 days. Decay Date: 2001-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 26538 . COSPAR: 2000-056A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 64.7770 deg. Period: 89.97 min. Summary: Reported code name Yenisey. It is speculated that this is an improved version of the Orlets satellite launched as Cosmos 2290 in 1994. Re-entered on Apr 20, 2001 after a 7 month mission..

2001 December 10 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 19L (1381573091).
  • Meteor-3M - . Payload: Meteor 3M-N1. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: VNIIEM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-3M. USAF Sat Cat: 27001 . COSPAR: 2001-056A. Apogee: 1,014 km (630 mi). Perigee: 994 km (617 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 105.20 min. Meteorology satellite. Launch postponed from late 2000, then delayed from November 30. The Meteor-3M weather satellite carried visible and IR sensors as well as NASA's SAGE III instrument which studied aerosols and the ozone layer. This was the first launched of a modernised version of the spacecraft. Launch be Zenit launch vehicle from Baikonur rather than Tsyklon 3 from Plesetsk allowed the spacecraft to be 350 kg heavier, carrying additional sensors and various piggy-back payloads.
  • Reflektor - . Mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: NII KP. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Reflektor. USAF Sat Cat: 27005 . COSPAR: 2001-056E. Apogee: 1,012 km (628 mi). Perigee: 985 km (612 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. The 8 kg Reflektor was built by NII KP in Russia for space debris studies in a joint experiment with the Air Force Research Lab. The satellite consisted of of four triangular fins on a square base plus a deployable boom, with an array of laser retroreflectors. The satellite was 1.4 m long and 0.5 m wide but only 6 kg in mass. It will be used to calibrate laser imaging systems and other optical sensors.
  • Kompas - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Makeyev. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: Kompas. USAF Sat Cat: 27002 . COSPAR: 2001-056B. Apogee: 1,013 km (629 mi). Perigee: 985 km (612 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. The Russian Kompas satellite, built by Makeyev for the IZMIRAN geophysics institute, was an 80 kg satellite with a magnetometer and other sensors designed to attempt prediction of earthquakes. The satellite was originally built for use on the Shtil rocket.
  • Badr B - . Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: Pakistan. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: SIL. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Badr. USAF Sat Cat: 27003 . COSPAR: 2001-056C. Apogee: 1,014 km (630 mi). Perigee: 985 km (612 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. Summary: Badr B was Pakistan's second satellite. Built in collaboration with the English company SIL, it had a mass of 70 kg and carried an Earth imager..
  • Maroc-Tubsat - . Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Nation: Morocco. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: TuB. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. USAF Sat Cat: 27004 . COSPAR: 2001-056D. Apogee: 1,014 km (630 mi). Perigee: 985 km (612 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 105.10 min. Maroc-Tubsat was built by the Technical University of Berlin for the Centre Royal de Teledetection Spatiale, Morocco, and had a mass of 47 kg. It carried an imager and a store-forward communications test payload. The satellite measured 32x34x36,2 cm and was still in operation as of 2003.

2004 June 10 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 1-95.
  • Cosmos 2406 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 28352 . COSPAR: 2004-021A. Apogee: 866 km (538 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Delayed from February 17 and 18; March 17 and 31; April 6, 25 and 26..

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