Encyclopedia Astronautica
MOM


Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia.

Location: Moscow.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Zenit-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 81 launches, 1961.12.11 (Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1) to 1970.05.12 (Cosmos 344). The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite. More...
  • Almaz APOS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • Molniya-1 Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. More...
  • Meteor Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960. More...
  • N-4 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1965.07.16 (Proton 1) to 1966.07.06 (Proton 3). Physics experiments. Space station "Proton 1". Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. More...
  • Venera 3MV-4 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1965.11.12 (Venera 2) to 1965.11.23 (Cosmos 96). Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. More...
  • Venera 3MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1965.11.16, Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. More...
  • Luna E-6LF Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.08.24 (Luna 11) to 1966.10.22 (Luna 12). Photographed lunar surface and orbital space environment in preparation for manned missions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions. More...
  • Luna E-6LS Russian lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1967.05.17 (Cosmos 159) to 1968.04.07 (Luna 14). The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. More...
  • Venera 1V (V-67) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1967.06.12 (Venera 4) to 1967.06.17 (Cosmos 167). Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. More...
  • Nauka Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 45 launches, 1968.03.21 (Nauka) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122 Nauka). The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose. More...
  • Zenit-2M Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1968.03.21 (Cosmos 208) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • Zenit-4M Russian military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1968.10.31 (Cosmos 251) to 1974.07.25 (Cosmos 667). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • N-6 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1968.11.16, Proton 4. Cosmic ray measurements. Study of the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Mass announced at time of launch 17,000 kg. More...
  • Venera 2V (V-69) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1969.01.05 (Venera 6) to 1969.01.10 (Venera 6). Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design. More...
  • Luna Ye-8 Russian lunar rover. 3 launches, 1969.02.19 (Ye-8 s/n 201) to 1973.01.08 (Luna 21). More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-5 Russian lunar lander. 11 launches, 1969.06.14 (Ye-8-5 VA) to 1975.10.16 (Luna 24). Unmanned lunar soil sample return. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1E Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.11.28 (Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 382). Modification of Soyuz circumlunar configuration used in propulsion tests of the Block D stage. More...
  • Zenit-4MK Russian military surveillance satellite. 80 launches, 1969.12.23 (Cosmos 317) to 1977.06.22 (Cosmos 920). Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry). More...
  • Venera 3V (V-70) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. More...
  • LK Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. More...
  • Tselina-D Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. More...
  • Salyut 1 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1971.04.19 (Salyut 1) and 1972.07.29 (Zarya s/n 122). Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station. More...
  • Soyuz 7KT-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel. More...
  • Mars M-71 Russian Mars lander. 3 launches, 1971.05.10 (Cosmos 419) to 1971.05.28 (Mars 3). Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-LS Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.09.28 (Luna 19) to 1974.05.29 (Luna 22). Lunar surface mapping. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Investigation of the moon and near-lunar space from the orbit of an artificial satellite. More...
  • Molniya-2 Russian communications satellite. 20 launches, 1971.11.24 (Molniya 2-01) to 2005.06.21 (Molniya 2-17). Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system. More...
  • Zenit-4MT Russian military surveillance satellite. 23 launches, 1971.12.27 (Cosmos 470) to 1982.08.03 (Cosmos 1398). Special version of Zenit developed for topographical photography. This was developed by OKB-1 Filial 1 based on the Zenit-4M. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-72) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.27 (Venera 8) to 1972.03.31 (Cosmos 482). Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. More...
  • Energia Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.07 (Intercosmos 6) to 1978.07.02 (Cosmos 1026). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. More...
  • Prognoz Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1972.04.14 (Prognoz 1) to 1985.04.26 (Intercosmos 23). This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was launched from 1972 for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. More...
  • Almaz OPS-2 Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T Russian manned spacecraft. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). More...
  • Oko Russian military early warning satellite. 86 launches, 1972.09.19 (Cosmos 520) to 2010.09.30. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches. More...
  • Almaz Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Chelomei's Almaz space station was designed to conduct orbital research into the usefulness of manned observation of the earth. More...
  • Almaz OPS Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown. More...
  • Salyut 4 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations. More...
  • Mars M-73 Russian Mars lander. 4 launches, 1973.07.21 (Mars 4) to 1973.08.09 (Mars 7). The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions. More...
  • Bion Russian biology satellite. 11 launches, 1973.10.31 (Cosmos 605) to 1996.12.24 (Bion No. 11). Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation. More...
  • Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.03.26. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TM Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. More...
  • Yantar-2K Russian military surveillance satellite. 30 launches, 1974.05.23 (Yantar-2K failure.) to 1983.06.28 (Cosmos 1471). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T/A9 Russian manned spacecraft. 8 launches, 1974.05.27 (Cosmos 656) to 1978.06.27 (Soyuz 30). Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system. More...
  • Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-S Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-5M Russian lunar lander. 4 launches, 1974.10.28 (Luna 23) to 1976.08.09 (Luna 24 Return Vehicle). Lunar sample return. Conduct of further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. More...
  • Molniya-3 Russian communications satellite. 55 launches, 1974.11.21 (Molniya 3-01) to 2003.06.19 (Molniya 3-53). Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974. More...
  • Venera 4V-1 Russian Venus probe. 6 launches, 1975.06.08 (Venera 9) to 1981.11.04 (Venera 14). More...
  • Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs. More...
  • Zenit-4MKT Russian military surveillance satellite. 27 launches, 1975.09.25 (Cosmos 771) to 1985.09.06 (Cosmos 1681). The Zenit-4MKT / Fram was an adaptation of the recoverable Vostok spacecraft for reconnaissance/remote sensing missions. More...
  • Prognoz SPRN Russian military early warning satellite. 15 launches, 1975.10.08 (Cosmos 775) to 2008.06.26 (Cosmos 2397). Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980. More...
  • Molniya-1T Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 Russian manned spacecraft. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission. More...
  • Ekran Russian communications satellite. 21 launches, 1976.10.26 (Ekran 1) to 1988.05.06 (Ekran 18). Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. More...
  • Zenit-6U Russian military surveillance satellite. 95 launches, 1976.11.24 (Cosmos 867) to 1984.06.19 (Cosmos 1573). A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. More...
  • Zenit-4MKM Russian military surveillance satellite. 39 launches, 1977.07.12 (Cosmos 927) to 1980.10.10 (Cosmos 1214). A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978. More...
  • TKS Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). More...
  • Salyut 6 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1977.09.29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth. More...
  • Progress Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. More...
  • Soyuz T Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. More...
  • Gorizont Russian communications satellite. 35 launches, 1978.12.19 (Gorizont 1) to 2000.06.06 (Gorizont). Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. More...
  • Astrofizika Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1978.12.23, Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth. More...
  • Yantar-4K1 Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1979.04.27. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth. More...
  • KRT-10 Soviet . One launch, 1979.06.28. 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir. More...
  • Resurs F1-17F41 Russian earth land resources satellite. 29 launches, 1979.09.05 (Cosmos 1127) to 1986.05.28 (Cosmos 1746). The 17F41 was the first of 4 models of the Resurs-F to fly. More...
  • Resurs-OE Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1980.06.18 (Meteor 1-30) to 1983.07.24 (Cosmos 1484). Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1. More...
  • Yantar-1KFT Russian military surveillance satellite. 21 launches, 1981.02.18 (Cosmos 1246) to 2005.09.02 (Cosmos 2415). Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army. More...
  • Iskra Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 3 launches, 1981.07.10 (Iskra) to 1982.11.18 (Iskra 3). Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications. More...
  • IK-B-1300 Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1981.08.07, Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. More...
  • Salyut 7 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1982.04.19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. More...
  • Astrozond Soviet earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1982.09.18. More...
  • Yantar-4KS1 Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28. More...
  • Astron Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.03.23. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission. More...
  • Venera 4V-2 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1983.06.02 (Venera 15) to 1983.06.07 (Venera 16). Venera radar mappers which used an 8 cm band side-looking radar to study the surface properties of Venus. More...
  • Efir Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1984.03.10 (Cosmos 1543) to 1985.12.27 (Cosmos 1713). Science. Adaptation of the Vostok spacecraft. More...
  • Zenit-8 Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1984.06.11 (Cosmos 1571) to 1994.06.07 (Cosmos 2281). More...
  • Vega 5VK Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1984.12.15 (Vega 1) to 1984.12.21 (Vega 2). The Vega 5VK spacecraft was designed for a mission combining a flyby of the planet Venus followed by an encounter with Halley's Comet. More...
  • Foton Russian materials science satellite. 15 launches, 1985.04.16 (Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1) to 2007.09.14 (Foton M-2). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments. More...
  • Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Luch Russian military communications satellite. 5 launches, 1985.10.25 (Cosmos 1700) to 1995.10.11 (Luch 1). More...
  • Mir Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. More...
  • Resurs F1-14F40 Russian earth land resources satellite. 7 launches, 1986.07.16 (Cosmos 1762) to 1988.02.18 (Cosmos 1920). The Resurs-F earth resource satellite was based on the recoverable Zenit-4 spy satellite. More...
  • Almaz-T Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. 3 launches, 1986.11.29 (Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure) to 1991.03.31 (Almaz 1). The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense. More...
  • Ekran-M Russian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1987.01.30 (Cosmos 1817) to 2001.04.07 (Ekran-M No. 18). Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). More...
  • Kvant Russian manned space station. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. More...
  • Resurs F2 Russian earth land resources satellite. 11 launches, 1987.12.26 (Cosmos 1906) to 1995.09.26 (Resurs F2 N.10). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing. More...
  • Resurs F1-14F43 Russian earth land resources satellite. 18 launches, 1988.05.31 (Cosmos 1951) to 1993.08.24 (Resurs F-19). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Etalon Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. More...
  • Pion Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1989.05.25 (Pion) to 1992.08.19 (Pion 2). Deployed from Resurs F1, which carried two passive separable "Pion" probes to investigate upper atmospheric density. More...
  • Raduga-1 Russian communications satellite. 8 launches, 1989.06.21 (Raduga 1-1) to 2007.12.09 (Raduga-1). The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. More...
  • Orlets-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 8 launches, 1989.07.18 (Cosmos 2031) to 2006.09.14 (Cosmos 2423). Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. More...
  • Kvant-2 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station. More...
  • Granat Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.12.01. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV. More...
  • Kristall Russian manned space station. One launch, 1990.05.31. Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990 More...
  • Gamma Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.07.11. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Mak Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Znamya Russian . One launch, 1992.10.27. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station. More...
  • Gals Russian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1994.01.20 (Gals) and 1995.11.17 (Gals-2). Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. More...
  • Elektro Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 1994.10.31. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. More...
  • Spektr Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.05.20. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. More...
  • Prognoz-M Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1995.08.02 (Interbol 1) to 1996.08.29 (Interbol 2). Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's. More...
  • Meridian Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Operational, first launch 2006.12.24. More...

See also
  • Agency Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems. More...

Associated Flights
  • Voskhod 2 Crew: Belyayev, Leonov. First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Zaikin. More...
  • Soyuz 1 Crew: Komarov. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 was to dock with Soyuz 2 and transfer crew. Instead Soyuz 1 solar panel didn't deploy; manual reentry; tangled parachute lines; astronaut killed on impact with earth. Backup crew: Gagarin. More...
  • Soyuz 3 Crew: Beregovoi. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock, blamed on manual control by cosmonaut who repeatedly overrode automatic systems, and used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock. Backup crew: Shatalov, Volynov. More...
  • Soyuz 4 Crew: Shatalov. First Russian docking. Mission successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. Two crew from Soyuz 5 returned in Soyuz 4. Backup crew: Shonin. More...
  • Soyuz 5 Crew: Volynov. Two crew transferred to and returned in Soyuz 4. Remaining astronaut barely survived nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Kubasov. More...
  • Soyuz 6 Crew: Kubasov, Shonin. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. First vacuum welding in space. Rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft, scrubbing three-way spacecraft rendezvous mission. Backup crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. More...
  • Soyuz 7 Crew: Filipchenko, Gorbatko, Volkov. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Backup crew: Kolodin, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. More...
  • Soyuz 8 Crew: Shatalov, Yeliseyev. First simultaneous flight of three manned spacecraft. The spacecraft was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and exchanged one crew member from each spacecraft while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However rendezvous electronics failed in all three craft. Backup crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 9 Crew: Nikolayev, Sevastyanov. Record flight duration. Head-over-heels rotation of Soyuz to conserve fuel and lack of exercise resulted in terrible condition of astronauts on return. The Soviets almost reconsidered their space station plans as a result. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Grechko.Support crew: Lazarev, Yazdovsky. More...
  • Soyuz 10 Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov.Support crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. More...
  • Soyuz 11 Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. First space station mission. Record flight duration. Main telescope inoperative. Fire in space station put out. Fail-safe valve opening during re-entry, resulted in decompression and death of entire crew. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 13 Crew: Klimuk, Lebedev. First Byelorussian astronaut. First space mission devoted to a single scientific instrument. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. Backup crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky. More...
  • Soyuz 14 Crew: Artyukhin, Popovich. First military space station mission. Manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. Backup crew: Demin, Sarafanov.Support crew: Rozhdestvensky, Volynov, Zholobov, Zudov. More...
  • Soyuz 15 Crew: Demin, Sarafanov. Second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, aborted when the Igla rendezvous system electronics failed and no docking was made. Backup crew: Volynov, Zholobov.Support crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. More...
  • Soyuz 16 Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space. Backup crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov.Support crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz 17 Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. First successful Russian civilian space station mission. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 18 Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Kovalyonok, Ponomaryov. More...
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov.Support crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz 21 Crew: Volynov, Zholobov. Military space station mission. Hand-docked with the Salyut 5 station after failure of automated Igla system. Crew member became psychotic and mission was returned to earth from space station early. Toxic gases in station were suspected. Backup crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov.Support crew: Berezovoi, Glazkov, Gorbatko, Lisun. More...
  • Soyuz 22 Crew: Aksyonov, Bykovsky. Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Backup crew: Malyshev, Strekalov.Support crew: Andreyev, Popov. More...
  • Soyuz 23 Crew: Rozhdestvensky, Zudov. Docking with Salyut 5 military station aborted due to electronics failure. Crew nearly froze to death after an emergency landing in a lake in a blizzard at -20 deg C. It took hours before the capsule could be dragged to shore. Backup crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko.Support crew: Berezovoi, Lisun. More...
  • Soyuz 24 Crew: Glazkov, Gorbatko. First complete change of cabin atmosphere for a space station. Special apparatus brought up to Salyut 5 to vent the entire station through the EVA airlock. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. Backup crew: Berezovoi, Lisun.Support crew: Kozelsky, Preobrazhensky. More...
  • Soyuz 25 Crew: Kovalyonok, Ryumin. Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6 due to damage to spacecraft's docking mechanism. Backup crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz T-8 Crew: Serebrov, Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. Manned three crew. Unsuccessful mission. Igla approach system antenna was damaged during ascent; failed to rendezvous with Salyut 7. Further attempts toman Salyut 7 could not take place for two months because of launch and abort lighting constraints. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov, Savinykh. More...
  • Soyuz TM-3 Crew: Aleksandrov. Aleksandrov replaced the ailing EO-2 crew member Laveykin and remained aboard Mir with Romanenko. Backup crew: Savinykh. More...

Associated Programs
  • Almaz The only manned military space station to have ever flown, it served only to prove that manned stations provided no cost-effective substitute to unmanned military satellites. Derivatives of the design continue in service into the 21st Century as modules of the Salyut, Mir, and International Space Stations. More...
  • ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system. More...
  • Buran The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) had its origins in NPO Energia studies of 1974 to 1975 for a 'Space Rocket Complex Program'. More...
  • Intercosmos International cooperative satellites with a variety of missions, launched by Soviet boosters. More...
  • Luna Soviet lunar probe series. Lunas were the first manmade objects to attain of escape velocity; to impact on the moon; to photograph the far side of the moon; to soft land on the moon; to retrieve and return lunar surface samples to the earth; and to deploy a lunar rover on the moon's surface. More...
  • Lunar L1 The Soviet program to put a man on a circumlunar flight around the moon. More...
  • Lunar L3 The Soviet program to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth. More...
  • Mars Soviet Mars probes were intended to photograph Mars on flyby trajectories, followed by Mars orbit, landing, and Phobos reconnaisance missions. Essentially all of the series failed. More...
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Orlets Sixth-generation reconnaisance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited. More...
  • Proton Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. More...
  • Resurs Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. More...
  • RORSAT Soviet military nuclear-reactor powered radar naval reconnaissance satellite network. More...
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...
  • Soyuz The Soyuz spacecraft was designed in 1962 for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight. Versions remained in production into the 21st Century as a space station ferry, resupply craft, and lifeboat. After the retirement of the American space shuttle in 2011, it became the only means for regular human access to space. More...
  • Venera Russian series of spacecraft that explored the planet Venus. Venera spacecraft made the first soft landings on the surface of Venus and returned the first images from the surface. More...
  • Voskhod The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV and 3KD versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing. More...

MOM Chronology


1965 March 7 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-05.
  • Cosmos 59 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1191 . COSPAR: 1965-015A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule fitted with airlock mating ring planned for Voskhod-2 spacecraft..

1965 March 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 R103-25. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine failed to ignite due to failure of a transformer in the power supply of the control system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 60 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 9. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1246 . COSPAR: 1965-018A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: The stage with the payload remained in Earth orbit as Kosmos-60..

1965 March 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-05.
  • Voskhod 2 - . Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Rudenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.

    This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....


1965 March 25 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-06.
  • Cosmos 64 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 17. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1305 . COSPAR: 1965-025A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 April 17 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-11.
  • Cosmos 65 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 1320 . COSPAR: 1965-029A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather experiments..

1965 April 23 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-35.
  • Molniya 1-01 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1324 . COSPAR: 1965-030A. Apogee: 39,300 km (24,400 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 707.30 min. Summary: First announced launch of Soviet communications satellite. Television programme transmission and long range two way multi channel telephone and telegraph communications. Orbital characteristics after correction of 2 May 1965..

1965 May 7 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 R15002-04.
  • Cosmos 66 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 27. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1362 . COSPAR: 1965-035A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Returned after 8 days. Unsuccessful mission. Parachute deployment failure. Spacecraft destroyed in crash..

1965 May 9 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-30.
  • Luna 5 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 10. Mass: 1,474 kg (3,249 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 1366 . COSPAR: 1965-036A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 88.27 min. Summary: Soft lunar landing attempt. The retrorocket system failed, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface at the Sea of Clouds. Western observers, among them England's Sir Bernard Lovell, correctly speculated that the craft's mission was a soft landing..

1965 May 25 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-04.
  • Cosmos 67 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1382 . COSPAR: 1965-040A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 June 8 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-31.
  • Luna 6 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 7. Mass: 1,440 kg (3,170 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. USAF Sat Cat: 1393 . COSPAR: 1965-044A. Attempted unmanned lunar soft lander. Tass reported that all onboard equipment was functioning normally. Two days into the flight, however, the spacecraft's engine failed to shut down following a midcourse correction. This failure caused Luna 6 to miss its target by 159,612.8 Km.

1965 June 15 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-01.
  • Cosmos 68 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 29. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 1404 . COSPAR: 1965-046A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 June 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 G15000-10.
  • Cosmos 69 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1421 . COSPAR: 1965-049A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 July 16 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 107207-01 (207).
  • Proton 1 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 1. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1965-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1466 . COSPAR: 1965-054A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. The first launch of the Proton launch vehicle was not without problems. A leak in the oxidiser pipeline resulted in nitrogen tetroxide spilling on electrical wires. The question was: proceed with the launch or abort? Chelomei decided to go ahead, and on 16 July 1965 the first UR-500 successfully launched the Proton 1 satellite. In the first hours after launch specialists from OKB-52 could only receive signals in the first hours that indicated the satellite was ‘alive’. However it later functioned normally and provided physics data on ultra-high-energy cosmic particles for 45 days.

    At the first launch the rocket was called ‘Gerkules’ (other sources say ‘Atlantis’), as indicated by the large symbol on the second stage skin. This name was however was not taken up.


1965 July 18 - . 14:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78.
  • Zond 3 - . Payload: 3MV-4A s/n 3. Mass: 959 kg (2,114 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars 3MV-4A. USAF Sat Cat: 1454 . COSPAR: 1965-056A. Zond 3 was towards the moon and interplanetary space. The spacecraft was equipped with a TV system that provided automatic inflight film processing. On July 20, during lunar flyby, 25 pictures of very good quality were taken of the lunar farside from distances of 11,570 to 9960 km. The photos covered 19,000,000 km square of the lunar surface. Photo transmissions by facsimile were returned to earth from a distance of 2,200,000 km on July 29 and were retransmitted later from a distance of 31,500,000 km, thus proving the ability of the communications system. After the lunar flyby, Zond 3 continued space exploration in a heliocentric orbit. Those pictures showed clearly the heavily cratered nature of the surface. This mission dramatized the advances in space photography that the U.S.S.R. had made since its first far-side effort six years earlier.

1965 August 3 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-01.
  • Cosmos 77 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 1469 . COSPAR: 1965-061A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 August 14 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-02.
  • Cosmos 78 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 30. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1505 . COSPAR: 1965-066A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 69.0000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 August 25 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-06.
  • Cosmos 79 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 1523 . COSPAR: 1965-069A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 9 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-02.
  • Cosmos 85 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1578 . COSPAR: 1965-071A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 September 23 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15001-03.
  • Cosmos 91 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1603 . COSPAR: 1965-075A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1965 October 4 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-27.
  • Luna 7 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 11. Mass: 1,504 kg (3,315 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 1610 . COSPAR: 1965-077A. Summary: Lunar soft landing attempt. The Luna 7 spacecraft was intended to achieve a soft landing on the Moon. However, due to premature retrofire and cutoff of the retrorockets, the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface in the Sea of Storms..

1965 October 14 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-37.
  • Molniya 1-02 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1967-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 1621 . COSPAR: 1965-080A. Apogee: 39,921 km (24,805 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Summary: France - USSR communications link. Second communications satellite 'Molniya-1'. Television programme transmission and long-range, two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communications..

1965 October 16 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-04.
  • Cosmos 92 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 1626 . COSPAR: 1965-083A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried weather and biological experiments..

1965 October 28 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 94 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1636 . COSPAR: 1965-085A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1965 November 2 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 209.
  • Proton 2 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 2. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1966-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1701 . COSPAR: 1965-087A. Apogee: 608 km (377 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Summary: High energy physics laboratory. Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. .

1965 November 12 - . 05:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 2 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 4. Mass: 962 kg (2,120 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. USAF Sat Cat: 1730 . COSPAR: 1965-091A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.71 min. Venera 2 was launched towards the planet Venus and carried a TV system and scientific instruments. On February 27, 1966, the spacecraft passed Venus at a distance of 24,000 km and entered a heliocentric orbit. The spacecraft system had ceased to operate before the planet was reached and returned no data.

1965 November 16 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 3 - . Payload: 3MV-3 s/n 1. Mass: 958 kg (2,112 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-3. Decay Date: 1966-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 1733 . COSPAR: 1965-092A. Venera 3 was launched towards the planet Venus. The mission was to land on the Venusian surface. The entry vehicle contained a radio communication system, scientific instruments, electrical power sources, and medallions bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. The station impacted Venus on March 1, 1966. However, the communications systems had failed before planetary data could be returned.

1965 November 23 - . 03:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: At T+528 sec, during the final thrust phase of the Block I's 8D715K engine, one of the combustion chambers blew up due to a tear in the fuel pipeline. This resulted in an abnormal separation of the upper stages.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 96 - . Payload: 3MV-4 s/n 6. Mass: 960 kg (2,110 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-4. Decay Date: 1965-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 1742 . COSPAR: 1965-094A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: The escape stage Block L entered parking orbit tumbling and was not able to operate properly..

1965 November 27 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-05.
  • Cosmos 98 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 31. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 1780 . COSPAR: 1965-097A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 December 3 - . 10:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-28.
  • Luna 8 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 12. Mass: 1,550 kg (3,410 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1965-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 1810 . COSPAR: 1965-099A. Lunar soft landing attempt failed. Luna 8's objectives were to test a soft lunar landing system and scientific research. Weighing 1,552 kg (3,422 lbs), the spacecraft was following a trajectory close to the calculated one and the equipment was functioning normally. However, the retrofire was late, and the spacecraft impacted the lunar surface in the Sea of Storms. Tass reported that "the systems were functioning normally at all stages of the landing except the final touchdown." The mission did complete the experimental development of the star-orientation system and ground control of radio equipment, flight trajectory, and other instrumentation.

1965 December 10 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-04.
  • Cosmos 99 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 32. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1965-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1817 . COSPAR: 1965-103A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1965 December 17 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M R15000-31.
  • Cosmos 100 - . Payload: Meteor no. 3. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 2002-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1843 . COSPAR: 1965-106A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 95.00 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1965 December 27 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-01.
  • Cosmos 102 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-01-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 1867 . COSPAR: 1965-111A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor..

1966 January 7 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 104 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 36. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-01-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 1903 . COSPAR: 1966-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program not completely met. Spacecraft put into incorrect orbit by abnormal function of second and third stages of booster..

1966 January 22 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 105 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 38. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 1945 . COSPAR: 1966-003A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 January 31 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M U103-32.
  • Luna 9 - . Payload: E-6M s/n 13. Mass: 1,580 kg (3,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1966-02-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1954 . COSPAR: 1966-006A. Soft landed on Moon; photographed surface for 3 days. Landed on Moon 3 February 1966 at 18:44:52 GMT, Latitude 7.08 N, Longitude 295.63 E - Oceanus Procellarum. The Luna 9 spacecraft was the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and to transmit photographic data to Earth. Seven radio sessions, totaling 8 hours and 5 minutes, were transmitted as were three series of TV pictures. When assembled, the photographs provided a panoramic view of the nearby lunar surface. The pictures included views of nearby rocks and of the horizon 1.4 Km away from the spacecraft.

1966 February 10 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 107 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 34. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 1998 . COSPAR: 1966-010A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 February 19 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 109 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2019 . COSPAR: 1966-014A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried biological experiments..

1966 February 22 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-06.
  • Cosmos 110 - . Payload: Voskhod 3KV s/n 5. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Shonin; Beregovoi; Shatalov. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 20.69 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2070 . COSPAR: 1966-015A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Precursor mission for Voskhod 3 hardware. Two dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
    Officially: Biological research.

    Voskhod s/n 5 launched at 23:10 Moscow time, with two dogs, Veterka and Ygolka, aboard. This will be a 25-day mission. Kamanin is disgusted, he had proposed this as a 25-day mission by a single cosmonaut, but Korolev had constantly held with the 'dog variant'. Preparations for Voskhod-3 are proceeding well. The prime and back-up crews have completed their training and will take their examinations on 28 February. Parallel trials of the oxygen regeneration system at IMBP and OKB-124 both went well (IMBP, 12 days so far, temperature 16-24 deg C, 70% humidity; OKB-124, 10 days so far, temperature 18-16 deg C, 65% humidity).


1966 March 17 - . 10:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 112 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 37. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2107 . COSPAR: 1966-021A. Apogee: 664 km (412 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 March 21 - . 09:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 113 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-03-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2114 . COSPAR: 1966-023A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 April 6 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 U15001-02.
  • Cosmos 114 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2133 . COSPAR: 1966-028A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 April 20 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 115 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 35. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2147 . COSPAR: 1966-033A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: . Program partially completed. Abnormal operation of SA-10 camera..

1966 April 25 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-39.
  • Molniya 1-03 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1973-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2151 . COSPAR: 1966-035A. Apogee: 39,414 km (24,490 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 709.80 min. Summary: Also transmitted cloud cover images. Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons. .

1966 May 6 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 N15001-01.
  • Cosmos 117 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 39. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2163 . COSPAR: 1966-037A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 May 11 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 118 - . Payload: Meteor no. 4. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1988-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2168 . COSPAR: 1966-038A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 316 km (196 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Probable weather satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 June 8 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 120 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 41. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2196 . COSPAR: 1966-050A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 June 17 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 121 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2210 . COSPAR: 1966-054A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 June 25 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92M N15000-21.
  • Cosmos 122 - . Payload: Meteor no. 5. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2254 . COSPAR: 1966-057A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 371 km (230 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1966 July 6 - . 12:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: UR-500. LV Configuration: UR-500 212.
  • Proton 3 - . Payload: N-4 s/n 4. Mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-4 . Decay Date: 1966-09-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2290 . COSPAR: 1966-060A. Apogee: 594 km (369 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: Space station 'Proton 3'. Investigation of ultra high energy cosmic particles .

1966 July 14 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-14.
  • Cosmos 124 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 42. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 2325 . COSPAR: 1966-064A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 July 20 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 11A510. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A510 G15000-02.
  • Cosmos 125 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1966-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 2351 . COSPAR: 1966-067A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Prototype RORSAT hardware using chemical batteries in place of nuclear reactor. Lost on the 52nd revolution as a result of a possible failure in the chemical power units placed on board instead of the nuclear BES-5..

1966 July 28 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-01.
  • Cosmos 126 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2368 . COSPAR: 1966-068A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 August 8 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-13.
  • Cosmos 127 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2391 . COSPAR: 1966-071A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 August 24 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. Launch Pad: LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-43.
  • Luna 11 - . Payload: E-6LF s/n 101. Mass: 1,638 kg (3,611 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LF. USAF Sat Cat: 2406 . COSPAR: 1966-078A. Automatic station Luna 11. Further development of artificial lunar satellite systems and conduct of scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Lunar orbit 160 km x 1200 km x 27 degrees. Luna 11 was launched towards the Moon from an earth-orbiting platform and entered lunar orbit on August 28, 1966. The objectives of the mission included the study of: (1) lunar gamma- and X-ray emissions in order to determine the Moon's chemical composition; (2) lunar gravitational anomalies; (3) the concentration of meteorite streams near the Moon; and, (4) the intensity of hard corpuscular radiation near the Moon. A total of 137 radio transmissions and 277 orbits of the Moon were completed before the batteries failed on October 1, 1966.

1966 August 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-03.
  • Cosmos 128 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2409 . COSPAR: 1966-079A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 October 14 - . 12:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 129 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 33. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2491 . COSPAR: 1966-091A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 October 20 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-40.
  • Molniya 1-04 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2501 . COSPAR: 1966-092A. Apogee: 39,689 km (24,661 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 714.40 min. Summary: Television programme transmission and long-range two-way multi-channel telephone, phototelegraph and telegraph communicaitons..

1966 October 20 - . 08:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-04.
  • Cosmos 130 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2502 . COSPAR: 1966-093A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 October 22 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M N103-44.
  • Luna 12 - . Payload: E-6LF s/n 102. Mass: 1,620 kg (3,570 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LF. USAF Sat Cat: 2508 . COSPAR: 1966-094A. Lunar Orbiter, further development of artificial lunar satellite systems and conduct of scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Luna 12 was launched towards the Moon from an earth-orbiting platform and achieved a lunar orbit of of 100 km x 1740 km on October 25, 1966. The spacecraft was equipped with a television system that obtained and transmitted photographs of the lunar surface. The photographs contained 1100 scan lines with a maximum resolution of 14.9--19.8 m. Pictures of the lunar surface were returned on October 27, 1966. The number of photographs is not known. Radio transmissions from Luna 12 ceased on January 19, 1967, after 602 lunar orbits and 302 radio transmissions.

1966 November 12 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 131 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2568 . COSPAR: 1966-105A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1966 November 19 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 N15001-08.
  • Cosmos 132 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 46. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2599 . COSPAR: 1966-106A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1966 November 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-02.
  • Cosmos 133 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 2. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2601 . COSPAR: 1966-107A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK earth orbit spacecraft. A planned 'all up' test, with a second Soyuz to be launched the following day and automatically dock with Kosmos 133. This was to be followed by a manned link-up in December 1966. However Kosmos 133's attitude control system malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After heroic efforts by ground control and five attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally brought down for a landing on its 33rd revolution. However due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The APO self destruct system detected the course deviation and the destruct charge of several dozen kilogrammes of explosive was thought to have destroyed the ship on November 30, 1966 at 10:21 GMT. But stories persisted over the years of the Chinese having a Soyuz capsule in their possession....

1966 December 3 - . 08:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-06.
  • Cosmos 134 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2603 . COSPAR: 1966-108A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried scientific experiments..

1966 December 19 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 136 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 47. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2624 . COSPAR: 1966-115A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package..

1967 January 19 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 138 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 43. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 2646 . COSPAR: 1967-004A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 February 7 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-03.
  • Cosmos 140 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 3. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2667 . COSPAR: 1967-009A. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. After the self-destruction of the first Soyuz 7K-OK on re-entry, and the loss of the second one on the pad fire in December, the state commission ruled that the third 7K-OK model would be flown unpiloted on a solo mission. If this was successful then the fourth and fifth Soyuz would be flown on a manned docking mission. Once in orbit Cosmos 140 experienced attitude control problems due to a faulty star sensor resulting in excessive fuel consumption. The spacecraft couldn't keep the required orientation towards the sun to keep the solar panels illuminated, and the batteries discharged. Despite all of these problems the spacecraft remained controllable. An attempted manoeuvre on the 22nd revolution still showed problems with the control system. It malfunctioned yet again during retrofire, leading to a steeper than planned uncontrolled ballistic re-entry. The re-entry capsule itself had depressurised on separation from the service module due to a fault in the base of the capsule. A 300 mm hole burned through in the heat shield during re-entry. Although such events would have been lethal to any human occupants, the capsule's recovery systems operated and the capsule crashed through the ice of the frozen Aral Sea, 3 km from shore and 500 kilometres short of the intended landing zone. The spacecraft finally sank in 10 meters of water and had to be retrieved by divers. Still, the mission was deemed 'good enough' for the next mission to be a manned two-craft docking and crew transfer space spectacular. Mishin and Kamanin felt that a human crew could have sorted out the problems. They were also under intense pressure to achieve a manned circumlunar flight before the 50th Anniversary of the Soviet Revolution in October.

1967 February 8 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 141 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 2670 . COSPAR: 1967-012A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 February 27 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 U15001-03.
  • Cosmos 143 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 45. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 2693 . COSPAR: 1967-017A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Placed into orbit with 22.8 second period different from that planned. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package..

1967 February 28 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 144 - . Payload: Meteor no. 6. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1982-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2695 . COSPAR: 1967-018A. Apogee: 644 km (400 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 March 10 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: UR-500K/Blok D N10722701.
  • Cosmos 146 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 2P. Mass: 5,017 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 7.90 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2705 . COSPAR: 1967-021A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1P launched by Proton into planned highly elliptical earth orbit. The first flight four-stage Proton rocket began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Year’s holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft. The launch tower was added on 2 March 1967 and the system was declared ready for launch. A serious potential problem during preparations was the discovery that fuel gases could lead to pump cavitation at the turbine exits. Tests on the ground showed that the problem was not the fuel itself, but in the monitoring equipment. The launch vehicle and Block D stage functioned correctly and put the spacecraft into a translunar trajectory. The spacecraft was not aimed at the moon, did not have a heat shield for reentry, and no recovery was planned or attempted. A successful launch that created false confidence just before the string of failures that would follow.

1967 March 13 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 147 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 44. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 2710 . COSPAR: 1967-022A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed..

1967 March 22 - . 12:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 150 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2715 . COSPAR: 1967-025A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 April 4 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 153 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 48. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2740 . COSPAR: 1967-030A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Failure of primary SA-20 camera..

1967 April 12 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-08.
  • Cosmos 155 - . Payload: Zenit-4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2750 . COSPAR: 1967-033A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 April 23 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-04.
  • Soyuz 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Komarov. Backup Crew: Gagarin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 4. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Gagarin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.12 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2759 . COSPAR: 1967-037A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 as active spacecraft was launched first. Soyuz 2, with a 3 man crew would launch the following day, with 2 cosmonauts spacewalking to Soyuz 1. However immediately after orbital insertion Komarov's problems started. One of the solar panels failed to deploy, staying wrapped around the service module. Although only receiving half of the planned solar power, an attempt was made to manoeuvre the spacecraft. This failed because of interference of the reaction control system exhaust with the ion flow sensors that were one of the Soyuz' main methods of orientation. Additional Details: here....

1967 April 27 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 156 - . Payload: Meteor no. 7. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 2762 . COSPAR: 1967-039A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 368 km (228 mi). Inclination: 81.1000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Worked with Cosmos 144. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 May 12 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 157 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 49. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 2781 . COSPAR: 1967-044A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 249 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Bad quality film loaded into SA-20 camera..

1967 May 16 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-56.
  • Cosmos 159 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 111. Mass: 4,490 kg (9,890 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. Decay Date: 1977-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2805 . COSPAR: 1967-046A. Apogee: 60,637 km (37,678 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 1,174.20 min. Summary: The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The payload entered the desired orbit as Kosmos-159..

1967 May 22 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 161 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2812 . COSPAR: 1967-049A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 May 24 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-05 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-11-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 2822 . COSPAR: 1967-052A. Apogee: 35,690 km (22,170 mi). Perigee: 90 km (55 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 627.00 min. Summary: Further development and experimental operation of long-range two-way television and telephone-telegraph radio-communication..

1967 June 1 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-11.
  • Cosmos 162 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2827 . COSPAR: 1967-054A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 June 8 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-13.
  • Cosmos 164 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 50. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 2836 . COSPAR: 1967-057A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 June 12 - . 02:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 4 - . Payload: 1V (V-67) s/n 310. Mass: 1,104 kg (2,433 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1V (V-67). Decay Date: 1967-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 2840 . COSPAR: 1967-058A. Venera 4 was successfully launched towards the planet Venus with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. On October 18, 1967, the descent vehicle entered the Venusian atmosphere. Signals were returned by the spacecraft, which deployed a parachute after braking to subsonic velocity in the Venusian atmosphere, until it reached an altitude of 24.96 km.

1967 June 17 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Stage 4's engine 11D33 failed to ignite because the turbopump had not been cooled before ignition.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 167 - . Payload: 1V (V-67) s/n 311. Mass: 1,106 kg (2,438 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 1V (V-67). Decay Date: 1967-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 2852 . COSPAR: 1967-063A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Suggestions for the cause of the failure included incorrect soldering of wires in multiple pin plugs, wrong attachments of the plugs to the pyrotechnic connectors, or a mix-up of the pyrotechnic connectors during assembly.. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1967 July 4 - . 05:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 Ya15001-05.
  • Cosmos 168 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 52. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2869 . COSPAR: 1967-067A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 August 9 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 172 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 2914 . COSPAR: 1967-078A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 August 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 174 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2925 . COSPAR: 1967-082A. Apogee: 39,796 km (24,728 mi). Perigee: 430 km (260 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 715.00 min. Summary: Probable commsat failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1967 September 11 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 175 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 2939 . COSPAR: 1967-085A. Apogee: 356 km (221 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 September 16 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 177 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 53. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2947 . COSPAR: 1967-088A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 September 26 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 180 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 54. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2966 . COSPAR: 1967-093A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 October 3 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-06 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1969-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2973 . COSPAR: 1967-095A. Apogee: 39,709 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 508 km (315 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 714.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1967 October 11 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 181 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 55. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 2981 . COSPAR: 1967-097A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 October 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 182 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2995 . COSPAR: 1967-098A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 October 22 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-07 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1969-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3008 . COSPAR: 1967-101A. Apogee: 39,709 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 508 km (315 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 714.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1967 October 24 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 184 - . Payload: Meteor no. 8. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3010 . COSPAR: 1967-102A. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 409 km (254 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1967 October 27 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 186 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 6. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1967-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 3014 . COSPAR: 1967-105A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Docked with Cosmos 188; first automated rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. The dockings were timed to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution (in lieu of a succession of manned space feats that all had to be cancelled due to schedule delays). Achieved automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Capture achieved but hard docking and electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Star tracker failed and had to make a high-G ballistic re-entry. Recovered October 31, 1967 08:20 GMT.

1967 October 30 - . 08:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 188 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 5. Mass: 6,530 kg (14,390 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Mnatsakanian. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3020 . COSPAR: 1967-107A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docking target craft for Cosmos 186, which achieved world's first automatic rendezvous on second attempt. Hard docking achieved but electric connections unsuccessful due to misallignment of spacecraft. Ion flow sensor failed and Cosmos 188 had to make a high-G uncontrolled re-entry. When it deviated too far off course, it was destroyed by the on-board self-destruct system,. However officially the Soviet Union reported that it landed succesfully on November 2, 1967 at 09:10 GMT, and that its mission was 'investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices'. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 3 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 190 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3026 . COSPAR: 1967-110A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 November 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 193 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 58. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 3052 . COSPAR: 1967-117A. Apogee: 756 km (469 mi). Perigee: 745 km (462 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1967 December 3 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 194 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3055 . COSPAR: 1967-119A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 December 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 195 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 57. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3071 . COSPAR: 1967-124A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 January 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 199 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 59. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3099 . COSPAR: 1968-003C. Apogee: 363 km (225 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft failed to separate from Block I stage. Attempt was made to conduct mission without orientation system. APO self destruct system destroyed spacecraft on 126th revolution over Sea of Okhotsk. First generation, low resolution photo surveillance; recovery probably failed.

1968 February 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 201 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3118 . COSPAR: 1968-009A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 March 2 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 231-01.
  • Zond 4 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 6L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.22 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3134 . COSPAR: 1968-013A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,561.71 min. What at first seemed to be a success, very much needed by the L1 program, ended in failure. The Proton booster lifted off in 18 m/s winds, -3 deg C temperatures, and into very low clouds - it disappeared from view at only 150 m altitude. Aircraft at 9, 10, and 11 km altitude reported the cloud deck topped 8300 m, with 1.5 to 2.0 km visibility. The spacecraft was successfully launched into a 330,000 km apogee orbit 180 degrees away from the moon. On reentry, the guidance system failed, and the planned double skip maneuver to bring the descent module to a landing in the Soviet Union was not possible. Ustinov had ordered the self-destruct package to be armed and the capsule blew up 12 km above the Gulf of Guinea. Kamanin disagreed strongly with this decision; the spacecraft could have still been recovered in the secondary area by Soviet naval vessels after a 20 G reentry. The decsion was made to recover the spacecraft in the future whenever possible.
    Officially: Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Study of remote regions of circumterrestrial space, development of new on-board systems and units of space stations.

1968 March 5 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 205 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 56. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3140 . COSPAR: 1968-016A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 March 14 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 206 - . Payload: Meteor no. 9. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1989-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 3150 . COSPAR: 1968-019A. Apogee: 405 km (251 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Visual, IR cloud cover images. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 March 16 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 207 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-03-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3154 . COSPAR: 1968-021A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 March 21 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 208 - . Payload: Zenit-2M. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3156 . COSPAR: 1968-022A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed high energy gamma ray experiment capsule. First flight of modernised Zenit-2 area survey reconnaissance satellite..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-04-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3167 . COSPAR: 1968-022C. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.08 min.

1968 April 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 210 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 60. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3168 . COSPAR: 1968-024A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 April 7 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M Ya716-58.
  • Luna 14 - . Payload: E-6LS s/n 113. Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6LS. USAF Sat Cat: 3178 . COSPAR: 1968-027A. Lunar Orbiter; studied lunar gravitational field, Earth-Moon gravitational relationship, and conducted further scientific experiments in circumlunar space. Not revealed until years later was that the E-6LS was primarily intended to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. The Luna 14 spacecraft entered a 140 x 870 km x 42 degree lunar orbit on April 10, 1966. The spacecraft instrumentation was similar to that of Luna 10 and provided data for studies of the interaction of the earth and lunar masses, the lunar gravitational field, the propagation and stability of radio communications to the spacecraft at different orbital positions, solar charged particles and cosmic rays, and the motion of the Moon. This flight was the final flight of the second generation of the Luna series.

1968 April 14 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 212 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 8. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.92 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3183 . COSPAR: 1968-029A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Summary: Cosmos 212 docked with Cosmos 213 in the first completely successful test of the Soyuz 7K-OK attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Cosmos 212 was successfully recovered on April 19, 1968 at 08:10 GMT.. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 15 - . 09:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 213 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 7. Mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 5.02 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3193 . COSPAR: 1968-030A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Cosmos 213 was the target for Cosmos 212 in a successful test of Soyuz 7K-OK rendezvous and docking systems. The Cosmos 213 launch was the most accurate yet. The spacecraft was placed in orbit only 4 km from Cosmos 212, ready for a first-orbit docking. Both spacecraft were recovered, but Cosmos 213 was dragged by heavy wind across the steppes when the parachute lines didn't jettison at touchdown. This failure caused the upcoming Soyuz 2/3 manned docking mission to be scaled back.
    Officially: Investigation of outer space, development of new systems and elements to be used in the construction of space devices. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 18 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 214 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3203 . COSPAR: 1968-032A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 April 20 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 216 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 62. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3207 . COSPAR: 1968-034A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft landed in River Volga 1 km from shore and sank after 42 minutes. 85% of the data was ruined..

1968 April 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-08 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 3209 . COSPAR: 1968-035A. Apogee: 40,099 km (24,916 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 720.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 June 1 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 223 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 63. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Completed Operations Date: 1968-06-09 . Decay Date: 1968-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3274 . COSPAR: 1968-045A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 June 4 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 224 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3276 . COSPAR: 1968-046A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also measured atmospheric composition..

1968 June 12 - . 13:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 226 - . Payload: Meteor no. 10. Mass: 4,730 kg (10,420 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor. Decay Date: 1983-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3282 . COSPAR: 1968-049A. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 579 km (359 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1968 June 18 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 227 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3294 . COSPAR: 1968-051A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 June 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 228 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 3298 . COSPAR: 1968-053A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3306 . COSPAR: 1968-053G. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.56 min.

1968 June 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 229 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3304 . COSPAR: 1968-054A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 July 5 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-09 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 3310 . COSPAR: 1968-057A. Apogee: 39,806 km (24,734 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 714.70 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 July 10 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 231 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 64. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3316 . COSPAR: 1968-058A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 July 16 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 232 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3322 . COSPAR: 1968-060A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also performed weather experiments..

1968 July 30 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 234 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3332 . COSPAR: 1968-062A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 August 9 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 235 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 61. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3339 . COSPAR: 1968-067A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Hard landing due to parachute sytem failure. 30% of the film damaged..

1968 August 27 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 237 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3348 . COSPAR: 1968-071A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 August 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 238 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 9. Mass: 6,520 kg (14,370 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.96 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3351 . COSPAR: 1968-072A. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Recovered September 1, 1968 9:03 GMT. Final test of redesigned Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft for Soyuz 3 manned mission..

1968 September 5 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 239 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3353 . COSPAR: 1968-073A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 September 14 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 240 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 66. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3388 . COSPAR: 1968-075A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 September 14 - . 21:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 234-01.
  • Zond 5 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 9L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.76 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3394 . COSPAR: 1968-076A. Apogee: 385,000 km (239,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 14,722.06 min. First successful circumlunar flight with recovery. Test flight of manned spacecraft; launched from an earth parking orbit to make a lunar flyby and return to earth. On September 18, 1968, the spacecraft flew around the moon at an altitude of 1950 km. High quality photographs of the earth were taken at a distance of 90,000 km. A biological payload of turtles, wine flies, meal worms, plants, seeds, bacteria, and other living matter was included in the flight. Before re-entry the gyroscopic platform went off line due to ground operator failure. However this time the self destruct command was not given. After a ballistic 20G re-entry the capsule splashed down in the Indian Ocean at 32:63 S, 65:55 E on September 21, 1968 16:08 GMT. Soviet naval vessels were 100 km from the landing location and recovered the spacecraft the next day, shipping it via Bombay back to Soviet Union. Additional Details: here....

1968 September 16 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 241 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3398 . COSPAR: 1968-077A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 September 23 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 243 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3418 . COSPAR: 1968-080A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed passive microwave radio telescope capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1968-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3452 . COSPAR: 1968-080C. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.23 min.

1968 October 5 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-10 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 3469 . COSPAR: 1968-085A. Apogee: 39,596 km (24,603 mi). Perigee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 712.50 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1968 October 7 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 246 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 3473 . COSPAR: 1968-087A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 October 11 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 247 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 65. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 3484 . COSPAR: 1968-088A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 October 25 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 2 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 11. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3511 . COSPAR: 1968-093A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unmanned docking target for Soyuz 3. Soyuz 2 launched on time at 12:00 local time, in 0 deg C temperatures and 5 m/s winds. Launch was on time 'as in Korolev's time', notes Kamanin. Docking with Soyuz 3 a failure. Recovered October 28, 1968 7:51 GMT, 5 km from its aim point. Maneuver Summary: 177km X 196km orbit to 184km X 230km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s.
    Officially: Complex testing of spaceship systems in conditions of space flight.

1968 October 26 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 3 - . Call Sign: Argon (Argon ). Crew: Beregovoi. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Volynov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 10. Mass: 6,575 kg (14,495 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.95 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3516 . COSPAR: 1968-094A. Apogee: 205 km (127 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Second manned Soyuz flight. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2 but failed to dock. Complex testing of spaceship systems; development, in joint flight with space ship Soyuz 2 of processes of space ship manoeuvring and docking in artificial earth satellite orbit; development of elements of celestial navigation; conduct of research under space flight conditions. The failed docking was blamed on manual control of the Soyuz by Beregovoi, who repeatedly put the spacecraft in an orientation that nulled the automatic docking system. Beregovoi used nearly all of his orientation fuel in his first attempt to dock - of 80 kg allocated, only 8 to 10 kg was remaining. Additional Details: here....

1968 October 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 251 - . Payload: Zenit-4M no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 18.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3528 . COSPAR: 1968-096A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed radio astronony and gamma ray experiment capsule; maneuverable..

1968 November 10 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 235-01.
  • Zond 6 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 12L. Mass: 5,375 kg (11,849 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bushuyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.79 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3535 . COSPAR: 1968-101A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Test flight of manned circumlunar spacecraft. Successfully launched towards the moon with a scientific payload including cosmic-ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological specimens. A midcourse correction on 12 November resulted in a loop around the moon at an altitude of 2,420 km on 14 November. Zond 6 took spectacular photos of the moon’s limb with the earth in the background. Photographs were also taken of the lunar near and far side with panchromatic film from distances of approximately 11,000 km and 3300 km. Each photo was 12.70 by 17.78 cm. Some of the views allowed for stereo pictures. On the return leg a gasket failed, leading to cabin depressurisation, which would have been fatal to a human crew. The 7K-L1 then made the first successful double skip trajectory, dipping into the earth's atmosphere over Antarctica, slowing from 11 km/sec to suborbital velocity, then skipping back out into space before making a final re-entry onto Soviet territory. The landing point was only 16 km from the pad from which it had been launched toward the moon. After the re-entry the main parachute ejected prematurely, ripping the main canopy, leading to the capsule being destroyed on impact with the ground. One negative was recovered from the camera container and a small victory obtained over the Americans. But the criteria for a manned flight had obviously not been met and Mishin's only hope to beet the Americans was a failure or delay in the Apollo 8 flight set for December. The next Zond test was set for January. Additional Details: here....

1968 November 13 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 253 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 67. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3542 . COSPAR: 1968-102A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. On 13th orbit the SA-20-1 camera's shutter responded to an uncommanded order to open. Radiation levels inside reached 3 times normal levels. 53% of the data was lost..

1968 November 16 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 236-01.
  • Proton 4 - . Payload: N-6 s/n 1. Mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Proton. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: N-6 . Decay Date: 1969-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 3544 . COSPAR: 1968-103A. Apogee: 477 km (296 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: First launch of the Proton three-stage variant. The satellite studied the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Scientific payload 12,500 kg; operated for 100 days in orbit. .

1968 November 21 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 254 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 3562 . COSPAR: 1968-104A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1968 November 29 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 255 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 68. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 3574 . COSPAR: 1968-105A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 December 10 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 258 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 69. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3602 . COSPAR: 1968-111A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 December 16 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 260 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1973-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3619 . COSPAR: 1968-115A. Apogee: 39,573 km (24,589 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.20 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1969 January 5 - . 06:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 5 - . Payload: 2V (V-69) s/n 330. Mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Babakin. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 2V (V-69). Decay Date: 1969-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 3642 . COSPAR: 1969-001A. Venera 5 is launched at 9:26 Moscow time from LC-31 in -23 deg C temperatures. All proceeds according to plan. Afterwards Kamanin meets Babakin. Venera 6 is planned for launch in 10 January. He also plans two moon landings in 1969 and two in 1970 of soil sample return spacecraft. Kamanin does not believe America can achieve a manned moon landing in 1969, and therefore that Babakin has a very good chance of stealing their thunder.

    Meanwhile Venera 5 was launched from its parking orbit towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. The spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 although it was of a stronger design. When the atmosphere of Venus was approached, a capsule weighing 405 kg and containing scientific instruments was jettisoned from the main spacecraft. During satellite descent towards the surface of Venus, a parachute opened to slow the rate of descent. For 53 min on May 16, 1969, while the capsule was suspended from the parachute, data from the Venusian atmosphere were returned. The spacecraft also carried a medallion bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. and a bas-relief of V.I. Lenin to the night side of Venus.


1969 January 10 - . 05:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 6 - . Payload: 2V (V-69) s/n 331. Mass: 1,128 kg (2,486 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 2V (V-69). Decay Date: 1969-05-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3648 . COSPAR: 1969-002A. Venera 6 was launched towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data. When the atmosphere of Venus was approached, a capsule weighing 405 kg was jettisoned from the main spacecraft. This capsule contained scientific instruments. During descent towards the surface of Venus, a parachute opened to slow the rate of descent. For 51 min on May 17, 1969, while the capsule was suspended from the parachute, data from the Venusian atmosphere were returned. The spacecraft also carried a medallion bearing the coat of arms of the U.S.S.R. and a bas-relief of V.I. Lenin to the night side of Venus.

1969 January 12 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 263 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 70. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 3651 . COSPAR: 1969-003A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 January 14 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 4 - . Call Sign: Amur (Amur - river). Crew: Shatalov. Backup Crew: Shonin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 12. Mass: 6,625 kg (14,605 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Shonin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 2.97 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3654 . COSPAR: 1969-004A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Soyuz 4 is launched with Vladimir Shatalov aboard without further problems at 10:30. This time the rockets gyroscopes, the capsule communications, and the television camera all functioned perfectly. Volynov and his crew for Soyuz 5 watched the launch from Area 17. Later Soyuz 4 would dock with Soyuz 5, and following a transfer of two cosmonauts, return with Shatalov, Yevgeni Khrunov and Alexsei Yeliseyev from Soyuz 5. Official purpose: scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit. This mission finally successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer mission attempted by Soyuz 1 in April 1967. In making the transfer Khrunov and Yeliseyev avoided the most spectacular survivable incident of the space age - the nose-first reentry of Soyuz 5, still attached to its service module.

1969 January 15 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 5 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (P) s/n 13. Mass: 6,585 kg (14,517 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrunov; Volynov; Yeliseyev; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 3.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 3656 . COSPAR: 1969-005A. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. At 3 am an An-12 arrives from Moscow with ten newspapers, and letters for Shatalov, to be delivered by the Soyuz 5 crew to him as the first 'space mail'. At 05:15 the State Commission convened and approved launch at 10:04:30. The countdown proceeds normally; meanwhile communications sessions are held with Shatalov on Soyuz 4. The commission is taken by automobile convoy from Area 2, to Area 17, where the Soyuz 5 crew declares itself ready for flight. At T-25 minutes, with the crew already aboard the spacecraft, a piece of electrical equipment fails and needs to be replaced. Engineer-Captain Viktor Vasilyevich Alyeshin goes to the fuelled booster and replaces it. While doing this he notices that the access hatch has been secured with only three bolts, instead of the four required. Nevertheless the launch proceeds successfully. After Soyuz 5 is in orbit, it and Soyuz 4 begin their mutual series of manoeuvres for rendezvous and docking. Officially the flight conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological research, checking and testing of onboard systems and design elements of space craft, docking of piloted space craft and construction of an experimental space station, transfer of cosmonauts from one craft to another in orbit.

1969 January 23 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 264 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3667 . COSPAR: 1969-008A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried radio astronony and gamma ray experiments; maneuverable..

1969 February 25 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 266 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 71. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3761 . COSPAR: 1969-015A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 February 26 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 267 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3765 . COSPAR: 1969-017A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 6 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 270 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3777 . COSPAR: 1969-022A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 15 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 271 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3807 . COSPAR: 1969-023A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 March 22 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 273 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 77. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 3831 . COSPAR: 1969-027A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 March 24 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 274 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 3833 . COSPAR: 1969-028A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; also carried science package..

1969 March 26 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-01 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 3835 . COSPAR: 1969-029A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 549 km (341 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.90 min. Summary: Cloud, snow, ice cover data. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1969 April 4 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 276 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 3854 . COSPAR: 1969-032A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 April 9 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 278 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 78. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3883 . COSPAR: 1969-034A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 April 11 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-11 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 3885 . COSPAR: 1969-035A. Apogee: 39,595 km (24,603 mi). Perigee: 483 km (300 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 712.10 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1969 April 15 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 279 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3893 . COSPAR: 1969-038A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 April 23 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 280 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3906 . COSPAR: 1969-040A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried weather experiments; maneuverable..

1969 May 13 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 281 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 72. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 3939 . COSPAR: 1969-042A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 May 20 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 282 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3944 . COSPAR: 1969-044A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 May 29 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 284 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3971 . COSPAR: 1969-048A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 June 15 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 286 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 3988 . COSPAR: 1969-052A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 June 24 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 287 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 76. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 3991 . COSPAR: 1969-054A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 June 27 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 288 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 3994 . COSPAR: 1969-055A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 July 10 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 289 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4034 . COSPAR: 1969-057A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 July 13 - . 02:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 242-01.
  • Luna 15 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 401. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4036 . COSPAR: 1969-058A. Apogee: 870 km (540 mi). Perigee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 126.0000 deg. Period: 160.00 min. Unmanned soil return mission launched coincident with Apollo 11 mission in last ditch attempt to return lunar soil to earth before United States. After completing 86 communications sessions and 52 orbits of the Moon at various inclinations and altitudes, crashed on the moon on 20 July in an attempted landing. Altitude data used in programming inaccurate or guidance system unable to cope with effect of lunar mascons.
    Officially: Testing of on-board systems of the automatic station and further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1969 July 22 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 290 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 75. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4042 . COSPAR: 1969-060A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 July 22 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-12 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1971-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4043 . COSPAR: 1969-061A. Apogee: 39,526 km (24,560 mi). Perigee: 496 km (308 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 711.00 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1969 August 7 - . 23:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 243-01.
  • Zond 7 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 11. Mass: 5,379 kg (11,858 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4062 . COSPAR: 1969-067A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Circumlunar flight; successfully recovered in USSR August 13, 1969. Only completely successful L1 flight that could have returned cosmonauts alive or uninjured to earth. Official mission was further studies of the moon and circumlunar space, to obtain colour photography of the earth and the moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems. Earth photos were obtained on August 9, 1969. On August 11, 1969, the spacecraft flew past the moon at a distance of 1984.6 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Successfully accomplished double-dip re-entry and landed 50 km from aim point near Kustani in the USSR.

1969 August 16 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 293 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4072 . COSPAR: 1969-071A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried science package..

1969 August 19 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 294 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4074 . COSPAR: 1969-072A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 August 29 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 296 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4080 . COSPAR: 1969-075A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 2 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 297 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4082 . COSPAR: 1969-076A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 18 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 299 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4097 . COSPAR: 1969-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 September 23 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 244-01. FAILURE: Block D lost LOX due to valve defect.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 300 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 403. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4104 . COSPAR: 1969-080A. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Summary: Robotic lunar soil return mission. Failed to leave low earth orbit due to Block D stage failure..

1969 September 24 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 301 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 79. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4106 . COSPAR: 1969-081A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1969 October 6 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-02 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2002-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4119 . COSPAR: 1969-084A. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.30 min. Summary: Cloud and ice cover imaging; investigated IR, thermal reflection/radiation from Earth's atmosphere. Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1969 October 11 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 6 - . Call Sign: Antey (Antaeus - mythological giant). Crew: Kubasov; Shonin. Backup Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 14. Mass: 6,577 kg (14,499 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Shonin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4122 . COSPAR: 1969-085A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Carried Vulkan welding furnace for vacuum welding experiments in depressurized orbital module. Was to have taken spectacular motion pictures of Soyuz 7 - Soyuz 8 docking but failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to new helium pressurization integrity test prior to mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 12 - . 10:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 7 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 15. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shonin; Kubasov; Mishin; Filipchenko; Gorbatko; Volkov; Kolodin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.94 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4124 . COSPAR: 1969-086A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 8 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 13 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 8 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 16. Mass: 6,646 kg (14,651 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 6; Soyuz 7; Soyuz 8. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 4.95 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4126 . COSPAR: 1969-087A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Tested spacecraft systems and designs, manoeuvring of space craft with respect to each other in orbit, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments in group flight. Was to have docked with Soyuz 7 and transferred crew while Soyuz 6 took film from nearby. However failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft due to a new helium pressurization integrity test prior to the mission did not permit successful rendezvous and dockings. Recovered October 18, 1969 10:19 GMT. Additional Details: here....

1969 October 17 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 302 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4130 . COSPAR: 1969-089A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 October 22 - . 14:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 241-01. FAILURE: Block D control system failure.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 305 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 404. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1969-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4150 . COSPAR: 1969-092A. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Summary: Robotic lunar soil return mission. Failed to leave low earth orbit due to Block D stage failure..

1969 October 24 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 306 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4182 . COSPAR: 1969-093A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1969 November 12 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 309 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 80. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4223 . COSPAR: 1969-098A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. First flight with Nauka external experiment container..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka 3KS. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1969-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 4236 . COSPAR: 1969-098E. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.73 min.

1969 November 15 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 310 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4232 . COSPAR: 1969-100A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 December 3 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 313 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4262 . COSPAR: 1969-104A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1969 December 23 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 317 - . Payload: Zenit-4MK no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 4280 . COSPAR: 1969-109A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried charged particle experiments; maneuverable..

1970 January 9 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 318 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4292 . COSPAR: 1970-001A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 January 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 322 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4315 . COSPAR: 1970-007A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 February 10 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 323 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4328 . COSPAR: 1970-010A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 February 19 - . 18:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-13 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4336 . COSPAR: 1970-013A. Apogee: 39,170 km (24,330 mi). Perigee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 703.10 min. Summary: The first launch of the 8K78M vehicle from the Plesetsk launch site. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 March 4 - . 12:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 325 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 73. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4340 . COSPAR: 1970-015A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1970 March 13 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 326 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 74. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-03-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4346 . COSPAR: 1970-018A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1970 March 17 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-03 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1983-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 4349 . COSPAR: 1970-019A. Apogee: 635 km (394 mi). Perigee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 March 27 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 328 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4355 . COSPAR: 1970-022A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 April 3 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 329 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4357 . COSPAR: 1970-023A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 April 8 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 331 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4364 . COSPAR: 1970-026A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 April 15 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 333 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4373 . COSPAR: 1970-030A. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 April 28 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-04 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2004-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4393 . COSPAR: 1970-037A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 534 km (331 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 May 12 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 344 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 81. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4401 . COSPAR: 1970-038A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Failure of SA-10B camera on 42nd orbit..

1970 May 20 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 345 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4403 . COSPAR: 1970-039A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 1 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 9 - . Call Sign: Sokol (Falcon ). Crew: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Grechko. Support Crew: Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 17. Mass: 6,590 kg (14,520 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Filipchenko; Grechko; Lazarev; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 17.71 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 4407 . COSPAR: 1970-041A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Manned flight endurance test. Medico-biological, scientific and technical studies and experiments in prolonged orbital flight. Inconclusive results due to slow sun-oriented rotation of spacecraft to conserve fuel producing motion sickness in cosmonauts.. Additional Details: here....

1970 June 10 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 346 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4409 . COSPAR: 1970-042A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 17 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 349 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4416 . COSPAR: 1970-045A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 June 23 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-05 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 5. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 4419 . COSPAR: 1970-047A. Apogee: 872 km (541 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 June 26 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-14 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4430 . COSPAR: 1970-049A. Apogee: 39,172 km (24,340 mi). Perigee: 459 km (285 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 703.10 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 June 26 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 350 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4425 . COSPAR: 1970-050A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 July 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 352 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4446 . COSPAR: 1970-052A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 July 9 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 353 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4455 . COSPAR: 1970-053A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 August 7 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 355 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4484 . COSPAR: 1970-058A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 August 17 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 7 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 630. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4489 . COSPAR: 1970-060A. Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.

1970 August 22 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine 11D33 was late igniting and cut off early at 25 seconds after firing due to abnormal operation of the sequencer and a DC transformer failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 359 - . Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 631. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4501 . COSPAR: 1970-065A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Summary: Probable Venus probe failure..

1970 August 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 360 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4508 . COSPAR: 1970-068A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; deployed capsule..

1970 September 8 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 361 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4524 . COSPAR: 1970-071A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 September 12 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 248-01.
  • Luna 16 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 406. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1970-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4527 . COSPAR: 1970-072A. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 70.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Lunar Sample Return. Landed on Moon 20 September 1970 at 05:18:00 GMT, Latitude 0.68 S, Longitude 56.30 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 16 was launched toward the Moon from a preliminary earth orbit and entered a lunar orbit on September 17, 1970. On September 20, the spacecraft soft landed on the lunar surface as planned. The spacecraft was equipped with an extendable arm with a drilling rig for the collection of a lunar soil sample. After 26 hours and 25 minutes on the lunar surface, the ascent stage, with a hermetically sealed soil sample container, left the lunar surface carrying 100 grams of collected material. It landed in the Soviet Union on September 24, 1970. The lower stage of Luna 16 remained on the lunar surface and continued transmission of lunar temperature and radiation data. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1970 September 17 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 363 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 4538 . COSPAR: 1970-074A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 September 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 364 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4553 . COSPAR: 1970-075A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 September 29 - . 08:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-15 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4569 . COSPAR: 1970-077A. Apogee: 39,296 km (24,417 mi). Perigee: 492 km (305 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 706.30 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 October 1 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 366 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 4561 . COSPAR: 1970-078A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 October 8 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 368 - . Payload: Bion precursor. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4571 . COSPAR: 1970-080A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Bion precursor mission. Conducted biological investigations and study of the physical characteristics of outer space..

1970 October 9 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 370 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4576 . COSPAR: 1970-082A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 October 15 - . 11:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-06 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1999-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 4583 . COSPAR: 1970-085A. Apogee: 443 km (275 mi). Perigee: 441 km (274 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1970 October 20 - . 19:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 250-01.
  • Zond 8 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 14. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1 . Duration: 5.17 days. Decay Date: 1970-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 4591 . COSPAR: 1970-088A. Apogee: 400,000 km (240,000 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 15,562.22 min. Final circumlunar flight; successfully recovered October 26, 1970. The announced objectives were investigations of the moon and circumlunar space and testing of onboard systems. The spacecraft obtained photographs of the earth on October 21 from a distance of 64,480 km. The spacecraft transmitted flight images of the earth for three days. Zond 8 flew past the moon on October 24, 1970, at a distance of 1,110.4 km and obtained both black and white and colour photographs of the lunar surface. Scientific measurements were also obtained during the flight. The spacecraft used a new variant of the double-dip re-entry, coming in over the north pole, bouncing off the atmosphere, being tracked by Soviet radar stations as it soared south over the Soviet Union, then making a final precision re-entry followed by splashdown at the recovery point in the Indian Ocean.

1970 October 30 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 376 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 4599 . COSPAR: 1970-092A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 November 10 - . 14:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 251-01.
  • Luna 17 - . Payload: Ye-8 s/n 203. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Decay Date: 1970-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4691 . COSPAR: 1970-095A. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 141.0000 deg. Period: 116.00 min. Luna 17 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards the Moon and entered lunar orbit on November 15, 1970. Luna 17 landed on Moon 17 November 1970 at 03:47:00 GMT, Latitude 38.28 N, Longitude 325.00 E - Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains). The payload, the Lunokhod 1 unmanned rover, rolled down a ramp from the landing stage and began exploring the surface. Lunokhod was intended to operate through three lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days (earth months). The operations of Lunokhod officially ceased on October 4, 1971, the anniversary of Sputnik 1. By then it had traveled 10,540 m and had transmitted more than 20,000 TV pictures and more than 200 TV panoramas. It had also conducted more than 500 lunar soil tests. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1970 November 11 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 377 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 4695 . COSPAR: 1970-096A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1970 November 24 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 379 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 1. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 4,683.78 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 4760 . COSPAR: 1970-099A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. LK moon lander test using the T2K version. First use of the Soyuz 11A511L booster modified especially for this purpose. The spacecraft made a series of engine burns, simulating the lunar landing profile. After 3.5 days in orbit, the first burn was made in imitation of a descent to the lunar surface after separation of the Block D lunar crasher stage. The orbit changed from 192 km X 233 km to 196 km X 1206 km orbit; delta V: 263 m/s. After 4 days in orbit, a large manoeuvre was made simulating the ascent from the lunar surface. The orbit was changed from 188 km X 1198 km to 177 km X 14,041 km; delta V: 1518 m/s. These main manoeuvres were followed by a series of small adjustments simulating rendezvous and docking with the LOK. The LK tested out without major problems and decayed from orbit on September 21, 1983.

1970 November 27 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-16 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4779 . COSPAR: 1970-101A. Apogee: 39,895 km (24,789 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1970 December 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 252-01.
  • Cosmos 382 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 2K. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Duration: 8,549.30 days. USAF Sat Cat: 4786 . COSPAR: 1970-103A. Apogee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Perigee: 2,384 km (1,481 mi). Inclination: 55.9000 deg. Period: 171.00 min. Test of Block D upper stage in its N1 lunar crasher configuration in earth orbit. The three maneuvers simulated the lunar orbit insertion burn; the lunar orbit circularization burn; and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 300km orbit to 303km X 5038km orbit. Delta V: 982 m/s
    318km X 5040km orbit to 1616km X 5071km orbit. Delta V: 285 m/s
    1616km X 5071km orbit to 2577km X 5082km orbit. Delta V: 1311 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2578 m/s.

1970 December 3 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 383 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4787 . COSPAR: 1970-104A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 10 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 384 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4791 . COSPAR: 1970-105A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1970 December 15 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 386 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 4804 . COSPAR: 1970-110A. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1970 December 18 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 389 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2003-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4813 . COSPAR: 1970-113A. Apogee: 568 km (352 mi). Perigee: 543 km (337 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min.

1970 December 25 - . 03:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-17 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1975-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 4829 . COSPAR: 1970-114A. Apogee: 39,881 km (24,780 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 January 12 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 390 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 4845 . COSPAR: 1971-001A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 January 20 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-07 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 7. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2005-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 4849 . COSPAR: 1971-003A. Apogee: 550 km (340 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 January 21 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 392 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 4872 . COSPAR: 1971-004A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 February 18 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 396 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 4959 . COSPAR: 1971-014A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 February 26 - . 05:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 398 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 2. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,463.78 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 4966 . COSPAR: 1971-016A. Apogee: 1,958 km (1,216 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 106.70 min. Second space test of the LK moon lander test using the T2K version. Followed the same programme as Cosmos 379.
    Maneuver Summary:
    189km X 252km orbit to 186km X 1189km orbit. Delta V: 251 m/s
    186km X 1189km orbit to 200km X 10905km orbit. Delta V: 1320 m/s
    Total Delta V: 2832 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1971 March 3 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 399 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5003 . COSPAR: 1971-017A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 March 27 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 401 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 5086 . COSPAR: 1971-023A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 April 2 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 403 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 5108 . COSPAR: 1971-026A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 April 7 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 405 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 5117 . COSPAR: 1971-028A. Apogee: 603 km (374 mi). Perigee: 594 km (369 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 96.70 min.

1971 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 406 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5124 . COSPAR: 1971-029A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 April 17 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-08 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 8. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1991-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5142 . COSPAR: 1971-031A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 April 19 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 254-01.
  • Salyut 1 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 121. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Duration: 179.93 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5160 . COSPAR: 1971-032A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.4000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. First manned space station. Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes, and the highly classified Svinets radiometer. Primary objectives included photography of the earth, spectrographs of the earth's horizon, experiments with intense gamma rays, and studying manual methods for station orientation.

    At 05:20 the State Commission and their guests arrive at the Area 95 observation point to view the launch. The booster takes off on schedule at 06:40 in light rain and 60 km/hr wind. The tracking station reports good orbital insertion, separation from the third stage, and antennae and solar panel deployment. But the cover of the scientific equipment bay does not separate. This will mean that many experiments cannot be accomplished. It is decided to launch the crew to the station anyway, since the station is otherwise functioning normally. The cosmonauts go to the baths in the evening. Additional Details: here....


1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 25.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.

1971 May 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 410 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5207 . COSPAR: 1971-040A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-05-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5228 . COSPAR: 1971-040C. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.02 min.

1971 May 10 - . 16:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 253-01. FAILURE: No Block D ignition due wrong timer setting.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 419 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 170. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. Decay Date: 1971-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5221 . COSPAR: 1971-042A. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 87.70 min. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. Rocket block failed to reignite in Earth Orbit. It is widely believed this spacecraft was launched with the primary purpose of overtaking Mariner 8, which had been launched (unsuccessfully, as it turned out) two days earlier, and becoming the first Mars orbiter. The Proton booster successfully put the spacecraft into low (174 km x 159 km) Earth parking orbit with an inclination of 51.4 degrees, but the Block D stage 4 failed to function due to a bad ignition timer setting (the timer, which was supposed to start ignition 1.5 hours after orbit was erroneously set for 1.5 years.) The orbit decayed and the spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere 2 days later on 12 May 1971. The mission was designated Cosmos 419.

1971 May 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 420 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5230 . COSPAR: 1971-043A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 May 19 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 255-01.
  • Mars 2 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 171. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. USAF Sat Cat: 5234 . COSPAR: 1971-045A. Apogee: 25,000 km (15,000 mi). Perigee: 1,380 km (850 mi). Inclination: 48.9000 deg. Period: 1,080.00 min. Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. Mid-course corrections were made on 17 June and 20 November. Mars 2 released the descent module (1971-045D) 4.5 hours before reaching Mars on 27 November 1971. The descent system malfunctioned and the lander crashed at 45 deg S, 302 deg W, delivering the Soviet Union coat of arms to the surface. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a 1380 x 24,940 km, 18 hour orbit about Mars with an inclination of 48.9 degrees. Scientific instruments were generally turned on for about 30 minutes near periapsis. Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972. On-orbit dry mass: 2265 kg. Had the lander survived, data would have been relayed to the earth via the orbiter.

1971 May 28 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 424 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5248 . COSPAR: 1971-048A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 May 28 - . 15:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 249-01.
  • Mars 3 - . Payload: M-71 s/n 172. Mass: 4,643 kg (10,236 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-71. USAF Sat Cat: 5252 . COSPAR: 1971-049A. Apogee: 214,500 km (133,200 mi). Perigee: 1,528 km (949 mi). Inclination: 60.0000 deg. Period: 18,243.00 min. Mars probe intended to conduct of a series of scientific investigations of the planet Mars and the space around it. Parameters are for Mars orbit. The Mars 3 orbiter also carried a French-built experiment which was not carried on Mars 2. Called Spectrum 1, the instrument measured solar radiation at metric wavelengths in conjunction with Earth-based receivers to study the cause of solar outbursts. The Spectrum 1 antenna was mounted on one of the solar panels. A mid-course correction was made on 8 June. The descent module (COSPAR 1971-049F) was released at 09:14 GMT on 2 December 1971 about 4.5 hours before reaching Mars. Through aerodynamic braking, parachutes, and retro-rockets, the lander achieved a soft landing at 45 S, 158 W and began operations. However, after 20 sec the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons. Meanwhile, the orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a long 11-day period orbit about Mars with an inclination thought to be similar to that of Mars 2 (48.9 degrees). Data was sent back for many months. It was announced that Mars 2 and 3 had completed their missions by 22 August 1972.

1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.


1971 June 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 427 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5289 . COSPAR: 1971-055A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 June 24 - . 07:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 428 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5305 . COSPAR: 1971-057A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed electron and gamma ray science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5315 . COSPAR: 1971-057G. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.88 min.

1971 July 16 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-09 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 9. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 1991-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5327 . COSPAR: 1971-059A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 342 km (212 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 July 20 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 429 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5331 . COSPAR: 1971-061A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 430 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5340 . COSPAR: 1971-062A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 July 28 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-18 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5367 . COSPAR: 1971-064A. Apogee: 39,877 km (24,778 mi). Perigee: 478 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 July 30 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 431 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5364 . COSPAR: 1971-065A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 August 5 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 432 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5379 . COSPAR: 1971-066A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 August 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511L.
  • Cosmos 434 - . Payload: Lunar Craft T2K no. 3. Mass: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Lunar L3. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Spacecraft: LK. Duration: 8,296.77 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5407 . COSPAR: 1971-069A. Apogee: 1,253 km (778 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 99.30 min. Final LK moon lander test using the T2K version.
    Maneuver Summary:
    188km X 267km orbit to 190km X 1261km orbit. Delta V: 266 m/s
    188km X 1262km orbit to 180km X 11384km orbit. Delta V: 1333 m/s
    Total Delta V: 1599 m/s. Ten years later the spacecraft was due to re-enter over Australia soon after the Skylab scare. The Soviet Union told the people of Australia not to worry, it was only an experimental lunar cabin - the first inadvertent admission that their manned lunar project even existed!

1971 September 2 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 256-01.
  • Luna 18 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 407. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1971-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5448 . COSPAR: 1971-073A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Perigee: 100 km (60 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Attempted lunar soil return mission; crashed while attempting to soft land at Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 50.50 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 18 used a new method of navigation in lunar orbit and for landing. The spacecraft's designer, Babakhin, had died at age 56 only the month before. Luna 18 successfully reached earth parking orbit before being put on a translunar trajectory. On September 7, 1971, it entered lunar orbit. The spacecraft completed 85 communications sessions and 54 lunar orbits before it was sent towards the lunar surface by use of braking rockets. It impacted the Moon on September 11, 1971, in a rugged mountainous terrain. Signals ceased at the moment of impact. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1971 September 14 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 438 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5475 . COSPAR: 1971-077A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 439 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5478 . COSPAR: 1971-078A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 September 28 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 441 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5486 . COSPAR: 1971-081A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 September 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 257-01.
  • Luna 19 - . Payload: Ye-8-LS s/n 202. Mass: 5,810 kg (12,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-LS. USAF Sat Cat: 5488 . COSPAR: 1971-082A. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 40.6000 deg. Period: 121.75 min. Heavy lunar Orbiter; conducted lunar surface mapping. Luna 19 entered an intermediate earth parking orbit and was then put on a translunar trajectory by the Proton Block D stage. It entered lunar orbit on October 3, 1971. Luna 19 extended the systematic study of lunar gravitational fields and location of mascons (mass concentrations). It also studied the lunar radiation environment, the gamma-active lunar surface, and the solar wind. Photographic coverage via a television system was also obtained. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1971 September 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 442 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 5493 . COSPAR: 1971-084A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 October 7 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 443 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 5536 . COSPAR: 1971-085A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..
  • Nauka - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1971-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5562 . COSPAR: 1971-085F. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1971 October 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 452 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-10-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5558 . COSPAR: 1971-088A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 2 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 454 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5585 . COSPAR: 1971-094A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 19 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 456 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 5611 . COSPAR: 1971-098A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 November 24 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-01 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1976-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 5620 . COSPAR: 1971-100A. Apogee: 39,553 km (24,577 mi). Perigee: 516 km (320 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1971 December 6 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 463 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5661 . COSPAR: 1971-107A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 464 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5670 . COSPAR: 1971-108A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 16 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 466 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5687 . COSPAR: 1971-112A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1971 December 19 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-19 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 5712 . COSPAR: 1971-115A. Apogee: 39,126 km (24,311 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 703.50 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1971 December 27 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 470 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 5727 . COSPAR: 1971-118A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; deployed science capsule..

1971 December 29 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-10 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 10. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 5731 . COSPAR: 1971-120A. Apogee: 912 km (566 mi). Perigee: 838 km (520 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.50 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1972 January 12 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 471 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5764 . COSPAR: 1972-001A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 February 3 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 473 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 5821 . COSPAR: 1972-006A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 February 14 - . 03:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 258-01.
  • Luna 20 - . Payload: Ye-8-5 s/n 408. Mass: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1972-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5835 . COSPAR: 1972-007A. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Perigee: 100 km (60 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 118.00 min. Soft landed on Moon; returned soil samples to Earth. Landed on Moon 21 February 1972 at 19:19:00 GMT, Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 56.50 E - Mare Fecunditatis. Luna 20 was placed in an intermediate earth parking orbit and from this orbit was sent towards the Moon. It entered lunar orbit on February 18, 1972. On 21 February 1972, Luna 20 soft landed on the Moon in a mountainous area known as the Apollonius highlands, 120 km from where Luna 18 had crashed. While on the lunar surface, the panoramic television system was operated. Lunar samples were obtained by means of an extendable drilling apparatus. The ascent stage of Luna 20 was launched from the lunar surface on 22 February 1972 carrying 30 grams of collected lunar samples in a sealed capsule. It landed in the Soviet Union on 25 February 1972. The lunar samples were recovered the following day.

1972 February 16 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 474 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5839 . COSPAR: 1972-008A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 March 1 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 476 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1991-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 5852 . COSPAR: 1972-011A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 379 km (235 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.20 min.

1972 March 4 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 477 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 5862 . COSPAR: 1972-013A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated particle flux and radiation experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 477 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 5882 . COSPAR: 1972-013E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.38 min.

1972 March 15 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 478 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 5885 . COSPAR: 1972-015A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 March 27 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Venera 8 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 670. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1972-07-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 5912 . COSPAR: 1972-021A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Venus atmospheric probe. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere on 22 July 1972. Descent speed was reduced from 41,696 km/hr to about 900 km/hr by aerobraking. The 2.5 meter diameter parachute opened at an altitude of 60 km, and a refrigeration system was used to cool the interior components. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing. The probe confirmed the earlier data on the high Venus surface temperature and pressure returned by Venera 7, and also measured the light level as being suitable for surface photography, finding it to be similar to the amount of light on Earth on an overcast day.

1972 March 30 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-11 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 11. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 5917 . COSPAR: 1972-022A. Apogee: 877 km (544 mi). Perigee: 855 km (531 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1972 March 31 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: The escape stage Block L's engine cut off 125 seconds after ignition due to timer failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 482 - . Payload: 3V (V-72) s/n 671. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-72). Decay Date: 1981-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 5919 . COSPAR: 1972-023A. Apogee: 9,806 km (6,093 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 52.0000 deg. Period: 201.40 min.

1972 April 3 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 483 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 5924 . COSPAR: 1972-024A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 April 4 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-20 - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 27. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1974-01-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 5927 . COSPAR: 1972-025A. Apogee: 40,006 km (24,858 mi). Perigee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1972 April 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 484 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 5933 . COSPAR: 1972-026A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 484 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-04-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6002 . COSPAR: 1972-026C. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 87.94 min.

1972 April 7 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Intercosmos 6 - . Payload: Energia s/n 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Energia. Completed Operations Date: 1972-04-11 . Decay Date: 1972-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 5936 . COSPAR: 1972-027A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. .

1972 April 14 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 1 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 501. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1981-03-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 5941 . COSPAR: 1972-029A. Apogee: 199,667 km (124,067 mi). Perigee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,782.10 min. Summary: Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 April 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 486 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 5945 . COSPAR: 1972-030A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 May 5 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 488 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6016 . COSPAR: 1972-034A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 May 17 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 490 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6021 . COSPAR: 1972-036A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated electron flux cosmic ray experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 490 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6040 . COSPAR: 1972-036D. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.17 min.

1972 May 19 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-02 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1977-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6031 . COSPAR: 1972-037A. Apogee: 39,293 km (24,415 mi). Perigee: 479 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 706.00 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1972 May 25 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 491 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6035 . COSPAR: 1972-038A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 9 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 492 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6049 . COSPAR: 1972-040A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 21 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 493 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6053 . COSPAR: 1972-042A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 June 23 - . 11:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 495 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6060 . COSPAR: 1972-044A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 June 26 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 496 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 9.95 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6066 . COSPAR: 1972-045A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Recovered July 6, 1972 13:54 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test..

1972 June 29 - . 03:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 2 - . Payload: SO-M no. 2. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1982-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6068 . COSPAR: 1972-046A. Apogee: 201,804 km (125,394 mi). Perigee: 517 km (321 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 5,849.20 min. Summary: Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1972 June 30 - . 18:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-12 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 12. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6079 . COSPAR: 1972-049A. Apogee: 893 km (554 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1972 July 6 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 499 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6090 . COSPAR: 1972-051A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 13 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 502 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 6105 . COSPAR: 1972-055A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; carried science package..

1972 July 19 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 503 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6114 . COSPAR: 1972-056A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 July 28 - . 10:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 512 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6130 . COSPAR: 1972-059A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 August 2 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 513 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6135 . COSPAR: 1972-060A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 August 18 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 515 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 6150 . COSPAR: 1972-063A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 August 30 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 517 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6168 . COSPAR: 1972-067A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 September 15 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 518 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 6186 . COSPAR: 1972-070A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 518 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6198 . COSPAR: 1972-070C. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.17 min.

1972 September 16 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 519 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6188 . COSPAR: 1972-071A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 September 19 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 520 - . Payload: Oko #1. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 6192 . COSPAR: 1972-072A. Apogee: 33,393 km (20,749 mi). Perigee: 6,841 km (4,250 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 715.30 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 355 degree longitude of ascending node..

1972 September 30 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-03 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1978-01-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6208 . COSPAR: 1972-075A. Apogee: 39,170 km (24,330 mi). Perigee: 470 km (290 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 703.30 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1972 October 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 522 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6219 . COSPAR: 1972-077A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 October 14 - . 06:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-21 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6231 . COSPAR: 1972-081A. Apogee: 34,684 km (21,551 mi). Perigee: 494 km (306 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 615.40 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1972 October 18 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 525 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6248 . COSPAR: 1972-083A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated Nauka autonomous subsatellite 16KS No 161 / 1L which tested Kondor control system for Yantar satellite..
  • Nauka Cosmos 525 - . Payload: Nauka 16KS No. 1L. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1972-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 6258 . COSPAR: 1972-083C. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 88.99 min.

1972 October 26 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-13 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 13. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6256 . COSPAR: 1972-085A. Apogee: 880 km (540 mi). Perigee: 851 km (528 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1972 October 31 - . 13:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 527 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6260 . COSPAR: 1972-086A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 November 25 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 537 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6287 . COSPAR: 1972-093A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1972 December 2 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-22 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1976-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6294 . COSPAR: 1972-095A. Apogee: 39,608 km (24,611 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1972 December 12 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-04 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1975-01-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6308 . COSPAR: 1972-098A. Apogee: 39,284 km (24,409 mi). Perigee: 507 km (315 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 706.40 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1972 December 14 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 538 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6311 . COSPAR: 1972-099A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1972 December 27 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 541 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6326 . COSPAR: 1972-105A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1972 December 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 542 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1983-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6328 . COSPAR: 1972-106A. Apogee: 640 km (390 mi). Perigee: 527 km (327 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min.

1973 January 8 - . 06:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 259-01.
  • Luna 21 - . Payload: Ye-8 s/n 204. Mass: 5,567 kg (12,273 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8. Decay Date: 1973-01-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 6333 . COSPAR: 1973-001A. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi). Perigee: 90 km (55 mi). Inclination: 60.0000 deg. Period: 118.00 min. The Proton / Block D launcher put the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit followed by translunar injection. On 12 January 1973, Luna 21 braked into a 90 x 100 km orbit about the Moon. On 13 and 14 January, the perilune was lowered to 16 km altitude. On 15 January after 40 orbits, the braking rocket was fired at 16 km altitude, and the craft went into free fall. At an altitude of 750 meters the main thrusters began firing, slowing the fall until a height of 22 meters was reached. At this point the main thrusters shut down and the secondary thrusters ignited, slowing the fall until the lander was 1.5 meters above the surface, where the engine was cut off. Landing occurred at 23:35 GMT in LeMonnier crater at 25.85 degrees N, 30.45 degrees E. The lander carried a bas relief of Lenin and the Soviet coat-of-arms. After landing, Lunokhod 2 took TV images of the surrounding area, then rolled down a ramp to the surface at 01:14 GMT on 16 January and took pictures of the Luna 21 lander and landing site. It stopped and charged batteries until 18 January, took more images of the lander and landing site, and then set out over the Moon. The rover would run during the lunar day, stopping occasionally to recharge its batteries via the solar panels. At night the rover would hibernate until the next sunrise, heated by the radioactive source. Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km of terrain including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures. Many mechanical tests of the surface, laser ranging measurements, and other experiments were completed during this time. On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading to speculation that the vehicle probably failed in mid-May or could not be revived after the lunar night of May-June. The Lunokhod was not left in a position such that the laser retroreflector could be used, indicating that the failure may have happened suddenly.

1973 January 11 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 543 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 6339 . COSPAR: 1973-002A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 February 1 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 547 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6353 . COSPAR: 1973-006A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 February 3 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-23 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1977-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6356 . COSPAR: 1973-007A. Apogee: 39,602 km (24,607 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 712.20 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 February 8 - . 13:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 548 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 6359 . COSPAR: 1973-008A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 February 15 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 3 - . Payload: SO-M no. 3. Mass: 845 kg (1,862 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1976-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 6364 . COSPAR: 1973-009A. Apogee: 199,442 km (123,927 mi). Perigee: 896 km (556 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,768.60 min. Summary: Solar flare monitor. Study of the processes of solar activity and of their influence on interplanetary space and the Earth's magnetosphere. .

1973 March 1 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 550 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6376 . COSPAR: 1973-011A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 March 6 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 551 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6378 . COSPAR: 1973-012A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 March 20 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-14 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 14. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6392 . COSPAR: 1973-015A. Apogee: 878 km (545 mi). Perigee: 860 km (530 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1973 March 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 552 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6394 . COSPAR: 1973-016A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated Nauka autonomous subsatellite 16KS No 162 / 2L which tested Kondor control system for Yantar satellite..
  • Nauka Cosmos 552 - . Payload: Nauka 16KS No. 2L. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6397 . COSPAR: 1973-016C. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.25 min.

1973 April 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-01.
  • Salyut 2 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-01. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 54.62 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6398 . COSPAR: 1973-017A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
    Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments. Additional Details: here....

1973 April 5 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-05 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1979-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6418 . COSPAR: 1973-018A. Apogee: 39,822 km (24,744 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 April 19 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 554 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 38.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6432 . COSPAR: 1973-021A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; exploded in orbit..

1973 April 25 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 555 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6440 . COSPAR: 1973-024A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.0000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 555 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-05-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6445 . COSPAR: 1973-024D. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.45 min.

1973 May 5 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 556 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 6446 . COSPAR: 1973-025A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 May 11 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-01.
  • Cosmos 557 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 123. Mass: 19,400 kg (42,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 10.98 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6498 . COSPAR: 1973-026A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later..

1973 May 18 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 559 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6647 . COSPAR: 1973-030A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: First flight of Soyuz U launch vehicle. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 May 23 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 560 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 6652 . COSPAR: 1973-031A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 May 25 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 561 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6657 . COSPAR: 1973-033A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated gamma ray telescope experiment capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 561 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1973-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6662 . COSPAR: 1973-033D. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 89.36 min.

1973 May 29 - . 10:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-15 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 15. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 6659 . COSPAR: 1973-034A. Apogee: 879 km (546 mi). Perigee: 845 km (525 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1973 June 6 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 563 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 6667 . COSPAR: 1973-036A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 June 10 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 572 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6684 . COSPAR: 1973-038A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 June 15 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 573 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 35. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 6694 . COSPAR: 1973-041A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Soyuz test flight. Recovered June 17, 1973 6:01 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test, probably using one of the spacecraft allocated to the failed Salyut 2 or Cosmos 557 stations..

1973 June 21 - . 13:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 575 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6709 . COSPAR: 1973-043A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..

1973 June 27 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 576 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6713 . COSPAR: 1973-044A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1973 July 11 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-06 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1978-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 6722 . COSPAR: 1973-045A. Apogee: 39,292 km (24,414 mi). Perigee: 479 km (297 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 706.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 July 21 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 261-01.
  • Mars 4 - . Payload: M-73 s/n 52S. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-73. USAF Sat Cat: 6742 . COSPAR: 1973-047A. Failed; did not enter Martian orbit as planned; intended to be a Mars orbiter mission. Mars 4 reached Mars on 10 February 1974. Due to use of helium in preflight tests of the computer chips, which resulted in degradation of the chips during the voyage to Mars, the retro-rockets never fired to slow the craft into Mars orbit. Mars 4 flew by the planet at a range of 2,200 km. It returned one swath of pictures and some radio occultation data. Final heliocentric orbit 1.02 x 1.63 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 556 day period.

1973 July 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 577 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6745 . COSPAR: 1973-048A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 July 25 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 262-01.
  • Mars 5 - . Payload: M-73 s/n 53S. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-73. USAF Sat Cat: 6754 . COSPAR: 1973-049A. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. Parameters are for Mars orbit. Mars 5 reached Mars on 12 February 1974 and was inserted into a 1760 km x 32,586 km orbit. Due to computer chip failures the orbiter operated only a few days and returned atmospheric data and images of a small portion of the Martian southern hemisphere.

1973 August 1 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 578 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 6759 . COSPAR: 1973-051A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 August 5 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 281-01.
  • Mars 6 - . Payload: M-73 s/n 50P. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-73. USAF Sat Cat: 6768 . COSPAR: 1973-052A. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. Total fueled launch mass of the lander and orbital bus was 3260 kg. It reached Mars on 12 March 1974, separated from the bus, and entered the atmosphere, where a parachute opened, slowing the descent. As the probe descended through the atmosphere it transmitted data for 150 seconds, representing the first data returned from the atmosphere of Mars. Unfortunately, the data were largely unreadable due to a flaw in a computer chip which led to degradation of the system during its journey to Mars. When the retro-rockets fired for landing, contact was lost with the craft. Mars 6 landed at about 24 degrees south, 25 degrees west in the Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Bus ended up in a final heliocentric orbit 1.01 x 1.67 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 567 day period.

1973 August 9 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 281-02.
  • Mars 7 - . Payload: M-73 s/n 51P. Mass: 4,650 kg (10,250 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-73. USAF Sat Cat: 6776 . COSPAR: 1973-053A. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. Mars 7 reached Mars on 9 March 1974. Due to a problem in the operation of one of the onboard systems (attitude control or retro-rockets) the landing probe separated prematurely and missed the planet by 1,300 km. The early separation was probably due to a computer chip error which resulted in degradation of the systems during the trip to Mars. Ended up in a final heliocentric orbit 1.01 x 1.69 AU, 2.2 degree inclination, 574 day period.

1973 August 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 579 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6789 . COSPAR: 1973-055A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 August 24 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 581 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 6798 . COSPAR: 1973-059A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 August 30 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-24 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-12-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 6805 . COSPAR: 1973-061A. Apogee: 39,893 km (24,788 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 August 30 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 583 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6809 . COSPAR: 1973-062A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..

1973 September 6 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 584 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 6818 . COSPAR: 1973-063A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 September 21 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 587 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 6832 . COSPAR: 1973-066A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Second flight of Soyuz U launch vehicle. High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 September 27 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 12 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 36. Mass: 6,720 kg (14,810 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Grechko; Gubarev; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 12. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6836 . COSPAR: 1973-067A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations.

1973 October 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 596 - . Payload: FEU-170 s/n 1L. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6856 . COSPAR: 1973-070A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. First test of small film return capsules planned for Yantar spacecraft. SpK capsule FEU-170 No. 1L experienced an electrical short circuit, which led to failure to separate the shell of the capsule after reentry, preventing parachute deployment. The capsule crashed into the ground.

1973 October 6 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 597 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 6858 . COSPAR: 1973-071A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 10 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 598 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 6862 . COSPAR: 1973-072A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 15 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 599 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6867 . COSPAR: 1973-073A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 October 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 600 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 7.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 6873 . COSPAR: 1973-074A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 19 - . 10:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-07 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1983-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6877 . COSPAR: 1973-076A. Apogee: 40,055 km (24,888 mi). Perigee: 555 km (344 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 722.90 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1973 October 20 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 602 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6885 . COSPAR: 1973-077A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 27 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 603 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6900 . COSPAR: 1973-079A. Apogee: 357 km (221 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 October 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 604 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 5. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6907 . COSPAR: 1973-080A. Apogee: 424 km (263 mi). Perigee: 413 km (256 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.90 min.

1973 October 31 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 605 - . Payload: Bion no. 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 21.50 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6913 . COSPAR: 1973-083A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the influence of space flight on living organisms and testing of life-support systems for biological entities. Capsule recovered 53 deg 29 min N, 65 deg 27 min E..

1973 November 2 - . 13:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 606 - . Payload: Oko #2. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 6916 . COSPAR: 1973-084A. Apogee: 35,385 km (21,987 mi). Perigee: 4,964 km (3,084 mi). Inclination: 69.5000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 520. Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 359 degree longitude of ascending node..

1973 November 10 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 607 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6926 . COSPAR: 1973-087A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable (?)..

1973 November 14 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-25 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6932 . COSPAR: 1973-089A. Apogee: 39,607 km (24,610 mi). Perigee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 712.00 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1973 November 21 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 609 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 6943 . COSPAR: 1973-092A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 November 28 - . 11:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 612 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6953 . COSPAR: 1973-095A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 November 30 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 613 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 34L. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6957 . COSPAR: 1973-096A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered January 29, 1974 5:29 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T duration test..

1973 November 30 - . 13:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-26 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1985-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 6958 . COSPAR: 1973-097A. Apogee: 40,829 km (25,369 mi). Perigee: 619 km (384 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 740.00 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1973 December 17 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 616 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6979 . COSPAR: 1973-102A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1973 December 18 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 13 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 33A. Mass: 6,560 kg (14,460 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Lebedev; Vorobyov; Yazdovsky. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 13. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.87 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 6982 . COSPAR: 1973-103A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. The crew conducted astrophysical observations of stars in the ultraviolet range. Additional experiments included spectrozonal photography of specific areas of the earth's surface, and continued testing of space craft's on-board systems.

1973 December 21 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 625 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 6995 . COSPAR: 1973-105A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 December 25 - . 11:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-08 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1984-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7000 . COSPAR: 1973-106A. Apogee: 39,934 km (24,813 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1974 January 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 629 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 7100 . COSPAR: 1974-003A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. First successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170-13 No. 1702 / 2L successfully recovered..

1974 January 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 630 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7104 . COSPAR: 1974-004A. Apogee: 346 km (214 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 February 12 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 632 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7117 . COSPAR: 1974-006A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 March 5 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-16 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 16. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7209 . COSPAR: 1974-011A. Apogee: 877 km (544 mi). Perigee: 821 km (510 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1974 March 14 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 635 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7216 . COSPAR: 1974-014A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated Nauka autonomous subsatellite 17KS M15000-171 / 1L which tested astro-visir and radio altimeter systems for Yantar..
  • Nauka Cosmos 635 - . Payload: Nauka 17KS No. 1L. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7222 . COSPAR: 1974-014E. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.52 min.

1974 March 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 636 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 7225 . COSPAR: 1974-016A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 March 26 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 282-01.
  • Cosmos 637 - . Payload: Gran dummy s/n 21D. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Raduga. Completed Operations Date: 1974-03-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7229 . COSPAR: 1974-017A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,493 km (22,054 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,428.80 min. Test of Block D stage in geosynchronous satellite delivery role. Placed dummy Raduga satellite in geosynchronous orbit. As of 4 September 2001 located at 44.61 deg E drifting at 1.835 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 119.66E drifting at 1.819E degrees per day.

1974 April 3 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 638 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 71-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 9.89 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7234 . COSPAR: 1974-018A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered April 13, 1974 5:05 GMT. Soyuz ASTP Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 309km orbit to 190km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    190km X 266km orbit to 240km X 300km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    240km X 300km orbit to 258km X 274km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    Total Delta V: 47 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 April 4 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 639 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7240 . COSPAR: 1974-019A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 April 11 - . 12:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 640 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 7245 . COSPAR: 1974-021A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule (?)..

1974 April 20 - . 20:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-27 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1983-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 7260 . COSPAR: 1974-023A. Apogee: 39,752 km (24,700 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1974 April 24 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-17 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 17. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7274 . COSPAR: 1974-025A. Apogee: 879 km (546 mi). Perigee: 855 km (531 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 April 26 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-09 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 7276 . COSPAR: 1974-026A. Apogee: 35,168 km (21,852 mi). Perigee: 1,309 km (813 mi). Inclination: 64.4000 deg. Period: 640.60 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1974 April 29 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 649 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7280 . COSPAR: 1974-027A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 May 15 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 652 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 7292 . COSPAR: 1974-030A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 May 15 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 653 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 7293 . COSPAR: 1974-031A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 May 27 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Cosmos 656 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 61. Mass: 6,675 kg (14,715 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7313 . COSPAR: 1974-036A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Unmanned test flight of the Soyuz 7K-T(A9) Soyuz variant designed for docking with the military Almaz space station. Recovered May 29, 1974 7:50 GMT..

1974 May 29 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 282-02.
  • Luna 22 - . Payload: Ye-8-LS s/n 206. Mass: 5,835 kg (12,863 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-LS. Decay Date: 1975-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 7315 . COSPAR: 1974-037A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 19.6000 deg. Period: 130.00 min. Heavy lunar orbiter. Scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space from the orbit of an artificial satellite of the Moon, which was begun by the Luna 19 automatic station. The spacecraft carried imaging cameras and also had the objectives of studying the Moon's magnetic field, surface gamma ray emissions and composition of lunar surface rocks, and the gravitational field, as well as micrometeoroids and cosmic rays. Luna 22 braked into a circular lunar orbit on 2 June 1974. The spacecraft made many orbit adjustments over its 18 month lifetime in order to optimise the operation of various experiments, lowering the perilune to as low as 25 km. Manoeuvring fuel was exhausted on 2 September and the mission was ended in early November. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1974 May 30 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 657 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7317 . COSPAR: 1974-038A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 June 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 658 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-06-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7328 . COSPAR: 1974-041A. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 June 13 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 659 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7334 . COSPAR: 1974-043A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 June 24 - . 22:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 283-02.
  • Salyut 3 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 101-02. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 90.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 7342 . COSPAR: 1974-046A. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. First successful Almaz military manned space station flight. Tested a wide array of reconnaissance sensors. Following the successful Soyuz 14 and unsuccessful Soyuz 15 missions, on 23 September 1974 the station ejected a film return capsule. The KSI capsule suffered damage during re-entry but all the film was recoverable. On 24 January 1975 trials of the on-board 23 mm Nudelmann aircraft cannon (other sources say it was a Nudelmann NR-30 30 mm gun) were conducted. The next day the station was commanded to retrofire to a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean. Although only one of three planned crews managed to board the station, that crew did complete the first completely successful Soviet space station flight. Additional Details: here....

1974 June 29 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 664 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7351 . COSPAR: 1974-049A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1974 June 29 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 665 - . Payload: Oko #3. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1990-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7352 . COSPAR: 1974-050A. Apogee: 39,653 km (24,639 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 61.8000 deg. Period: 709.60 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 315 degree longitude of ascending node..

1974 July 3 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 14 - . Call Sign: Berkut (Golden Eagle ). Crew: Artyukhin; Popovich. Backup Crew: Demin; Sarafanov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Volynov; Zholobov; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 62. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Artyukhin; Popovich; Demin; Sarafanov; Rozhdestvensky; Volynov; Zholobov; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 14. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 15.73 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7361 . COSPAR: 1974-051A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. On 4 July Soyuz 14 docked with the Salyut 3 space station after 15 revolutions of the earth. The planned experimental program included manned military reconnaissance of the earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. After the crew's return research continued in the development of the on-board systems and the principles of remote control of such a station.

1974 July 9 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-18 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda no. 1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 7363 . COSPAR: 1974-052A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 883 km (548 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.90 min. Summary: Conducted experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Also tested plasma engine.

1974 July 12 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 666 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7367 . COSPAR: 1974-053A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 July 23 - . 01:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-10 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 7376 . COSPAR: 1974-056A. Apogee: 38,868 km (24,151 mi). Perigee: 1,501 km (932 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1974 July 25 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 667 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7383 . COSPAR: 1974-057A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 July 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 669 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7389 . COSPAR: 1974-059A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 669 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1974-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7404 . COSPAR: 1974-059G. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.69 min.

1974 July 29 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 287-01.
  • Molniya 1-S - . Payload: Molniya 1 s/n 38. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Completed Operations Date: 1974-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7392 . COSPAR: 1974-060A. Apogee: 35,848 km (22,274 mi). Perigee: 35,738 km (22,206 mi). Inclination: 14.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Evidently a unique experimental satellite. Arrangements for experimental television broadcasts and establishment of long-range radio-communications. As of 29 August 2001 located at 104.72 deg E drifting at 0.115 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 41.05E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day.

1974 August 6 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 670 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 1L. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 2.99 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7405 . COSPAR: 1974-061A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Unmanned Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered August 8, 1974 23:59 GMT..

1974 August 7 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 671 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 7409 . COSPAR: 1974-062A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 August 12 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 672 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 72-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7413 . COSPAR: 1974-064A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. ASTP precursor. Recovered August 18, 1974 5:02 GMT. Soyuz ASTP test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    195km X 305km orbit to 195km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    195km X 221km orbit to 223km X 223km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    223km X 223km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 227km X 237km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    Total Delta V: 39 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 August 16 - . 03:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 673 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 6. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1991-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7417 . COSPAR: 1974-066A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 399 km (247 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.70 min.

1974 August 26 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 15 - . Call Sign: Duna (Danube ). Crew: Demin; Sarafanov. Backup Crew: Volynov; Zholobov. Support Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 63. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Demin; Sarafanov; Volynov; Zholobov; Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 15. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.01 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7421 . COSPAR: 1974-067A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 15 was to conduct the second phase of manned operations aboard the Salyut 3 military space station, but the Igla rendezvous system failed and no docking was made. The two day flight could only be characterised as '... research in manoeuvring and docking with the OPS in various modes, and development of methods for evacuation and landing from space complex in new conditions....'

    As Chelomei had complained, Soyuz had no reserves or backup systems for repeated manual docking attempts and had to be recovered after a two-day flight. The state commission found that the Igla docking system of the Soyuz needed serious modification. This could not be completed before Salyut 3 decayed. Therefore the planned Soyuz 16 spacecraft became excess to the program (it was later flown as Soyuz 20 to a civilian Salyut station, even though over its two year rated storage life).

    Officially: Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-3 orbital scientific station.


1974 August 29 - . 07:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 674 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7423 . COSPAR: 1974-068A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 September 20 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 685 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7445 . COSPAR: 1974-073A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 October 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 688 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 7473 . COSPAR: 1974-078A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 October 22 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 690 - . Payload: Bion no. 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 20.50 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7478 . COSPAR: 1974-080A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Biological research. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1974 October 24 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-28 - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 26. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1985-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7480 . COSPAR: 1974-081A. Apogee: 40,633 km (25,248 mi). Perigee: 607 km (377 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 735.80 min. Summary: Decay date suspect Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1974 October 25 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 691 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7483 . COSPAR: 1974-082A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 October 28 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-19 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 19. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7490 . COSPAR: 1974-083A. Apogee: 882 km (548 mi). Perigee: 842 km (523 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 October 28 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 285-01.
  • Luna 23 - . Payload: Ye-8-5M s/n 410. Mass: 5,300 kg (11,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1974-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7491 . COSPAR: 1974-084A. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi). Perigee: 17 km (10 mi). Failed lunar soil return mission. After successfully entering earth orbit, flying to the moon, entering lunar orbit, and descending toward the surface, the spacecraft was damaged during landing in Mare Crisium (Sea of Crises). The sample collecting apparatus could not operate and no samples were returned. The lander continued transmissions for three days after landing. In 1976, Luna 24 landed several hundred meters away and successfully returned samples. Parameters are for lunar orbit.

1974 November 1 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 692 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7502 . COSPAR: 1974-087A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. Second successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170 No. 4L successfully recovered..

1974 November 4 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 693 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 7509 . COSPAR: 1974-088A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1974 November 16 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 694 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7533 . COSPAR: 1974-090A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1974 November 21 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-01 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 11. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1986-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7540 . COSPAR: 1974-092A. Apogee: 40,095 km (24,913 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 64.1000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1974 November 27 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 696 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7551 . COSPAR: 1974-095A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1974 December 2 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 16 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov. Support Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 73-EPSA. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 16. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.93 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7561 . COSPAR: 1974-096A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations.

1974 December 13 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 697 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 2. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7571 . COSPAR: 1974-098A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Yantar second generation reconnaissance spacecraft. After failure of the first Yantar-2K launch, a review board recommended modifications to the Soyuz U launch vehicle. This second Yantar still used the Sokol control system from the Zenit and lacked the SpK small film recovery capsules. As planned, after 12 days, the main descent capsule was successfully recovered with its film.

1974 December 17 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-20 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 20. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7574 . COSPAR: 1974-099A. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1974 December 21 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-11 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1988-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7583 . COSPAR: 1974-102A. Apogee: 40,065 km (24,895 mi). Perigee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 61.9000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1974 December 26 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 284-02.
  • Salyut 4 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 124. Mass: 18,500 kg (40,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 4. Duration: 768.82 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7591 . COSPAR: 1974-104A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Deorbited February 2, 1977.
    Maneuver Summary:
    211km X 250km orbit to 215km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s
    211km X 284km orbit to 276km X 344km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
    277km X 342km orbit to 338km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    330km X 340km orbit to 337km X 350km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    337km X 349km orbit to 339km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    332km X 348km orbit to 348km X 355km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    347km X 354km orbit to 343km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    335km X 344km orbit to 335km X 360km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    335km X 360km orbit to 342km X 361km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    330km X 351km orbit to 344km X 353km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    186km X 187km orbit to 90km X 186km orbit. Delta V: 28 m/s
    Total Delta V: 87/115 m/s.
    Officially: Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in outer space. Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical researc h and experiments in outer space.

1974 December 27 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 701 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7596 . COSPAR: 1974-106A. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 January 10 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 17 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Backup Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 38. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Gubarev; Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 17. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 29.56 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7604 . COSPAR: 1975-001A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station..

1975 January 17 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 702 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-01-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7606 . COSPAR: 1975-002A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1975 January 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 704 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7617 . COSPAR: 1975-005A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 January 30 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 706 - . Payload: Oko #4. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 7625 . COSPAR: 1975-007A. Apogee: 35,365 km (21,974 mi). Perigee: 4,977 km (3,092 mi). Inclination: 67.8000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation planes 7/8 - 182 degree longitude of ascending node..

1975 February 6 - . 04:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-12 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1985-07-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 7641 . COSPAR: 1975-009A. Apogee: 40,746 km (25,318 mi). Perigee: 653 km (405 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 738.70 min. Summary: Decay date suspect Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1975 February 12 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 709 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7664 . COSPAR: 1975-013A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 February 26 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 710 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-03-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7675 . COSPAR: 1975-015A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 March 12 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 719 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7691 . COSPAR: 1975-018A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 March 21 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 720 - . Payload: Zenit-4MT Mod. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 7696 . COSPAR: 1975-019A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule..

1975 March 26 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 721 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 7705 . COSPAR: 1975-020A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 721 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 7721 . COSPAR: 1975-020F. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.59 min.

1975 March 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 722 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7709 . COSPAR: 1975-021A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 1 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-21 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 21. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 7714 . COSPAR: 1975-023A. Apogee: 884 km (549 mi). Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 April 14 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-02 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 12. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1988-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7738 . COSPAR: 1975-029A. Apogee: 39,323 km (24,434 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 61.9000 deg. Period: 700.50 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1975 April 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 727 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7742 . COSPAR: 1975-030A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 18 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 728 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 7745 . COSPAR: 1975-031A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 728 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 7779 . COSPAR: 1975-031G. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.63 min.

1975 April 24 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 730 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7770 . COSPAR: 1975-035A. Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 29 - . 10:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-29 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. USAF Sat Cat: 7780 . COSPAR: 1975-036A. Apogee: 38,379 km (23,847 mi). Perigee: 1,983 km (1,232 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1975 May 21 - . 06:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 731 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 7810 . COSPAR: 1975-041A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 731 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 7885 . COSPAR: 1975-041H. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.35 min.

1975 May 24 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 18 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Ponomaryov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 40. Mass: 6,825 kg (15,046 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Klimuk; Sevastyanov; Kovalyonok; Ponomaryov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 62.97 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 7818 . COSPAR: 1975-044A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station. The crew remained aloft aboard the station during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint flight..

1975 May 28 - . 07:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 740 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 7821 . COSPAR: 1975-046A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 May 30 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 741 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 7877 . COSPAR: 1975-047A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Zenit-2M (area survey photo reconnaissance) satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1975 June 3 - . 13:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 742 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7900 . COSPAR: 1975-048A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 June 5 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-30 - . Payload: Molniya-1 s/n 24. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1987-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7903 . COSPAR: 1975-049A. Apogee: 38,307 km (23,802 mi). Perigee: 121 km (75 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 679.10 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1975 June 8 - . 02:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 286-01.
  • Venera 9 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 660. Mass: 4,936 kg (10,882 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 7915 . COSPAR: 1975-050A. Apogee: 112,200 km (69,700 mi). Perigee: 1,510 km (930 mi). Inclination: 34.1500 deg. Period: 2,898.00 min. Combined Venus orbiter/lander mission. After separation of the lander, the orbiter spacecraft entered Venus orbit and acted as a communications relay for the lander and explored cloud layers and atmospheric parameters. On October 20, 1975, the Descent Craft was separated from the Orbiter, and landing was made with the sun near zenith at 05:13 GMT on October 22. The Descent Craft included a system of circulating fluid to distribute the heat load. This system, plus precooling prior to entry, permitted operation of the spacecraft for 53 min after landing. The landing was about 2,200 km from the Venera 10 landing site. Preliminary results indicated: (A) clouds 30-40 km thick with bases at 30-35 km altitude, (B) atmospheric constituents including HCl, HF, Br, and I, (C) surface pressure about 90 (earth) atmospheres, (D) surface temperature 485 deg C, (E) light levels comparable to those at earth midlatitudes on a cloudy summer day, and (F) successful TV photography showing shadows, no apparent dust in the air, and a variety of 30-40 cm rocks which were not eroded. Venera 9 and 10 were the first probes to send back black and white pictures from the Venusian surface. They were supposed to make 360 degree panoramic shots, but on both landers one of two camera covers failed to come off, restricting their field of view to 180 degrees. Parameters are for Venus orbit.

1975 June 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 743 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7925 . COSPAR: 1975-053A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 June 14 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 285-02.
  • Venera 10 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 661. Mass: 5,033 kg (11,095 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 7947 . COSPAR: 1975-054A. Apogee: 113,900 km (70,700 mi). Perigee: 1,620 km (1,000 mi). Inclination: 29.5000 deg. Period: 2,963.00 min. The orbiter spacecraft entered Venus orbit and was separated from the lander on October 23, 1975. The lander touched down with the sun near zenith, at 05:17 GMT, on October 25. A system of circulating fluid was used to distribute the heat load. This system, plus precooling prior to entry, permitted operation of the spacecraft for 65 min after landing. During descent, heat dissipation and deceleration were accomplished sequentially by protective hemispheric shells, three parachutes, a disk-shaped drag brake, and a compressible, metal, doughnut-shaped, landing cushion. The landing was about 2,200 km distant from Venera 9. Preliminary results provided: (A) profile of altitude (km)/pressure (earth atmospheres) / temperature (deg C) of 42/3.3/158, 15/37/363, and 0/92/465, (B) successful TV photography showing large pancake rocks with lava or other weathered rocks in between, and (C) surface wind speed of 3.5 m/s. Venera 9 and 10 were the first probes to send back black and white pictures from the Venusian surface. They were supposed to make 360 degree panoramic shots, but on both landers one of two camera covers failed to come off, restricting their field of view to 180 degrees.

1975 June 20 - . 06:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 744 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 7. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1991-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7968 . COSPAR: 1975-056A. Apogee: 380 km (230 mi). Perigee: 367 km (228 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.00 min.

1975 June 25 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 746 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7985 . COSPAR: 1975-059A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 June 27 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 747 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7990 . COSPAR: 1975-060A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 747 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 8013 . COSPAR: 1975-060F. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.19 min.

1975 July 3 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 748 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8006 . COSPAR: 1975-061A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 July 8 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-13 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8015 . COSPAR: 1975-063A. Apogee: 38,492 km (23,917 mi). Perigee: 1,887 km (1,172 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 718.30 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1975 July 11 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-01 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 1. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8026 . COSPAR: 1975-064A. Apogee: 876 km (544 mi). Perigee: 844 km (524 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov; Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Leonov; Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80°, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.


1975 July 23 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 751 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 8040 . COSPAR: 1975-068A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1975 July 31 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 753 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 8059 . COSPAR: 1975-071A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 August 13 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 754 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-08-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 8069 . COSPAR: 1975-073A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 August 22 - . 02:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 756 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 8. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 8127 . COSPAR: 1975-076A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.50 min.

1975 August 27 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 757 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 8147 . COSPAR: 1975-078A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 September 2 - . 13:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-31 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1985-11-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 8187 . COSPAR: 1975-079A. Apogee: 40,598 km (25,226 mi). Perigee: 633 km (393 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 735.60 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1975 September 5 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 758 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 3. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 8191 . COSPAR: 1975-080A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Third Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance flight, the first with the new Kondor attitude control system. This system experienced problems and failed on the second day of flight. The spacecraft's destruct package was activated by ground command and the spacecraft was destroyed on 6 September 1975 in its second day of flight.

1975 September 9 - . 00:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-14 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 8195 . COSPAR: 1975-081A. Apogee: 38,534 km (23,943 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 718.20 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 September 12 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 759 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 8275 . COSPAR: 1975-084A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..

1975 September 16 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 760 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 8281 . COSPAR: 1975-085A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 September 18 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-22 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 22. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8293 . COSPAR: 1975-087A. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi). Perigee: 800 km (490 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 September 23 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 769 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 8322 . COSPAR: 1975-088A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. Third successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170-13 No. 5L successfully recovered..

1975 September 25 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 771 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8327 . COSPAR: 1975-090A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1975 September 29 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 772 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 2L. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 3.99 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8338 . COSPAR: 1975-093A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered October 3, 1975 4:10 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Transmitted only on 166 MHz frequency, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    193 km X 270 km orbit to 195 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    196 km X 300 km orbit to 196 km X 328 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 16 m/s

1975 October 1 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 774 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8345 . COSPAR: 1975-095A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 October 8 - . 00:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 286-02.
  • Cosmos 775 - . Payload: SPRN No. 1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1975-10-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8357 . COSPAR: 1975-097A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,749 km (22,213 mi). Inclination: 14.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. First launch of a prototype for a new geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Exploded in orbit. The next launch did not come until nine years later, so this may have been a version of the Oko elliptical orbit early warning satellite. As of 29 August 2001 located at 113.71 deg E drifting at 0.044 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 54.82E drifting at 0.255W degrees per day.

1975 October 17 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 776 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8369 . COSPAR: 1975-101A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 776 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8412 . COSPAR: 1975-101D. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.16 min.

1975 November 4 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 779 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8420 . COSPAR: 1975-104A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 November 14 - . 19:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-03 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 13. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 8425 . COSPAR: 1975-105A. Apogee: 38,527 km (23,939 mi). Perigee: 1,823 km (1,132 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 November 17 - . 14:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 20 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 64. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 90.49 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 8430 . COSPAR: 1975-106A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned long duration test of the Soyuz transport vehicle; docked with Salyut 4. Recovered February 16, 1976 2:24 GMT. Comprehensive checking of improved on-board systems of the space craft under various flight conditions. Carried a biological payload. Living organisms were exposed to three months in space.

1975 November 21 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 780 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 8442 . COSPAR: 1975-108A. Apogee: 278 km (172 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 780 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8460 . COSPAR: 1975-108D. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.15 min.

1975 November 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 782 - . Payload: Bion no. 3. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 19.50 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8450 . COSPAR: 1975-110A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Biological research. Continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 64 deg 11 min E. The Cosmos 782 mission marked the first time that the United States participated in the Soviet Cosmos Program. Scientists from France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. participated in these investigations. Additional Details: here....

1975 December 3 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 784 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8463 . COSPAR: 1975-113A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 784 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1975-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8485 . COSPAR: 1975-113G. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.71 min.

1975 December 16 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 786 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8489 . COSPAR: 1975-120A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 December 17 - . 11:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-15 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1987-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 8492 . COSPAR: 1975-121A. Apogee: 24,113 km (14,983 mi). Perigee: 103 km (64 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 416.90 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1975 December 22 - . 02:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 4 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 504. Mass: 905 kg (1,995 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1977-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 8510 . COSPAR: 1975-122A. Apogee: 199,000 km (123,000 mi). Perigee: 634 km (393 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 5,740.00 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1975 December 22 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 288-01.
  • Raduga 1 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 11L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1978-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8513 . COSPAR: 1975-123A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,758 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 13.3000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Statsionar-1. Provision of uninterrupted round-the-clock telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the USSR, transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 85 deg E in 1975-1978? As of 27 August 2001 located at 70.55 deg E drifting at 0.084 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.79E drifting at 0.009E degrees per day.

1975 December 25 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-23 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 23. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8519 . COSPAR: 1975-124A. Apogee: 868 km (539 mi). Perigee: 850 km (520 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1975 December 27 - . 10:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-04 - . Payload: Molniya-3 no. s/n 15. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1986-08-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8521 . COSPAR: 1975-125A. Apogee: 40,708 km (25,294 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 733.80 min. Decay date suspect Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 January 7 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 788 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 8551 . COSPAR: 1976-002A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 January 22 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-32 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 8601 . COSPAR: 1976-006A. Apogee: 38,210 km (23,740 mi). Perigee: 2,247 km (1,396 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 719.80 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 January 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 799 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 8616 . COSPAR: 1976-009A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 February 11 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 802 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 8681 . COSPAR: 1976-013A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 February 20 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 805 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 4. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 20.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8699 . COSPAR: 1976-018A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Fourth Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance flight and the first with two SpK small film recovery capsules. First flight of the completely equipped satellite. The main reentry capsule and its film cargo were returned successfully. Both SpK capsules successfully separated from the Yantar in the course of the flight, but neither was recovered. The parachutes of the first did not deploy and the capsule crashed into the ground. The solid motor of the second capsule did not fire as programmed and the capsule did not deorbit at the expected time.

1976 March 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 806 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 8737 . COSPAR: 1976-020A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 March 11 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-33 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1990-10-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 8741 . COSPAR: 1976-021A. Apogee: 37,773 km (23,471 mi). Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 669.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.

1976 March 16 - . 17:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 808 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 9. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 8754 . COSPAR: 1976-024A. Apogee: 370 km (220 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 91.90 min.

1976 March 18 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 809 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 8758 . COSPAR: 1976-025A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 March 19 - . 19:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-34 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1985-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 8762 . COSPAR: 1976-026A. Apogee: 39,722 km (24,682 mi). Perigee: 617 km (383 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 717.40 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 March 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 810 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8772 . COSPAR: 1976-028A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 March 31 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511M.
  • Cosmos 811 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8781 . COSPAR: 1976-030A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1976 April 7 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-24 - . Payload: Meteor M s/n 37. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 8799 . COSPAR: 1976-032A. Apogee: 881 km (547 mi). Perigee: 832 km (516 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1976 April 9 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 813 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-04-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8801 . COSPAR: 1976-033A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 April 28 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 815 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8811 . COSPAR: 1976-036A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 May 5 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 817 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8823 . COSPAR: 1976-040A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 May 12 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-05 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 16. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 8833 . COSPAR: 1976-041A. Apogee: 37,589 km (23,356 mi). Perigee: 93 km (57 mi). Inclination: 62.1000 deg. Period: 664.30 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 May 15 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-25 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-1. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 8845 . COSPAR: 1976-043A. Apogee: 884 km (549 mi). Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth..

1976 May 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 819 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8853 . COSPAR: 1976-045A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 May 21 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 820 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 2. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 8856 . COSPAR: 1976-046A. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1976 May 26 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 821 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8862 . COSPAR: 1976-048A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 June 8 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 824 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8877 . COSPAR: 1976-052A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 June 16 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 833 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8898 . COSPAR: 1976-055A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 June 22 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 290-02.
  • Salyut 5 - . Payload: Almaz s/n 103-01. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Almaz OPS. Duration: 411.24 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 8911 . COSPAR: 1976-057A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Second successful flight of the Almaz manned military space station. It had taken only 60 days and 1450 man-hours to prepare Almaz 0101-2 for flight, using the services of 368 officers and 337 non-commissioned officers. The tracking ships Academician Sergei Korolev and Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin were stationed in the Atlantic and Caribean to provide communications when out of tracking range of the USSR. Salyut 5 operated for 409 days, during which the crews of Soyuz 22 and 24 visited the station. Soyuz 23 was to have docked but its long-distance rendezvous system failed. Soyuz 25 was planned, but the mission would have been incomplete due to low orientation fuel on Salyut 5, so it was cancelled.

    During the flight of Salyut 5 a 'parallel crew' was aboard a duplicate station on the ground. They conducted the same operations in support of over 300 astrophysical, geophysical, technological, and medical/biological experiments. Astrophysics studies included an infrared telescope-spectrometer in the 2-15 micrometer range which also obtained solar spectra. Earth resources studies were conducted as well as Kristall, Potok, Diffuziya, Sfera, and Reatsiya technology experiments. Presumably Salyut 5 was equipped with a SAR side-looking radar for reconnaissance of land and sea targets even through cloud cover.

    The film capsule was ejected 22 February 1977 (and sold at Sotheby's, New York, on December 11, 1993!). The station was deorbited on 8 August 1977. In addition to the human crew two Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldi) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were flown.

    The results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment after the crew took the necessary time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results and especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Additional Details: here....


1976 June 24 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 834 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 8914 . COSPAR: 1976-058A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 June 29 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 835 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 8922 . COSPAR: 1976-060A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 July 1 - . 08:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 837 - . Payload: Molniya-2 s/n 27. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1983-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8927 . COSPAR: 1976-062A. Apogee: 936 km (581 mi). Perigee: 438 km (272 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Failed Molniya..

1976 July 6 - . 12:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 21 - . Call Sign: Baikal (Baikal - lake in Siberia). Crew: Volynov; Zholobov. Backup Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Support Crew: Berezovoi; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 41. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Zholobov; Rozhdestvensky; Zudov; Berezovoi; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Lisun. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 21. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 49.27 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8934 . COSPAR: 1976-064A. Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Soyuz 21 with Volynov and Zholobov aboard hard-docked with the station on 6 July 1976 after failure of the Igla system at the last stage of rendezvous. Towards the end of the two month mission an early return to earth was requested due to the poor condition of flight engineer Zholobov (who was suffering from space sickness and psychological problems).

1976 July 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 840 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9019 . COSPAR: 1976-068A. Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 July 22 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 844 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 5. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 3.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9046 . COSPAR: 1976-072A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Fifth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight. One of the solar panels would not unfold. Ground control activiated the destruct package and the spacecraft was destroyed on 25 July..

1976 July 23 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-35 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1987-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 9049 . COSPAR: 1976-074A. Apogee: 38,911 km (24,178 mi). Perigee: 483 km (300 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 698.40 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 August 4 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 847 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9214 . COSPAR: 1976-079A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 August 9 - . 15:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-1 288-02.
  • Luna 24 - . Payload: Ye-8-5M s/n 413. Mass: 5,306 kg (11,697 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8-5. Decay Date: 1976-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 9272 . COSPAR: 1976-081A. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi). Perigee: 115 km (71 mi). Inclination: 120.0000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Lunar Sample Return. Landed on Moon 18 Aug 1976 at 02:00:00 GMT, Latitude 12.25 N, Longitude 62.20 E - Mare Crisium (Sea of Crisis). The last of the Luna series of spacecraft, Luna 24 was the third Soviet mission to retrieve lunar ground samples (the first two were returned by Luna 16 and 20). The mission successfully returned 170 grams of lunar samples to the Earth on 22 August 1976.

1976 August 12 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 848 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9280 . COSPAR: 1976-082A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 848 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1976-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9374 . COSPAR: 1976-082D. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.29 min.

1976 August 27 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 851 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 10. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1989-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9389 . COSPAR: 1976-085A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.70 min.

1976 August 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 852 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 9391 . COSPAR: 1976-086A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 September 1 - . 03:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 853 - . Payload: Molniya-2 s/n 26. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1976-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 9398 . COSPAR: 1976-088A. Apogee: 461 km (286 mi). Perigee: 243 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Failed Molniya..

1976 September 3 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 854 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9405 . COSPAR: 1976-090A. Apogee: 308 km (191 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 September 11 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 289-01.
  • Raduga 2 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 12L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9416 . COSPAR: 1976-092A. Apogee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Perigee: 35,704 km (22,185 mi). Inclination: 13.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Statsionar 1. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 86 deg E in 1976-1980? As of 28 August 2001 located at 67.16 deg E drifting at 0.070 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 72.27E drifting at 0.098W degrees per day.

1976 September 15 - . 09:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 22 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Aksyonov; Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Malyshev; Strekalov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Popov. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 74 modified with MF6 camera. Mass: 6,510 kg (14,350 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Bykovsky; Malyshev; Strekalov; Andreyev; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 22. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-MF6. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1976-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9421 . COSPAR: 1976-093A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft modified with a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena in place of the universal docking apparatus. Eight days were spent photographing the earth. Tested and perfected scientific-technical methods and devices for studying the geological characteristics of the earth's surface from outer space for economic purposes.

1976 September 21 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 855 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9433 . COSPAR: 1976-095A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1976 September 22 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 856 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9435 . COSPAR: 1976-096A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 856 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9448 . COSPAR: 1976-096E. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.39 min.

1976 September 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 857 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 9439 . COSPAR: 1976-097A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 October 10 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 859 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 9471 . COSPAR: 1976-099A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1976 October 14 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 23 - . Call Sign: Radon (Radon ). Crew: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov. Backup Crew: Glazkov; Gorbatko. Support Crew: Berezovoi; Lisun. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 65. Mass: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rozhdestvensky; Zudov; Glazkov; Gorbatko; Berezovoi; Lisun. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 23. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9477 . COSPAR: 1976-100A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. The Soyuz 23 ferry spacecraft suffered a docking system failure. Sensors indicated an incorrect lateral velocity, causing unnecessary firing of the thrusters during rendezvous. The automatic system was turned off, but no fuel remained for a manual docking by the crew.

1976 October 15 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-26 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 26. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 9481 . COSPAR: 1976-102A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 836 km (519 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1976 October 22 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 862 - . Payload: Oko #5. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 9495 . COSPAR: 1976-105A. Apogee: 36,759 km (22,840 mi). Perigee: 3,620 km (2,240 mi). Inclination: 68.3000 deg. Period: 718.30 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 86 degree longitude of ascending node..

1976 October 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 863 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9499 . COSPAR: 1976-106A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 October 26 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 290-01.
  • Ekran 1 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 11L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9503 . COSPAR: 1976-107A. Apogee: 36,080 km (22,410 mi). Perigee: 35,516 km (22,068 mi). Inclination: 13.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min. Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1976-1978 As of 29 August 2001 located at 68.75 deg E drifting at 0.171 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 73.60E drifting at 0.187W degrees per day.

1976 November 1 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 865 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 9515 . COSPAR: 1976-109A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 865 - . Payload: MKA?. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 9525 . COSPAR: 1976-109G. Apogee: 431 km (267 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.98 min.

1976 November 11 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 866 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9532 . COSPAR: 1976-110A. Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 November 23 - . 16:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 867 - . Payload: Zenit-6 no. 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 9552 . COSPAR: 1976-111A. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1976 November 25 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 5 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 505. Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1979-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 9557 . COSPAR: 1976-112A. Apogee: 198,560 km (123,370 mi). Perigee: 777 km (482 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 5,728.00 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1976 November 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 869 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-S s/n 3L. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Duration: 17.77 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 9564 . COSPAR: 1976-114A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test flight. Recovered December 17, 1976 10:31 GMT. Transmitted only on 20.008 MHz and 166 MHz frequencies, at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths.
    Maneuver Summary:
    196 km X 290 km orbit to 187 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
    187 km X 335 km orbit to 259 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s
    259 km X 335 km orbit to 260 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    260 km X 345 km orbit to 265 km X 368 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
    265 km X 368 km orbit to 267 km X 391 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
    267 km X 391 km orbit to 300 km X 310 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    Total Delta V: 83 m/s

1976 December 2 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-16 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Decay Date: 1991-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 9574 . COSPAR: 1976-116A. Apogee: 36,437 km (22,640 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 641.50 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1976 December 9 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 879 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9599 . COSPAR: 1976-119A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1976 December 15 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 289-02.
  • Cosmos 881 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9606 . COSPAR: 1976-121A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Launch of mission LVI-1 came at 04:00 on 15 December. At 176 seconds the ADU escape tower separated from the LVI. Once the final stage had shut down in orbit, by command from the launch vehicle sequencer, the VA 009A (also given as 009P) and its TDU separated from the LVI. Two seconds later VA 009 (or 009L) was ejected. Fifteen minutes after launch all systems of the both VA capsules were in operation. The guidance system detected the direction of flight and oriented each spacecraft for retro-fire, and the pair began the return to earth after less than one revolution. At an external atmospheric pressure of 165 mm (10 km altitude) the NO section jettisoned, the three-cupola drogue parachute ejected, and the antennae and altimeter were deployed. The Komara landing radio beacon (installed on the landing section of the parachute) was activated when the spacecraft was 1.0 to 1.5 m above the ground - which occurred at the same moment on both 009 and 009A. The Kaktus special system tripped the soft landing PRSP (parachute landing propulsion system). The soft landing was accomplished with higher accuracy than Soyuz, both capsules being recovered at 44 deg N, 73 deg E, on December 15, 1976 3:00 GMT. The flights were officially given the designations Cosmos 881 (VA 009A) and Cosmos 882 (VA 009). US intelligence believed them to be tests of recoverable manned spaceplane prototypes.
  • Cosmos 882 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 009L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1976-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 9607 . COSPAR: 1976-121B. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Test of TKS-VA capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1976 December 17 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 884 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 9614 . COSPAR: 1976-123A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 December 28 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-06 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 17. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 9635 . COSPAR: 1976-127A. Apogee: 13,594 km (8,446 mi). Perigee: 426 km (264 mi). Inclination: 59.5000 deg. Period: 257.00 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 January 6 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 888 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 9658 . COSPAR: 1977-001A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 January 6 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-02 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 2. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 9661 . COSPAR: 1977-002A. Apogee: 893 km (554 mi). Perigee: 876 km (544 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service..

1977 January 20 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 889 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9735 . COSPAR: 1977-003A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 February 7 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 24 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Glazkov; Gorbatko. Backup Crew: Berezovoi; Lisun. Support Crew: Kozelsky; Preobrazhensky. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 66. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glazkov; Gorbatko; Berezovoi; Lisun; Kozelsky; Preobrazhensky. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 24. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 17.73 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9804 . COSPAR: 1977-008A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Soyuz 24 docked with Salyut 5 and brought repair equipment and equipment for a change of cabin atmosphere. This special apparatus was designed to allow the entire station to be vented through the EVA airlock. Because of this the planned EVA was cancelled. However analysis after arrival showed no toxins in the air. The crew changed the cabin air anyway, then returned to earth. The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterised as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50 day mission.

1977 February 9 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 892 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9812 . COSPAR: 1977-009A. Apogee: 427 km (265 mi). Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 February 11 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 2-17 - . Payload: Molniya-2. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. USAF Sat Cat: 9829 . COSPAR: 1977-010A. Apogee: 38,214 km (23,745 mi). Perigee: 2,176 km (1,352 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 718.50 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 February 26 - . 21:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 895 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 11. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1992-03-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 9853 . COSPAR: 1977-015A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 433 km (269 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.30 min.

1977 March 3 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 896 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9857 . COSPAR: 1977-016A. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 March 10 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 897 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9860 . COSPAR: 1977-017A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 March 17 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 898 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9871 . COSPAR: 1977-020A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 898 - . Payload: Nauka?. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 9887 . COSPAR: 1977-020D. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.77 min.

1977 March 24 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-36 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 9880 . COSPAR: 1977-021A. Apogee: 38,042 km (23,638 mi). Perigee: 2,288 km (1,421 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.30 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.

1977 April 5 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-27 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 27. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. USAF Sat Cat: 9903 . COSPAR: 1977-024A. Apogee: 887 km (551 mi). Perigee: 844 km (524 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 102.30 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1977 April 7 - . 08:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 902 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 9908 . COSPAR: 1977-026A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 April 11 - . 01:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 903 - . Payload: Oko #6. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 9911 . COSPAR: 1977-027A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 4,559 km (2,832 mi). Inclination: 67.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 163 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 April 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 904 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 9930 . COSPAR: 1977-028A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 April 26 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 905 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 6. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9937 . COSPAR: 1977-030A. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Sixth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight and first completely successful flight. Both small SpK film capsules successfully recovered during course of flight, as was the main OSA cabin with its camera, computer, and main film cannisters. First full duration Yantar flight.

1977 April 28 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-07 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 19. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 9941 . COSPAR: 1977-032A. Apogee: 38,201 km (23,736 mi). Perigee: 2,169 km (1,347 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 May 5 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 907 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 9944 . COSPAR: 1977-033A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 May 17 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 908 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 10007 . COSPAR: 1977-035A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 May 26 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 912 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10021 . COSPAR: 1977-040A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1977 May 31 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 914 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10030 . COSPAR: 1977-043A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 914 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1977-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10046 . COSPAR: 1977-043E. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.41 min.

1977 June 8 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 915 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10038 . COSPAR: 1977-045A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 June 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 916 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 10040 . COSPAR: 1977-046A. Apogee: 304 km (188 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 62.7000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources; deployed capsule..

1977 June 16 - . 01:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 917 - . Payload: Oko #7. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10059 . COSPAR: 1977-047A. Apogee: 36,143 km (22,458 mi). Perigee: 4,196 km (2,607 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 717.50 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 245 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 June 22 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 920 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10086 . COSPAR: 1977-052A. Apogee: 342 km (212 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 June 24 - . 05:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-37 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-05-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10092 . COSPAR: 1977-054A. Apogee: 4,564 km (2,835 mi). Perigee: 106 km (65 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 134.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1977 June 29 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-28 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-2. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. Decay Date: 1993-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10113 . COSPAR: 1977-057A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: Continuation of experimental work in studying the natural resources of the earth. Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service. .

1977 June 30 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 922 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10115 . COSPAR: 1977-058A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 221 km (137 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 July 7 - . 07:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 925 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 12. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10134 . COSPAR: 1977-061A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.00 min.

1977 July 12 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 927 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10139 . COSPAR: 1977-063A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 293-02.
  • Cosmos 929 - . Payload: TKS s/n 16101. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS . Duration: 199.62 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10146 . COSPAR: 1977-066A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 226 km (140 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
    Maneuver Summary:
    214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
    207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
    219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
    303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
    288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
    437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
    335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
    Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1977 July 20 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 931 - . Payload: Oko #8. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10150 . COSPAR: 1977-068A. Apogee: 36,549 km (22,710 mi). Perigee: 3,770 km (2,340 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 665. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1977 July 20 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 932 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 10153 . COSPAR: 1977-069A. Apogee: 358 km (222 mi). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 23 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 291-01.
  • Raduga 3 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 13L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10159 . COSPAR: 1977-071A. Apogee: 35,853 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,437.20 min. Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 35 deg E in 1977-1980 As of 30 August 2001 located at 44.45 deg E drifting at 0.191 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 49.63E drifting at 0.221E degrees per day.

1977 July 27 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 934 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10164 . COSPAR: 1977-072A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 July 29 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 935 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10168 . COSPAR: 1977-073A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 August 3 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 936 - . Payload: Bion no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.60 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10172 . COSPAR: 1977-074A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Biological research. Scientists from the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic conducted experiments in physics and biology on the mission. The biosatellite was recovered at 51 deg 53 min N, 61 deg 30 min E, near Kustanay in Central Asia after remaining in orbit for 18.5 days. Additional Details: here....

1977 August 24 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 938 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10281 . COSPAR: 1977-078A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 August 27 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 947 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10299 . COSPAR: 1977-081A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 August 30 - . 18:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-38 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1993-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10315 . COSPAR: 1977-082A. Apogee: 38,159 km (23,710 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.6000 deg. Period: 677.50 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.

1977 September 2 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 948 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 5. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10319 . COSPAR: 1977-083A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1977 September 6 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 949 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 7. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10326 . COSPAR: 1977-085A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance state acceptance test flight. Completely successful and led to acceptance of Yantar-2K into Red Army service in 1978. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission.

1977 September 13 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 950 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 10351 . COSPAR: 1977-086A. Apogee: 282 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 September 16 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 953 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10359 . COSPAR: 1977-089A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 September 20 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 955 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 13. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-09-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10362 . COSPAR: 1977-091A. Apogee: 501 km (311 mi). Perigee: 493 km (306 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.60 min.

1977 September 20 - . 17:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 291-02.
  • Ekran 2 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10365 . COSPAR: 1977-092A. Apogee: 35,938 km (22,330 mi). Perigee: 35,663 km (22,159 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Statsionar T. Transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to the network of public receiving units located in population centres in Siberia and the Far North. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1977-1978 As of 5 September 2001 located at 65.77 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.61E drifting at 0.200W degrees per day.

1977 September 22 - . 00:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 6 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 506. Mass: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. USAF Sat Cat: 10370 . COSPAR: 1977-093A. Apogee: 196,379 km (122,024 mi). Perigee: 1,850 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 74.4000 deg. Period: 5,683.20 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1977 September 29 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 295-01.
  • Salyut 6 - . Payload: Zarya s/n 125 s/n 5L. Mass: 19,824 kg (43,704 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Salyut 6. Duration: 1,763.71 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10382 . COSPAR: 1977-097A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: here....

1977 September 30 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 957 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 10385 . COSPAR: 1977-098A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1977 October 9 - . 02:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 25 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Kovalyonok; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 42. Mass: 6,860 kg (15,120 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kovalyonok; Ryumin; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 25. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 2.03 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 10401 . COSPAR: 1977-099A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6..

1977 October 11 - . 15:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 958 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10403 . COSPAR: 1977-100A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1977 October 28 - . 01:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-08 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 18. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 10455 . COSPAR: 1977-105A. Apogee: 38,508 km (23,927 mi). Perigee: 1,840 km (1,140 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1977 December 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 964 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-12-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10498 . COSPAR: 1977-110A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 December 10 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 26 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Grechko; Romanenko. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 43. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Romanenko; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 37.42 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10506 . COSPAR: 1977-113A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station..

1977 December 12 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 966 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-12-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10510 . COSPAR: 1977-115A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 966 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10538 . COSPAR: 1977-115D. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.24 min.

1977 December 14 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-03 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 3. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 10514 . COSPAR: 1977-117A. Apogee: 874 km (543 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.20 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service..

1977 December 20 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 969 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10527 . COSPAR: 1977-120A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1977 December 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 973 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10540 . COSPAR: 1977-124A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.5000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 973 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10558 . COSPAR: 1977-124D. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.61 min.

1978 January 6 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 974 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10554 . COSPAR: 1978-001A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 10 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 27 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Makarov. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 44. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Makarov; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-1; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 64.95 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10560 . COSPAR: 1978-003A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6..

1978 January 10 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 975 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 14. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2001-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10561 . COSPAR: 1978-004A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 513 km (318 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.00 min.

1978 January 13 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 984 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-01-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 10592 . COSPAR: 1978-006A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 January 20 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 1 - . Payload: Progress s/n 102. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 18.73 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . Decay Date: 1978-02-08 02:00:20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10603 . COSPAR: 1978-008A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 22 Jan 1978 10:12:14 GMT. Undocked on 6 Feb 1978 05:54:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 8 Feb 1978 02:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.91 days. Total docked time 14.82 days.

1978 January 24 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-09 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 20. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1990-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 10605 . COSPAR: 1978-009A. Apogee: 36,195 km (22,490 mi). Perigee: 85 km (52 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 636.80 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1978 January 24 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 986 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10607 . COSPAR: 1978-010A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 January 31 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 987 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 10639 . COSPAR: 1978-013A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 February 8 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 988 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 10666 . COSPAR: 1978-015A. Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks..

1978 February 14 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 989 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 10672 . COSPAR: 1978-017A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 March 2 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 28 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Gubarev; Remek. Backup Crew: Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 45. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gubarev; Remek; Pelczak; Rukavishnikov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-2; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.93 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 10694 . COSPAR: 1978-023A. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists.

1978 March 2 - . 22:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-39 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10696 . COSPAR: 1978-024A. Apogee: 39,957 km (24,828 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 62.0000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. .

1978 March 4 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 992 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 10699 . COSPAR: 1978-025A. Apogee: 323 km (200 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 March 10 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 993 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10725 . COSPAR: 1978-027A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 March 17 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 995 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10735 . COSPAR: 1978-030A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 March 30 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. Launch Pad: LC81/24?. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 292-01.
  • Cosmos 997 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 997. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10770 . COSPAR: 1978-032A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Given the on-pad explosion of the LVI-2 launch attempt, plans to crew the upper VA re-entry capsule in the next test was abandoned. LVI-3 (VA's 102P and 102L / Cosmos 997 and Cosmos 998) was launched unmanned four months behind the original schedule. Both capsules were recovered after one orbit. One source indicates that one of the capsules was 009P, on its third launch and second flight to orbit. This was said to have demonstrated the multiple re-entry capability of the heat shield and the first planned reuse of a spacecraft (Gemini 2 was refurbished and reflown as MOL-1 in the 1960's, but was not designed for that purpose).
  • Cosmos 998 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1978-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 10771 . COSPAR: 1978-032B. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit..

1978 March 30 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 999 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 10773 . COSPAR: 1978-033A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1001 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 4L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 10.87 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10783 . COSPAR: 1978-036A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
    Maneuver Summary:
    202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
    306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1978 April 6 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1002 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10785 . COSPAR: 1978-037A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 April 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1003 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10811 . COSPAR: 1978-040A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 May 5 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1004 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 10846 . COSPAR: 1978-043A. Apogee: 290 km (180 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated science capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1004 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10852 . COSPAR: 1978-043G. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.68 min.

1978 May 12 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1005 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 15. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-06-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10860 . COSPAR: 1978-045A. Apogee: 494 km (306 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1978 May 16 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1007 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10895 . COSPAR: 1978-048A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1978 May 23 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1010 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 6. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10915 . COSPAR: 1978-052A. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1978 May 25 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1012 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10919 . COSPAR: 1978-054A. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 June 2 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-40 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 10925 . COSPAR: 1978-055A. Apogee: 38,729 km (24,065 mi). Perigee: 1,627 km (1,010 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1978 June 10 - . 08:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1021 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 10939 . COSPAR: 1978-057A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 June 12 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1022 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 10944 . COSPAR: 1978-059A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 June 15 - . 20:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 29 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon). Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Backup Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 46. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok; Lyakhov; Ryumin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 10952 . COSPAR: 1978-061A. Apogee: 248 km (154 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments..

1978 June 27 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 30 - . Call Sign: Kavkas (Caucasus ). Crew: Hermaszewski; Klimuk. Backup Crew: Jankowski; Kubasov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T(A9) s/n 67. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Hermaszewski; Klimuk; Jankowski; Kubasov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-3; Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T/A9. Duration: 7.92 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 10968 . COSPAR: 1978-065A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station, under the Intercosmos programme, a second, international, crew consisting of P.I. Klimuk (USSR) and M. Hermaszewski (Poland) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments..

1978 June 28 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1024 - . Payload: Oko #9. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 10970 . COSPAR: 1978-066A. Apogee: 35,365 km (21,974 mi). Perigee: 4,984 km (3,096 mi). Inclination: 67.3000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 931. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 323 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 July 2 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1026 - . Payload: Energia s/n 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Energia. Duration: 4.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10977 . COSPAR: 1978-069A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space..

1978 July 7 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 2 - . Payload: Progress s/n 101. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.59 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . Decay Date: 1978-08-04 01:30:51 . USAF Sat Cat: 10979 . COSPAR: 1978-070A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Jul 1978 12:58:59 GMT. Undocked on 2 Aug 1978 04:57:44 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 4 Aug 1978 01:31:07 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.92 days. Total docked time 23.67 days.

1978 July 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-41 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10984 . COSPAR: 1978-072A. Apogee: 38,306 km (23,802 mi). Perigee: 260 km (160 mi). Inclination: 61.8000 deg. Period: 681.90 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1978 July 18 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 292-02.
  • Raduga 4 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 14L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 10987 . COSPAR: 1978-073A. Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 12.3000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 deg E in 1978-1981 As of 1 September 2001 located at 42.47 deg E drifting at 0.129 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 108.35E drifting at 0.106E degrees per day.

1978 August 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1028 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 14. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10995 . COSPAR: 1978-076A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Successful full duration flight. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1978 August 7 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 3 - . Payload: Progress s/n 103. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 15.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . Decay Date: 1978-08-24 16:44:38 . USAF Sat Cat: 10999 . COSPAR: 1978-077A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 9 Aug 1978 23:59:30 GMT. Undocked on 21 Aug 1978 15:42:50 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Aug 1978 16:45:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.10 days. Total docked time 11.66 days.

1978 August 22 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-42 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 11007 . COSPAR: 1978-080A. Apogee: 34,374 km (21,358 mi). Perigee: 1,181 km (733 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 622.70 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1978 August 26 - . 14:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 31 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky; Jaehn. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Koellner. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 47. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Jaehn; Gorbatko; Koellner. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-4; Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 67.84 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11010 . COSPAR: 1978-081A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivered to the Salyut-6 station the third international 'Intercosmos' crew consisting of V F Bykovsky (USSR) and S Jaehn (German Democratic Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1978 August 29 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1029 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11012 . COSPAR: 1978-082A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 September 6 - . 03:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1030 - . Payload: Oko #10. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2004-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11015 . COSPAR: 1978-083A. Apogee: 36,185 km (22,484 mi). Perigee: 4,131 km (2,566 mi). Inclination: 66.2000 deg. Period: 717.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 39 degree longitude of ascending node..

1978 September 9 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-1 296-01.
  • Venera 11 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 360. Mass: 4,715 kg (10,394 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 11020 . COSPAR: 1978-084A. Venera 11 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium. Each of the two spacecraft, Venera 11 and Venera 12, consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried on both spacecraft. Venera 11 was launched into a 177 x 205 km, 51.5 degree inclination earth orbit from which it was propelled into a 3.5 month Venus transfer orbit. After ejection of the lander probe, the flight platform continued on past Venus in a heliocentric orbit. Near encounter with Venus occurred on December 25, 1978, at approximately 34,000 km altitude. The flight platform acted as a data relay for the descent craft for 95 minutes until it flew out of range and returned its own measurements on interplanetary space. The Venera 11 descent craft separated from its flight platform on December 23, 1978 and entered the Venus atmosphere two days later at 11.2 km/sec. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:24 Moscow time on 25 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7-8 m/s.

    Both Venera 11 and 12 landers failed to return colour television views of the surface and perform soil analysis experiments. All of the camera protective covers failed to eject after landing (the cause was not established) The soil drilling experiment was apparently damaged by a leak in the soil collection device, the interior of which was exposed to the high Venusian atmospheric pressure. The leak had probably formed during the descent phase because the lander was less aerodynamically stable than had been thought.

    Two further experiments on the lander failed as well. Results reported included evidence of lightning and thunder, a high Ar36/Ar40 ratio, and the discovery of carbon monoxide at low altitudes.


1978 September 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1031 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11022 . COSPAR: 1978-085A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 September 14 - . 02:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-1. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-1 296-02.
  • Venera 12 - . Payload: 4V-1 s/n 361. Mass: 4,715 kg (10,394 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 4V-1. USAF Sat Cat: 11025 . COSPAR: 1978-086A. Venera 12 was part of a two-spacecraft mission to study Venus and the interplanetary medium. Each of the two spacecraft, Venera 11 and Venera 12, consisted of a flight platform and a lander probe. Identical instruments were carried on both spacecraft. Venera 12 was launched into a 177 x 205 km, 51.5 degree inclination Earth orbit from which it was propelled into a 3.5 month Venus transfer orbit which involved two mid-course corrections, on 21 September and 14 December. After ejection of the lander probe on 19 December, two days before encounter, the flight platform continued on past Venus in a heliocentric orbit. Near encounter with Venus occurred on December 21, 1978, at approximately 34,000 km altitude. The flight platform acted as a data relay for the descent craft for 110 minutes until it flew out of range and returned to its own measurements on interplanetary space. The Venera 12 descent craft entered the Venus atmosphere at 11.2 km/sec two days after separation from the flight bus. During the descent, it employed aerodynamic braking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. It made a soft landing on the surface at 06:30 Moscow time on 21 December after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. The touchdown speed was 7-8 m/s.

    Both Venera 11 and 12 landers failed to return colour television views of the surface and perform soil analysis experiments. All of the camera protective covers failed to eject after landing (the cause was not established) The soil drilling experiment was apparently damaged by a leak in the soil collection device, the interior of which was exposed to the high Venusian atmospheric pressure. The leak had probably formed during the descent phase because the lander was less aerodynamically stable than had been thought. Therefore the landing gear of the following two landers (Venera-13/14) were equipped with tooth-shaped stabilisers.

    Results reported included evidence of lightning and thunder, a high Ar36/Ar40 ratio, and the discovery of carbon monoxide at low altitudes.

    The Venera-12 flyby bus continued in solar orbit and successfully used its Soviet-French ultraviolet spectrometer to study Comet Bradfield on 13 February 1980 (one year and two months after its Venus encounter). At that time the spacecraft was 190,373,790 km from Earth.


1978 September 19 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1032 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11029 . COSPAR: 1978-088A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1032 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1978-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11038 . COSPAR: 1978-088D. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.07 min.

1978 October 3 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1033 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 7. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 11039 . COSPAR: 1978-089A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1978 October 3 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 4 - . Payload: Progress s/n 105. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-2. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 22.72 days. Completed Operations Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . Decay Date: 1978-10-27 16:27:43 . USAF Sat Cat: 11040 . COSPAR: 1978-090A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 6 Oct 1978 01:00:15 GMT. Undocked on 24 Oct 1978 13:01:52 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Oct 1978 16:28:13 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.22 days. Total docked time 18.50 days.

1978 October 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1042 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11052 . COSPAR: 1978-092A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 October 10 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1043 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 17. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1998-02-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11055 . COSPAR: 1978-094A. Apogee: 433 km (269 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 93.20 min.

1978 October 13 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-10 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 22. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 11057 . COSPAR: 1978-095A. Apogee: 33,590 km (20,870 mi). Perigee: 1,560 km (960 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 614.90 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1978 October 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1044 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11065 . COSPAR: 1978-097A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 October 30 - . 05:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 7 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 507. Mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1980-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11088 . COSPAR: 1978-101A. Apogee: 202,627 km (125,906 mi). Perigee: 472 km (293 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 5,881.10 min. Magnetospheric investigations. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun, of solar plasma fluxes and of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and the magnetosphere of the earth; investigation of galactic ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific apparatus produced in the USSR, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, France, the Hungarian People's Republic and Sweden.

1978 November 1 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1046 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11098 . COSPAR: 1978-102A. Apogee: 324 km (201 mi). Perigee: 202 km (125 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; deployed capsule..

1978 November 15 - . 11:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1047 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-11-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11108 . COSPAR: 1978-104A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1049 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11118 . COSPAR: 1978-107A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 November 28 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1050 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11121 . COSPAR: 1978-108A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 7 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1059 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11137 . COSPAR: 1978-110A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 8 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1060 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11139 . COSPAR: 1978-111A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1978 December 14 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1061 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11148 . COSPAR: 1978-114A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; deployed capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1061 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11167 . COSPAR: 1978-114C. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.43 min.

1978 December 19 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1063 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 18. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2001-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11155 . COSPAR: 1978-117A. Apogee: 524 km (325 mi). Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.10 min.

1978 December 19 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 295-02. FAILURE: Block DM malfunction, wrong orbit.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Gorizont 1 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 11L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1980-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11158 . COSPAR: 1978-118A. Apogee: 49,371 km (30,677 mi). Perigee: 22,193 km (13,790 mi). Inclination: 22.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Did not achieve geostationary orbit due to malfunction of Block D. Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 53 deg E in 1979-1980 As of 29 August 2001 located at 75.87 deg E drifting at 0.132 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 57.49E drifting at 0.119E degrees per day.

1978 December 23 - . 08:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1066 - . Payload: Astrofizika s/n 1. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Astrofizika. USAF Sat Cat: 11165 . COSPAR: 1978-121A. Apogee: 890 km (550 mi). Perigee: 819 km (508 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Probable failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1978 December 26 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1068 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 11169 . COSPAR: 1978-123A. Apogee: 389 km (241 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1978 December 28 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1069 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11173 . COSPAR: 1978-124A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1979 January 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1070 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11229 . COSPAR: 1979-001A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..
  • Nauka Cosmos 1070 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11245 . COSPAR: 1979-001F. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.29 min.

1979 January 13 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1071 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-01-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11233 . COSPAR: 1979-002A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 January 18 - . 15:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-11 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 23. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1998-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11240 . COSPAR: 1979-004A. Apogee: 39,973 km (24,838 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1979 January 25 - . 05:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-29 - . Payload: Meteor-Priroda s/n 2-3. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-Priroda. USAF Sat Cat: 11251 . COSPAR: 1979-005A. Apogee: 596 km (370 mi). Perigee: 546 km (339 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 96.10 min. Obtaining information needed for research into the natural resources of the earth and the development of methods for remote sensing of the underlying surface, and obtaining meteorological information. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific ap paratus from the German Democratic Republic.

1979 January 30 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1073 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 29.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11255 . COSPAR: 1979-006A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 January 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1074 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 5L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 60.04 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11259 . COSPAR: 1979-008A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 1, 1979 10:09 GMT. Soyuz T Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    197 km X 240 km orbit to 255 km X 297 km orbit. Delta V: 33 m/s
    255 km X 297 km orbit to 264 km X 306 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    264 km X 306 km orbit to 309 km X 321 km orbit. Delta V: 17 m/s
    309 km X 321 km orbit to 279 km X 357 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    279 km X 357 km orbit to 352 km X 402 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    352 km X 402 km orbit to 363 km X 384 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 112 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1979 February 13 - . 21:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1077 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 19. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11268 . COSPAR: 1979-012A. Apogee: 491 km (305 mi). Perigee: 485 km (301 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1979 February 21 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 294-01.
  • Ekran 3 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 16L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11273 . COSPAR: 1979-015A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,623 km (22,135 mi). Inclination: 14.6000 deg. Period: 1,435.30 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 51.81 deg E drifting at 0.088 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 98.64E drifting at 0.060E degrees per day.

1979 February 22 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1078 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 11276 . COSPAR: 1979-016A. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 February 25 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 32 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Lyakhov; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Lebedev; Popov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 48. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lyakhov; Ryumin; Lebedev; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 110.18 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11281 . COSPAR: 1979-018A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported a team consisting of V A Lyakhov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 space station to conduct scientific investigations and experiments and repair work. Recovered June 15, 1979 16:18 GMT. Returned unmanned..

1979 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1079 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 15. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11283 . COSPAR: 1979-019A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance. Spacecraft depressurization led to malfunction of spacecraft. Deorbited after 12 days..

1979 March 1 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-04 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 4. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 11288 . COSPAR: 1979-021A. Apogee: 872 km (541 mi). Perigee: 839 km (521 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service with the aid of advanced equipment..

1979 March 12 - . 05:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 5 - . Payload: Progress s/n 104. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 23.77 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . Decay Date: 1979-04-05 00:09:54 . USAF Sat Cat: 11292 . COSPAR: 1979-022A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 14 Mar 1979 07:19:21 GMT. Undocked on 3 Apr 1979 16:10:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 Apr 1979 00:10:22 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.40 days. Total docked time 20.37 days.

1979 March 14 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1080 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11294 . COSPAR: 1979-023A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 March 31 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1090 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11313 . COSPAR: 1979-027A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1979 April 10 - . 17:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
1979 April 12 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-43 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1989-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11328 . COSPAR: 1979-031A. Apogee: 39,936 km (24,815 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 713.40 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1979 April 14 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1093 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 20. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11331 . COSPAR: 1979-032A. Apogee: 487 km (302 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.20 min.

1979 April 20 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1095 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11335 . COSPAR: 1979-034A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 April 25 - . 03:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 298-02.
  • Raduga 5 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 15L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1982-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11343 . COSPAR: 1979-035A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 11.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1979-1982 As of 29 August 2001 located at 84.16 deg E drifting at 0.043 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 65.45E drifting at 0.034E degrees per day.

1979 April 27 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1097 - . Payload: Yantar-4K1 s/n 1. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11348 . COSPAR: 1979-037A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: First flight test of Yantar-4K1 satellite. Returned as planned after 30 days. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1979 May 13 - . 04:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 6 - . Payload: Progress s/n 106. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 27.61 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . Decay Date: 1979-06-09 18:52:36 . USAF Sat Cat: 11356 . COSPAR: 1979-039A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 15 May 1979 06:19:22 GMT. Undocked on 8 Jun 1979 07:59:41 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Jun 1979 18:52:46 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.54 days. Total docked time 24.07 days.

1979 May 15 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1098 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11358 . COSPAR: 1979-040A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks..

1979 May 17 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1099 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 8. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11360 . COSPAR: 1979-041A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1979 May 22 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 300-02.
  • Cosmos 1100 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102P. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Cosmos 1100. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Duration: 0.0600 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . COSPAR: 1979-042A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. The Proton launch vehicle that shut down on the original LVI-4 launch attempt was undamaged, and just a month later, with a switch of payload, LVI-4 was orbited as Cosmos 1100 and 1101. The pair launched were the 102P/102L twins from LVI-3. One capsule failed when the automatic system suffered an electrical distribution failure and it did not land correctly, spending two orbits in space, while the other landed as planned after one orbit. The launch again successfully demonstrated the reusability of the VA capsule. Plans to launch the upper capsule manned were scrubbed due to the inability to get two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA.
  • Cosmos 1101 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 102L. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA. Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11363 . COSPAR: 1979-042B. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Test of TKS-VA manned capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket..

1979 May 25 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1102 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11368 . COSPAR: 1979-043A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Nauka subsatellite 32KS jettisoned into independent orbit in the course of the mission. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1102 - . Payload: Nauka. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-07-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11390 . COSPAR: 1979-043D. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 87.91 min.

1979 May 31 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1103 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11376 . COSPAR: 1979-045A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 257 km (159 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.80 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 June 5 - . 23:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-12 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 21. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1992-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11384 . COSPAR: 1979-048A. Apogee: 19,362 km (12,030 mi). Perigee: 126 km (78 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 339.60 min. Summary: Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1979 June 6 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 34 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 50. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 73.76 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11387 . COSPAR: 1979-049A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Docked with Salyut 6. Launched unmanned to provide return vehicle for Soyuz 32 crew of Lyakhov/Ryumin after Soyuz 33 primary propulsion system failure. Checked the operation of the spacecraft propulsion unit; transportated the crew of the Salyut-6 station back to earth.

1979 June 8 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1105 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 9. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11394 . COSPAR: 1979-052A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1979 June 12 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1106 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11399 . COSPAR: 1979-054A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.
  • Nauka Cosmos 1106 - . Payload: Nauka?. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Nauka. Decay Date: 1979-06-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11415 . COSPAR: 1979-054D. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.50 min.

1979 June 15 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1107 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 11404 . COSPAR: 1979-055A. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 June 22 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1108 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 10. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11413 . COSPAR: 1979-056A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1979 June 27 - . 18:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1109 - . Payload: Oko #11. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 11417 . COSPAR: 1979-058A. Apogee: 36,998 km (22,989 mi). Perigee: 3,228 km (2,005 mi). Inclination: 68.2000 deg. Period: 715.20 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 237 degree longitude of ascending node..

1979 June 28 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 7 - . Payload: Progress s/n 107. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 21.69 days. Completed Operations Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . Decay Date: 1979-07-20 01:57:19 . USAF Sat Cat: 11421 . COSPAR: 1979-059A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the Salyut 6 station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Jun 1979 11:18:22 GMT. Undocked on 18 Jul 1979 03:49:55 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Jul 1979 01:57:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.0 days. Total docked time 17.69 days.
  • KRT-10 - . Payload: KRT-10. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-3. Spacecraft: KRT-10. Decay Date: 1979-08-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11493 . COSPAR: 1977-097BD. Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.99 min. Summary: 10 m diameter radio telescope. Attached to Salyut 6 docking hatch and deployed after separation of Progress from Mir..

1979 June 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1111 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-07-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11429 . COSPAR: 1979-061A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 July 5 - . 23:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 299-01.
  • Gorizont 2 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 12L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1983-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 11440 . COSPAR: 1979-062A. Apogee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Stationed at 14 deg W. Statsionar 4. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1979-1981; 90 deg E in 1981-1983 As of 26 August 2001 located at 59.72 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 84.05E drifting at 0.107W degrees per day.

1979 July 10 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1113 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11447 . COSPAR: 1979-064A. Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 July 13 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1115 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 11. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-07-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11451 . COSPAR: 1979-066A. Apogee: 235 km (146 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1979 July 20 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1116 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 21. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1993-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11457 . COSPAR: 1979-067A. Apogee: 408 km (253 mi). Perigee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 92.60 min.

1979 July 25 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1117 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11463 . COSPAR: 1979-068A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 July 27 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1118 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11465 . COSPAR: 1979-069A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1979 July 31 - . 03:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-44 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 11474 . COSPAR: 1979-070A. Apogee: 39,806 km (24,734 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. .

1979 August 3 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1119 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 11478 . COSPAR: 1979-071A. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; separated capsule..

1979 August 11 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1120 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 11485 . COSPAR: 1979-073A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 70.6000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 August 14 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1121 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 929. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11487 . COSPAR: 1979-074A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1979 August 17 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1122 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11491 . COSPAR: 1979-075A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for earth resources studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Nauka subsatellite 31KS jettisoned into independent orbit in the course of the mission. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1979 August 21 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1123 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 12. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11496 . COSPAR: 1979-076A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1979 August 28 - . 00:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1124 - . Payload: Oko #12. Mass: 2,030 kg (4,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 11509 . COSPAR: 1979-077A. Apogee: 35,403 km (21,998 mi). Perigee: 4,913 km (3,052 mi). Inclination: 67.3000 deg. Period: 717.00 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1030. Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 36 degree longitude of ascending node..

1979 August 31 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1126 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11515 . COSPAR: 1979-079A. Apogee: 391 km (242 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 September 5 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1127 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11520 . COSPAR: 1979-080A. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1979 September 14 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1128 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 11529 . COSPAR: 1979-081A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 September 25 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1129 - . Payload: Bion no. 5. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.50 days. Decay Date: 1979-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11536 . COSPAR: 1979-083A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Biological experiments; embryo development, radiation medicine. Biosatellite for the continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 65 deg 30 min E. Cosmos 1129 satellite carried biological and radiation physics experiment packages from Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the German Democratic Republic, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Additional Details: here....

1979 September 28 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1138 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11548 . COSPAR: 1979-085A. Apogee: 373 km (231 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 October 3 - . 17:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 302-02.
  • Ekran 4 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 17L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11561 . COSPAR: 1979-087A. Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Perigee: 35,725 km (22,198 mi). Inclination: 14.5000 deg. Period: 1,435.60 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1979-1981 As of 4 September 2001 located at 52.52 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 96.71E drifting at 0.048W degrees per day.

1979 October 5 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1139 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11564 . COSPAR: 1979-088A. Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1979 October 20 - . 07:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-45 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1994-02-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11589 . COSPAR: 1979-091A. Apogee: 39,615 km (24,615 mi). Perigee: 93 km (57 mi). Inclination: 61.7000 deg. Period: 704.70 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1979 October 22 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1142 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-11-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11592 . COSPAR: 1979-092A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 October 26 - . 18:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1143 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 22. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2002-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11600 . COSPAR: 1979-093A. Apogee: 533 km (331 mi). Perigee: 524 km (325 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 95.20 min.

1979 October 31 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-05 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 5. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 11605 . COSPAR: 1979-095A. Apogee: 881 km (547 mi). Perigee: 862 km (535 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.40 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information required for use in the operational weather service with the aid of advanced equipment. .

1979 November 2 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1144 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 939. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 32.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11611 . COSPAR: 1979-097A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1979 November 27 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1145 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 23. Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2000-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 11629 . COSPAR: 1979-099A. Apogee: 495 km (307 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 94.40 min.

1979 December 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1147 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11638 . COSPAR: 1979-102A. Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1979 December 16 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-1 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 6L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 100.38 days. Decay Date: 1980-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11640 . COSPAR: 1979-103A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. New generation Soyuz capsule; unmanned flight to Salyut 6. Docked with Salyut 6. Recovered March 25, 1980 21:47 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz T design.
    Officially: Complex experimental testing of new on-board systems and assemblies under various flight conditions and operation in conjunction with the Salyut-6 orbital station.

1979 December 28 - . 11:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 303-01.
  • Gorizont 3 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 13L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1989-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11648 . COSPAR: 1979-105A. Apogee: 35,831 km (22,264 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 11.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 53 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1980-1984; 40 deg E in 1984-1989 As of 30 August 2001 located at 47.84 deg E drifting at 0.163 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.81E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day..

1979 December 28 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1148 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11649 . COSPAR: 1979-106A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 January 9 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1149 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11652 . COSPAR: 1980-001A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 January 11 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-46 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1992-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11662 . COSPAR: 1980-002A. Apogee: 28,891 km (17,952 mi). Perigee: 103 km (64 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 500.30 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1980 January 24 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1152 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 928. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 11678 . COSPAR: 1980-006A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance. Mission terminated early for unknown reasons (normally 30 day duration)..

1980 January 30 - . 12:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1154 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 24. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2002-11-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11682 . COSPAR: 1980-008A. Apogee: 545 km (338 mi). Perigee: 540 km (330 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.50 min.

1980 February 7 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1155 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-02-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11685 . COSPAR: 1980-009A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 February 12 - . 00:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 1164 - . Payload: Oko #13. Mass: 1,890 kg (4,160 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1980-02-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11700 . COSPAR: 1980-013A. Apogee: 40,856 km (25,386 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 736.80 min. Summary: Left in parking orbit. Decay date suspect Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. Was intended to cover Oko constellation plane 9 - 241 degree longitude of ascending node..

1980 February 20 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 297-01.
  • Raduga 6 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 16L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11708 . COSPAR: 1980-016A. Apogee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 11.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1980-1982; 45 deg E in 1982-1986 As of 1 September 2001 located at 41.36 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 101.46E drifting at 0.146E degrees per day.

1980 February 21 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1165 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11713 . COSPAR: 1980-017A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1980 March 4 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1166 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11722 . COSPAR: 1980-020A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 March 27 - . 18:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 8 - . Payload: Progress s/n 108. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 29.50 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . Decay Date: 1980-04-26 06:54:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11743 . COSPAR: 1980-024A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Mar 1980 20:01:00 GMT. Undocked on 25 Apr 1980 08:04:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 26 Apr 1980 06:54:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.0 days. Total docked time 26.50 days.

1980 April 1 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1170 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11747 . COSPAR: 1980-025A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 April 9 - . 13:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 35 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Ryumin. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 51. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Ryumin; Andreyev; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 55.06 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11753 . COSPAR: 1980-027A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried crew comprising L I Popov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific and technical research and experiments..

1980 April 12 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1172 - . Payload: Oko #14. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1997-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11758 . COSPAR: 1980-028A. Apogee: 38,809 km (24,114 mi). Perigee: 1,476 km (917 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 716.40 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1109. Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 240 degree longitude of ascending node..

1980 April 17 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1173 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11763 . COSPAR: 1980-029A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 April 18 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Cosmos 1175 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 26. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1980-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 11769 . COSPAR: 1980-031C. Apogee: 458 km (284 mi). Perigee: 251 km (155 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Probable failed early warning. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1980 April 27 - . 06:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 9 - . Payload: Progress s/n 109. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 24.76 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-05-22 00:44:00 . Decay Date: 1980-05-22 00:44:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 11784 . COSPAR: 1980-033A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 29 Apr 1980 08:09:19 GMT. Undocked on 20 May 1980 18:51:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 22 May 1980 00:44:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.32 days. Total docked time 21.45 days.

1980 April 29 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1177 - . Payload: Yantar-4K1 s/n 2. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11789 . COSPAR: 1980-035A. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Second flight test of Yantar-4K1 satellite. Demonstrated full spacecraft design duration of 45 days. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1980 May 7 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1178 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 11793 . COSPAR: 1980-036A. Apogee: 386 km (239 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 May 15 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1180 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11798 . COSPAR: 1980-038A. Apogee: 279 km (173 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1980 May 23 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1182 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 13. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11808 . COSPAR: 1980-040A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1980 May 26 - . 18:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 36 - . Call Sign: Orion (Orion ). Crew: Farkas; Kubasov. Backup Crew: Dzhanibekov; Magyari. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 52. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Farkas; Kubasov; Dzhanibekov; Magyari. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-5; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 65.87 days. Decay Date: 1980-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 11811 . COSPAR: 1980-041A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Transported the fifth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V N Kubasov (USSR) and B Farkas (Hungary) to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific research and experiments..

1980 May 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1183 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11816 . COSPAR: 1980-042A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 June 4 - . 07:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1184 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 25. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2002-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 11821 . COSPAR: 1980-044A. Apogee: 535 km (332 mi). Perigee: 532 km (330 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.30 min.

1980 June 5 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-2 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Aksyonov; Malyshev. Backup Crew: Kizim; Makarov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 7L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Malyshev; Kizim; Makarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-6; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11825 . COSPAR: 1980-045A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Test flight of new Soyuz T; docked with Salyut 6. Conducted testing and development of on-board systems in the improved Soyuz T series transport vehicle under piloted conditions..

1980 June 6 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1185 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 11827 . COSPAR: 1980-046A. Apogee: 277 km (172 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable (?); also performed earth resource tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1980 June 12 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1187 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11837 . COSPAR: 1980-048A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 June 14 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 303-02.
  • Gorizont 4 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 15L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1988-10-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11841 . COSPAR: 1980-049A. Apogee: 36,269 km (22,536 mi). Perigee: 36,239 km (22,517 mi). Inclination: 14.3000 deg. Period: 1,460.10 min. Stationed at 14 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1980-1984; 11 deg W in 1984-1985; 14 deg W in 1985; 11 deg W in 1985-1988 As of 3 September 2001 located at 106.01 deg W drifting at 5.930 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 145.19W drifting at 5.924W degrees per day.

1980 June 14 - . 20:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1188 - . Payload: Oko #15. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 11844 . COSPAR: 1980-050A. Apogee: 36,280 km (22,540 mi). Perigee: 4,103 km (2,549 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 718.40 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1024. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 319 degree longitude of ascending node..

1980 June 18 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-30 - . Payload: Resurs-OE s/n 3-1. Mass: 3,475 kg (7,661 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-OE. Duration: 4,274.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11848 . COSPAR: 1980-051A. Apogee: 457 km (283 mi). Perigee: 428 km (265 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. First flight of prototype for Resurs-O1 spacecraft. Also performed remote sensing tasks. Acquisition of information required for continued investigation of the natural resources of the earth; development of remote sensing methods for measuring the status of the earth's surface and the atmosphere beneath the satellite.

1980 June 21 - . 18:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-47 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1991-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11856 . COSPAR: 1980-053A. Apogee: 24,508 km (15,228 mi). Perigee: 98 km (60 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 423.50 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1980 June 26 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1189 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-07-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 11863 . COSPAR: 1980-054A. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 June 29 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 10 - . Payload: Progress s/n 110. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 19.88 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-19 01:47:18 . Decay Date: 1980-07-19 01:47:18 . USAF Sat Cat: 11867 . COSPAR: 1980-055A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 1 Jul 1980 05:53:00 GMT. Undocked on 17 Jul 1980 22:21:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 19 Jul 1980 01:47:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.19 days. Total docked time 16.69 days.

1980 July 2 - . 00:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1191 - . Payload: Oko #16. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 11871 . COSPAR: 1980-057A. Apogee: 34,907 km (21,690 mi). Perigee: 5,403 km (3,357 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 716.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1124. Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 39 degree longitude of ascending node..

1980 July 9 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1200 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-07-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11884 . COSPAR: 1980-059A. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 July 14 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 301-01.
  • Ekran 5 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 19L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1980-07-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11890 . COSPAR: 1980-060A. Apogee: 35,834 km (22,266 mi). Perigee: 35,737 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1980 Last known longitude (14 March 1994) 95.12 deg E drifting at 0.122 deg W per day.

1980 July 15 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1201 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 14. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 11894 . COSPAR: 1980-061A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1980 July 18 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-13 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 27. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 11896 . COSPAR: 1980-063A. Apogee: 38,990 km (24,220 mi). Perigee: 1,364 km (847 mi). Inclination: 63.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1980 July 23 - . 18:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 37 - . Call Sign: Terek (Terek - river in the Caucasus). Crew: Gorbatko; Tuan. Backup Crew: Bykovsky; Liem. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 53. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gorbatko; Tuan; Bykovsky; Liem. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-7; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 79.64 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11905 . COSPAR: 1980-064A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Manned two crew. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the sixth international crew under the Intercosmos programme, comprising V V Gorbatko (USSR) and Pham Tuan (Viet Nam), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 35 to Earth. Recovered October 11, 1980 9:50 GMT.

1980 July 24 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1202 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 11907 . COSPAR: 1980-065A. Apogee: 307 km (190 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 July 31 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1203 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11915 . COSPAR: 1980-066A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable (?); also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1980 August 12 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1205 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-08-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11924 . COSPAR: 1980-068A. Apogee: 302 km (187 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 August 15 - . 05:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1206 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 26. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2002-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11932 . COSPAR: 1980-069A. Apogee: 531 km (329 mi). Perigee: 525 km (326 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.20 min.

1980 August 22 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1207 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 15. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11938 . COSPAR: 1980-070A. Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1980 August 26 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1208 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 927. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 29.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 11945 . COSPAR: 1980-071A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1980 September 3 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1209 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11950 . COSPAR: 1980-072A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1980 September 9 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 2-06 - . Payload: Meteor-2 no. 6. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 11962 . COSPAR: 1980-073A. Apogee: 886 km (550 mi). Perigee: 834 km (518 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Gathering meteorological information and data on penetrating radiation fluxes in circumterrestrial space. .

1980 September 18 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 38 - . Call Sign: Taimyr (Taimyr - Russian peninsula). Crew: Romanenko; Tamayo-Mendez. Backup Crew: Khrunov; Lopez-Falcon. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 54. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Romanenko; Tamayo-Mendez; Khrunov; Lopez-Falcon. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-8; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 7.86 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 11977 . COSPAR: 1980-075A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the seventh international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising Y V Romanenko (USSR) and A. Tomaio Mendez (Cuba), to conduct scientific research and experiments..

1980 September 19 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1210 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11980 . COSPAR: 1980-076A. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 September 23 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1211 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 11.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11982 . COSPAR: 1980-077A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; returned film capsule; also performed mapping, geodesy, earth resources tasks; separated capsule..

1980 September 26 - . 10:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1212 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 16. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11985 . COSPAR: 1980-078A. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1980 September 28 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress 11 - . Payload: Progress s/n 111. Mass: 7,014 kg (15,463 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 73.95 days. Completed Operations Date: 1980-12-11 14:00:05 . Decay Date: 1980-12-11 14:00:05 . USAF Sat Cat: 11993 . COSPAR: 1980-079A. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Unmanned supply vessel for Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 30 Sep 1980 17:03:00 GMT. Undocked on 9 Dec 1980 10:23:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 11 Dec 1980 14:00:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 4.23 days. Total docked time 69.72 days.

1980 October 3 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1213 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11997 . COSPAR: 1980-080A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 October 5 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 300-01.
  • Raduga 7 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 17L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1986-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12003 . COSPAR: 1980-081A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,755 km (22,217 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Radio, telegraph, TV. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1980-1981; 25 deg W in 1982-1986 As of 30 August 2001 located at 103.91 deg W drifting at 0.397 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 30.06W drifting at 0.092W degrees per day.

1980 October 10 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1214 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 12008 . COSPAR: 1980-082A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 October 16 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1216 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 12019 . COSPAR: 1980-084A. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 October 24 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1217 - . Payload: Oko #17. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12032 . COSPAR: 1980-085A. Apogee: 38,306 km (23,802 mi). Perigee: 2,007 km (1,247 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Period: 716.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1188. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 316 degree longitude of ascending node..

1980 October 30 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1218 - . Payload: Yantar-4K1 s/n 3. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 43.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 12039 . COSPAR: 1980-086A. Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Successful state acceptance test flight of Yantar-4K1 satellite. Led to Yantar-4K1 acceptance for Red Army service the following year. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission.

1980 October 31 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1219 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-11-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 12050 . COSPAR: 1980-088A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 November 12 - . 12:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1221 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-11-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12058 . COSPAR: 1980-090A. Apogee: 399 km (247 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 November 16 - . 04:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-48 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 1995-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 12066 . COSPAR: 1980-092A. Apogee: 39,291 km (24,414 mi). Perigee: 870 km (540 mi). Inclination: 62.4000 deg. Period: 713.90 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1980 November 21 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1222 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 27. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 2011-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 12071 . COSPAR: 1980-093A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 557 km (346 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.90 min.

1980 November 27 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-3 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 8L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov; Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-5. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 12.80 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12077 . COSPAR: 1980-094A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved transport ship of the 'SOYUZ T' series; transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station a crew consisting of L D Kizim, O G Makarov and G M Strekalov to carry out repair and preventive work and scientific and technical investigation and experiments.

1980 November 27 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1223 - . Payload: Oko #18. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12078 . COSPAR: 1980-095A. Apogee: 34,854 km (21,657 mi). Perigee: 5,517 km (3,428 mi). Inclination: 68.3000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 903. Covered Oko constellation planes 7/8 - 177 degree longitude of ascending node..

1980 December 1 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1224 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 12084 . COSPAR: 1980-096A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1980 December 16 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1227 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12100 . COSPAR: 1980-101A. Apogee: 296 km (183 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1980 December 25 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 8 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 508. Mass: 910 kg (2,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1984-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12116 . COSPAR: 1980-103A. Apogee: 197,364 km (122,636 mi). Perigee: 978 km (607 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 5,687.80 min. Examined solar wind interaction with magnetosphere. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth. In addition to Soviet apparatus, carried scientific apparatus produced in the USSR, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Polish People's Republic, and Sweden.

1980 December 26 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 304-01.
  • Ekran 6 - . Payload: Ekran s/n 20L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran . Completed Operations Date: 1981-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 12120 . COSPAR: 1980-104A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 14.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Transmission of color and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1981 As of 3 September 2001 located at 96.55 deg E drifting at 0.071 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 55.67E drifting at 0.097E degrees per day.

1980 December 26 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1236 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 941. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 26.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 12121 . COSPAR: 1980-105A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 January 6 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1237 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12130 . COSPAR: 1981-001A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 January 9 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-14 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 25. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 1999-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 12133 . COSPAR: 1981-002A. Apogee: 39,863 km (24,769 mi). Perigee: 487 km (302 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Replaced Molniya 3-10. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1981 January 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1239 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MT. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12140 . COSPAR: 1981-004A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 210 km (130 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Military topography satellite; ret