Encyclopedia Astronautica
APL


American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD, Laurel, Maryland, USA.

Location: Laurel, Maryland.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Durrance Durrance, Dr Samuel Thornton 'Sam' (1943-) American geophysicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-35, STS-67. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Transit American navigation satellite. 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). The Transit Navigation System began development in 1958. More...
  • Anna American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1962.05.10 (Anna 1A) and 1962.10.31 (Anna 1B). More...
  • APL American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's. More...
  • GEOS American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1965.11.06 (Explorer 29) to 1975.04.09 (Geos 3). The GEOS spacecraft were gravity-gradient-stabilized, solar-cell powered satellites designed exclusively for geodetic studies. More...
  • DME American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1965.11.29, Explorer 31. Explorer 31, the Direct Measurement Explorer, was launched with a Canadian Alouette II on November 28, 1965, on a Thor-Agena rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. More...
  • DODGE American gravity gradient technology satellite. One launch, 1967.07.01. The Navy's 195 kg DODGE (Department Of Defense Gravity Experiment) satellite had the primary mission to explore gravity gradient stabilization at near synchronous altitude. More...
  • TIP American navigation satellite. 6 launches, 1972.09.02 (Triad 1) to 1988.06.16 (Nova 2). More...
  • Geosat American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1985.03.13. Geosat was a US Navy satellite designed to measure sea surface heights to within 5 cm. More...
  • Polar Bear American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity. More...
  • NEAR American asteroid probe. One launch, 1996.02.17. NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) was the first spacecraft ever to orbit and then (improvisationally) land on an asteroid. More...
  • MSX American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1996.04.24. More...
  • ACE American solar satellite. One launch, 1997.08.25. More...
  • Messenger American Mercury probe. One launch, 2004.08.03. NASA probe, launched in 2004 with the challenging mission of comprehensively mapping Mercury from orbit between March 2011 and March 2012. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Cobra-BTV American test vehicle, part of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program that led to the operational Talos ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile in the 1950's. More...
  • Bumblebee STV American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. More...
  • Bumblebee STV American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. More...
  • Triton US Navy ship- and sub-to-surface cruise ramjet-powered supersonic missile. Development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1957. More...
  • Taurus RGM-59 American tactical ballistic missile to provide US Navy ships with a long range surface-to-surface capability. Development began 1961; cancelled 1965. More...

Associated Programs
  • Discovery The Discovery program was begun by NASA in the early 1990s as the planetary counterpart to the Explorer program. More...

APL Chronology


1946 July 30 - . 19:36 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 9.
  • Chemical release / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi). Summary: Launched 12:40 local time. Reached 161.9 km. Carried cosmic radiation, ionosphere (Naval Research Lab); and biological (Harvard) experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1946 October 24 - . 19:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 13.
  • Solar ultraviolet / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Launched 12:18 local time. Reached 104.8 km. Carried cosmic and soalr radiaiton, winds, photography experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University. The John Hopkins camera took motion pictures of the earth at over 100 km altitude (pictures covered 100,000 square km.)

1946 December 18 - . 05:12 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17.
  • CR / Grenades Chemical release / meteor test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Summary: Launched 22:18 local time. Reached 183.9 km. Carried cosmic radiation, meteorites; biological (National Institute of Health) experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1947 April 1 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 22.
  • Solar ultraviolet / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi). Summary: Launched 13:10 local time. Reached 129.5 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, photo experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1947 April 9 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 23.
  • Solar ultraviolet / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi). Summary: Launched 17:13 local time. Reached 102.4 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, photo experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1947 July 30 - . 00:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 30.
  • Chemical release / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi). Summary: Launched 05:55 local time. Reached 161.1 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, photo experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1947 September 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A1.
  • Dummy launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Summary: Dummy firing, no upper-air research experiment..

1947 October 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A2.
  • Dummy launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Summary: Dummy firing, no upper-air research experiment..

1947 October 31 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A3.
  • Dummy launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Summary: Dummy firing, no upper-air research experiment..

1947 November 24 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A4. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Particles Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 56 km (34 mi). Summary: Dummy firing, no upper-air research experiment. First complete Aerobee rocket was fired to a height of 190,000 feet from White Sands Proving Ground, N. Mex..

1948 March 5 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A5.
  • Particles Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 118 km (73 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation research. Launched at 1020 local time. Reached 117.5 km..

1948 April 13 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A6.
  • B field Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi). Summary: Magnetic field research. Launched at 1551 local time. Reached 114.3 km..

1948 May 27 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 35.
  • Solar ultraviolet / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi). Summary: Launched 07:16 local time. Reached 140 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, photo, composition (Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan) experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1948 July 26 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A7.
  • Earth imaging mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 113 km (70 mi). Photography research. Launched at 1441 local time. Reached 112.7 km. Two separate rockets fired from White Sands, one a V-2 which reached an altitude of 87 km, the other a Navy Aerobee which reached an altitude of 112.7 km, carried cameras which photographed the curvature of the earth.

1948 July 26 - . 18:03 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 40.
  • Chemical release / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 97 km (60 mi). Launched 11:03 local time. Reached 87.1 km. Carried cosmic radiation, photo, pressure, temperature experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University. Fired from White Sands simultaneous with a Navy Aerobee which reached an altitude of 110 km. Both carried cameras which photographed the curvature of the earth.

1948 November 2 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A8.
  • CR / Solar Particles / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation, solar radiation research. Launched at 0947 local time. Reached 91 km..

1949 February 17 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 48.
  • Chemical release / solar extreme ultraviolet / biology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; APL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Launched 10:00 local time. Reached 100.8 km. Carried cosmic and solar radiation, photo (Naval Research Lab); composition (Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan); biological experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University..

1949 March 1 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A9. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ship launch test - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Summary: Dummy firing, no upper-air research experiment. Launched at 1715 local time..

1949 March 17 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 11.1 S x 88.4 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A10.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation, magnetic field research. Reached 104.6 km. Launched from from vessel ACM1 at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 1-1 - Latitude: 10.80 S, Longitude:89.23 W..

1949 March 22 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 11.1 S x 88.4 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A11.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation, magnetic field research. Launched at 1730 GMT. Reached 104.6 km. Launched by vessel AVM1 from Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 1-2 - Latitude: 11.10 S, Longitude:88.43 W..

1949 March 24 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 11.3 S x 82.1 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A12. FAILURE: Sustainer took off without booster..
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi). Cosmic radiation, magnetic field research. Launched at 1514 GMT. A pressure valve defect resulted in the sustainer taking off without the booster; reached 6 km. Launched from vessel ACM1 Norton Sound at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 1-3 - Latitude: 11.27 S, Longitude:82.13 W.

1949 June 17 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A13.
  • Classified mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Summary: Classified flight. Launched at 0450 local time. Reached 88.5 km..

1949 June 23 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-8. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-8 A14.
  • CR / Solar Particles / solar x-ray / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation, solar radiation research. Launched at 1621 local time. Reached 88.5 km..

1950 January 15 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Bering Sea. Launch Pad: 58.0 N x 170.0 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A15.
  • Particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation research. Launched at 2345 GMT. Reached 72.4 km. Launched from from vessel ACM1 at Bering Sea Launch Site 1 (APL Aerobee/Norton Sound) - Latitude: 58.00 N, Longitude:170.00 W..

1950 January 18 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Bering Sea. Launch Pad: 50.0 N x 170.0 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A16.
  • Particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation research. Launched at 2317 GMT. Reached 80.5 km. Launched from from vessel ACM1 at Bering Sea Launch Site 2 (APL Aerobee/Norton Sound) - Latitude: 50.00 N, Longitude:170.00 W..

1950 May 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A17.
  • Particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Summary: Cosmic radiation research. Launched at 0530 local time. Reached 88.1 km..

1950 August 17 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A18.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 101 km (62 mi). Summary: Composition research. Launched at 0845 local time. Reached 101.4 km..

1951 January 22 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A19.
  • Mass spectrometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Summary: Composition research. Launched at 1555 local time. Reached 88.5 km..

1951 January 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A20.
  • Ozone Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Solar radiation research. Launched at 0800 local time. Reached 90.1 km..

1951 February 6 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee RTV-N-10. LV Configuration: Aerobee RTV-N-10 A21.
  • Earth photography Imaging mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: APL. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi). Summary: Photography research. Launched at 1020 local time. Reached 98.2 km..

1997 January 31 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12. LV Configuration: MR-12 AGRE (D75MG).
  • Flaksus-1 (Fluxus) Plasma/Active mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN; APL. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1997 February 5 - . 02:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12. LV Configuration: MR-12 AGRE (D75MG).
  • Flaksus-2 Plasma/Active mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AN; APL. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1997 August 25 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-8. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-8 D247.
  • ACE - . Payload: ACE. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Manufacturer: APL. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ACE. USAF Sat Cat: 24912 . COSPAR: 1997-045A. Apogee: 128,196 km (79,657 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Period: 86,411.37 min. Summary: Earth-Sun L1 point.

2002 July 3 - . 06:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. Launch Pad: SLC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7425-9.5. LV Configuration: Delta 7425-9.5 D292 / Star 30.
  • Contour - . Payload: Discovery 6. Mass: 1,005 kg (2,215 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; Cornell. Manufacturer: APL. Program: Discovery. Class: Comet. Type: Comet probe. Spacecraft: Contour. USAF Sat Cat: 27457 . COSPAR: 2002-034A. Apogee: 108,614 km (67,489 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 30.6000 deg. Period: 2,486.10 min. Launch delayed from July 1st. The latest NASA Discovery mission was successfully launched on Jul 3. The CONTOUR (Comet Nucleus Tour) probe, built and operated by the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), began its five year mission to explore three comets, using repeated encounters with the earth to modify its orbit in order to reach each target. The first burn of the second stage completed at 0659 UTC putting the spacecraft in a 185 x 197 km x 29.7 deg parking orbit. At 0746 UTC the second stage restarted for a short 4s burn to 185 x 309 km x 29.7 deg, and then separated once the PAM-D (ATK Star 48B) solid third stage was spun up. The 1.5 minute burn of the third stage motor at 0748 UTC put it and CONTOUR in a 90 x 106689 km x 30.5 deg phasing orbit. By July 8 CONTOUR's orbit was 214 x 106686 km x 29.8 deg. CONTOUR stayed in this phasing orbit until August 15, when it was injected into solar orbit using its internal ATK Star 30 solid motor. Flyby of the first target, comet 2P/Encke, was scheduled for Nov 2003.

2004 August 3 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925H D307.
  • Messenger - . Payload: Discovery 8. Mass: 1,066 kg (2,350 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: APL. Program: Discovery. Class: Mercury. Type: Mercury probe. Spacecraft: Messenger. USAF Sat Cat: 28391 . COSPAR: 2004-030A. The NASA Messenger probe to Mercury was was first placed into a parking orbit. The Delta booster second stage's second burn raised the orbit, then the PAM-D solid motor burned to put the probe on an escape trajectory into a 0.92 x 1.08 AU x 6.4 deg heliocentric orbit. Messenger (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging) was to make an Earth flyby on August 1, 2005; Venus flybys in 2006 and 2007; and Mercury encounters in January and October 2008 , September 2009 and March 2011 . On this last encounter the Aerojet 660N engine was to fire to put Messenger into a 200 x 15,193 km x 80 deg orbit around Mercury. Launch delayed from March 10, May 11, August 2

2006 January 19 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. Launch Pad: SLC41. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 551. LV Configuration: Atlas V 551 AV-010 / Star-48.
  • New Horizons - . Mass: 478 kg (1,053 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Manufacturer: APL. Class: Outer planets. Type: Outer planets probe. Spacecraft: New Horizons. USAF Sat Cat: 28928 . COSPAR: 2006-001A. Last robotic mission to an unexplored planet in our solar system. New Horizons was due to receive a gravity boost from Jupiter in February 2007, then fly by Pluto in 2015. During launch toward Jupiter it reached a higher velocity than any manmade object, and was the first to be boosted directly to solar escape velocity. The trajectory had a perihelion of 0.98 AU, an inclination of 0.87 deg and an eccentricity of 1.03. After the Jupiter encounter it was to have a perihelion of 2.2 AU, an inclination of 2.3 deg and an eccentricity of 1.40. At encounter with Pluto on July 14, 2015, the spacecraft would be 1.1 AU above the ecliptic plane and 32.9 AU from the Sun, leaving the solar system toward the star Xi Sgr.

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