Encyclopedia Astronautica
TRW


American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. TRW Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA, USA.

AKA: TRW Space & Electronics; Northrop Grumman Space Technology.
Location: Redondo Beach, CA.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Goldin Goldin, Daniel S (1940-) American engineer, NASA Administrator 1992-2001. Attempted reforms, with economical approach to space probe development and X-33, X-34, and X-38 to lower space launch costs. These seen as failures; while the ISS budget went out of control. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Pioneer 0-1-2 American lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1958.08.17 (Pioneer (1)) to 1958.11.08 (Pioneer 2). Pioneers 0, 1 and 2 were the first U. S. spacecraft to attempt to leave Earth orbit. More...
  • Pioneer 5 American solar satellite. One launch, 1960.03.11. Pioneer 5 was designed to provide the first map of the interplanetary magnetic field. The vehicle functioned for a record 106 days, and communicated with Earth from a record distance of 36.2 million km. More...
  • Apollo ULS American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. An Apollo unmanned logistic system to aid astronauts on a lunar landing mission was studied. More...
  • ERS American earth magnetosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1962.09.17 (TRS) to 1967.04.28. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles. More...
  • Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1963.10.17 (Vela 2) to 1965.07.20 (Vela 6). The Vela (meaning "watchman" in Spanish) series of spacecraft were designed to monitor world-wide compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty. More...
  • TRW Mars American manned Mars expedition. Study 1963. In 1963 TRW designed a Mars expedition using aerobraking at both Mars and Earth, and a swingby of Venus on return. More...
  • Pioneer 6-7-8-9-E American solar satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.16 (Pioneer 6) to 1969.08.27 (Pioneer E). Pioneers 6, 7, 8, and 9 were created to make the first detailed, comprehensive measurements of the solar wind, solar magnetic field and cosmic rays. More...
  • Janus American manned spaceplane. Study 1965. This TRW design of 1965 used a unique concept - a lifting body main stage, that provided both ascent propulsion and re-entry protection. More...
  • OV5 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 8 launches, 1967.04.28 (OV5-03) to 1969.05.23 (OV5-09). OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. More...
  • Advanced Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1967.04.28 (Vela 7) to 1970.04.08 (Vela 11). More...
  • Intelsat 3 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1968.09.19 (Intelsat-3 F-1) to 1970.07.23 (Intelsat 3 F-8). Intelsat 3 spacecraft were used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV. More...
  • DSP American military early warning satellite. 23 launches, 1970.11.06 (IMEWS 1) to 2007.11.11 (USA 176). An evolving series of satellites built by the United States to detect intercontinental ballistic missiles on launch. More...
  • DSCS II American military communications satellite. 15 launches, 1971.11.03 (DSCS II-01) to 1982.10.30 (DSCS II-15). DSCS provided secure voice and data communications for the US military. More...
  • Pioneer 10-11 American outer planets probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.03 (Pioneer 10) to 1973.04.06 (Pioneer 11). Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first spacecraft to fly by Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11 only). More...
  • FLTSATCOM American military communications satellite. 8 launches, 1978.02.09 (Fltsatcom 1) to 1989.09.25 (USA 46). More...
  • Space Station Designs - 1982 American manned space station. Study 1982. NASA regarded a permanently manned space station as the next 'logical step' in manned spaceflight after the Space Shuttle entered service in April 1981. More...
  • TDRS American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1983.04.04 (TDRS 1) to 1995.07.13 (TDRS 7). Satellite communications network, for use by Shuttle and US military satellites. More...
  • OMV American space tug. Cancelled 1987. The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) was an important component in NASA's future Space Station plans in the 1980s. More...
  • GRO American gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1991.04.05, Compton Observatory. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the gamma-ray element of NASA's Great Observatories program . More...
  • Milstar American military communications satellite. 6 launches, 1994.02.07 (USA 99) to 2003.04.08 (USA 169). Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users. More...
  • TAOS American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs. More...
  • TOMS-EP American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.07.02. More...
  • Lewis American earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1997.08.23. Lewis was selected in the NASA SSTI (Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative) program, along with Clark, to demonstrate advanced spacecraft technologies. More...
  • Odyssey American communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst. More...
  • ROCSAT Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. More...
  • Chandra American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.07.23. More...
  • KOMPSAT South Korean communications technology satellite. One launch, 1999.12.21. KOMPSAT was the first joint spacecraft development project for the South Korean aerospace agency KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute). More...
  • GeoLITE American military communications satellite. One launch, 2001.05.18, USA 158. GeoLITE was a TRW T-310 class satellite with a mass of about 1800 kg, including a solid apogee motor. More...
  • Aqua American earth sea satellite. One launch, 2002.05.04. Aqua was also designated the EOS-PM Earth Observing System satellite, joining EOS-AM/Terra. The CERES and MODIS instruments aboard Aqua were also carried on the Terra satellite. More...
  • Aura American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2004.07.15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura was a NASA mission to study the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate. More...

Associated Engines
  • Dual Mode-Liquid Apogee Engine TRW MON/Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.454 kN. In Production. Isp=314s. First Flight: April 1991. Burn Time 24,000 sec total, with a 3600 sec maximum single burn. Hypergolic ignition via 28 V current to an on/off bi-propellant torque motor valve. More...
  • MRE-15/OMV TRW hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.089 kN. In Production. Isp=225s. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters. More...
  • Press Fed TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 17.8 kN. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=300s. More...
  • Press Fed 1000k TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 9793 kN. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=300s. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. More...
  • Press Fed 200k TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2028 kN. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=306s. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. More...
  • Press Fed 25k TRW Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Design concept 1960's. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=270s. More...
  • Press Fed 5748k TRW N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 56,368 kN. Study 1968. 1960's designs for 'big dumb booster'. Isp=267s. Used on LCLV launch vehicle. More...
  • SEPS Hughes, TRW, NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. 128 mN Isp=3000s. Solar Electric Propulsion Stage program, started in the early 1970s, a goal to provide a primary ion propulsion system operating at a fixed power for Earth orbital applications. More...
  • SEPST JPL, Hughes, TRW electric/mercury rocket engine. 88 mN. Isp=3600s. The Solar Electric Propulsion System Technology program of 1960-1980 demonstrated a complete breadboard ion propulsion system that would be applicable to an interplanetary spacecraft. More...
  • TR-107 TRW lox/kerosene rocket engine. 4900 kN. Booster stages. TRW design for NASA's Space Launch Initiative. The engine used duct-cooling of the main combustion chamber and materials that would not interact with kerosene to minimise coking. More...
  • TR-106 TRW lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2892 kN. Development. Innovative TRW 650K Low Cost Pintle Engine, test fired at NASA's test center in October 2000. More...
  • TR-201 TRW N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 41.9 kN. Apollo lunar module ascent stage engines. Surplus engines used on Delta P stage. Isp=301s. First flight 1972. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • LCLV American low cost orbital launch vehicle. As a result of TRW's review of the Truax/Aerojet Sea Dragon, TRW became so interested in the concept that they undertook studies of their own, which resulted in a design that became known as the 'Big Dumb Booster'. They proposed structural approaches that were even more conservative than Aerojet's, e.g., the use of T-180 steel instead of maraging steel, which would result in even heavier and cheaper tankage. TRW finally obtained USAF funding for fabrication of stage sections and demonstration of scaled-up versions of the TRW pump-fed Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine. The design promised low cost access to space using low technology (steel stages built to low tolerances in shipyards, pressure-fed engines, and low cost storable propellants). But yet again neither NASA or USAF showed interest in true cheap access to space. More...

TRW Chronology


1997 February 23 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402B/IUS. LV Configuration: Titan 402B/IUS 4B-24 (K-24, 45D-4).
  • USA 130 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F18. Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 24737 . COSPAR: 1997-008A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Summary: DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1999. Still in service as of March 2007..

1997 August 23 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC6. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-1. LV Configuration: LMLV-1 LM-002.
  • Lewis - . Payload: SSTI/Lewis. Nation: USA. Agency: TRW; NASA. Manufacturer: Chantilly. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Lewis. Decay Date: 1997-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 24909 . COSPAR: 1997-044A. Apogee: 134 km (83 mi). Perigee: 124 km (77 mi). Inclination: 97.5000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Summary: Reentered Sep 28.

1998 August 12 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401A. LV Configuration: Titan 401A/Centaur 4A-20/TC-9 (K-17). FAILURE: Due to guidance system loss of heading after power interrupt, booster pitched over 40 seconds after launch, and was destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Mercury ELINT - . Payload: Mercury ELINT 3. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; NSA. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. COSPAR: F980812A. Summary: Third launch of Mercury ELINT satellite..

1999 January 27 - . 00:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. Launch Pad: SLC46. LV Family: Athena. Launch Vehicle: Athena-1. LV Configuration: Athena-1 LM-006.
  • ROCSAT-1 - . Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: Taiwan. Agency: NSPO. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: ROCSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 25616 . COSPAR: 1999-002A. Apogee: 653 km (405 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Taiwan's first satellite, with experimental communications, ocean imagery, and ionospheric studies instruments. The Primex OAM placed itself and the payload into an elliptical transfer orbit. A second OAM burn circularized the orbit, and ROCSAT separated into a 588 x 601 km x 35.0 deg orbit.

1999 April 9 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402B/IUS. LV Configuration: Titan 402B 4B-27 / IUS K-32. FAILURE: IUS first and second stages failed to separate.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • USA 142 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F19. Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 25669 . COSPAR: 1999-017A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 720 km (440 mi). Inclination: 28.0000 deg. The Titan 4B placed the IUS upper stages and DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. payload into a 188 km x 718 km x 28.6 deg parking orbit. The first stage of the IUS burned at 18:14 GMT and put the second stage and payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The IUS second stage fired at 23:34 GMT in order to place the spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit. However, at least one connector remained attached between the stages, and the second stage motor nozzle did not extend properly. When the stage fired, the vehicle tumbled wildly during the burn. Separation of the DSP was achieved. Although it could not perform its primary mission, it did provide a good test case in that the effects of radiation on its systems could be monitored as they underwent twice-daily passages of the Van Allen Radiation Belts. However after some weeks the hydrazine propellant aboard the satellite vented into space due to a broken fuel line. It was believed this had been induced by the wild ride aboard the IUS-2 stage.

1999 July 23 - . 04:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-93.
  • Chandra - . Payload: OV-102. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Huntsville. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Chandra. USAF Sat Cat: 25867 . COSPAR: 1999-040B. Apogee: 128,769 km (80,013 mi). Perigee: 20,046 km (12,455 mi). Inclination: 45.1000 deg. Period: 3,808.60 min. The Chandra Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was one of NASA’s four Great Observatories (along with Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the SIRTF). Chandra will study the composition and nature of galaxies, stellar objects and interstellar phenomena as well as basic issues in theoretical physics using the most sensitive X-ray telescope ever built. The IUS under-performed and placed Chandra in an orbit about 900 km lower than planned. Therefore Chandra's own IPS propulsion system had to be used to make up the difference. The first such manoeuvre was at 01:11 GMT on July 25 when the IPS engines fired for 5 minutes to raise perigee to 1192 km. Further perigee burns on July 31, August 4, and August 7 raised the orbit to its final 10,000 km x 140.000 km. Additional Details: here....

2000 May 8 - . 16:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402B/IUS. LV Configuration: Titan 402B 4B-29 / IUS.
  • USA 149 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F20. Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 26356 . COSPAR: 2000-024A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Delivered by the two-stage IUS-22 solid rocket into geostationary orbit. Fullfilled mission of DSP 19 launched in 1999 into the wrong orbit when its IUS stage failed. Still in service as of March 2007. As of 2005 Apr 2 located at 8.05E drifting at 0.166E degrees per day.

2001 May 18 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. Launch Pad: SLC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925-9.5. LV Configuration: Delta 7925-9.5 D285.
  • USA 158 - . Payload: GeoLITE. Mass: 93 kg (205 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: GeoLITE. USAF Sat Cat: 26770 . COSPAR: 2001-020A. Apogee: 35,700 km (22,100 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 19.5000 deg. Period: 629.01 min. Military Communications Technology flight. Launch delayed from March 1, April 25, May 2 and 17. GeoLITE, US National Reconnaissance Office spacecraft was into placed by the Delta launch vehicle into a geostationary transfer orbit. GeoLITE was a TRW T-310 class satellite with a mass of about 1800 kg, including a solid apogee motor. The satellite carried an experimental laser communications payload and an operational UHF data relay payload.

2001 August 6 - . 07:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402B/IUS. LV Configuration: Titan 402B 4B-31 / IUS.
  • USA 159 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F21. Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 26880 . COSPAR: 2001-033A. Apogee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 1,435.76 min. Launch postponed from February, then delayed from July 27. USA 159 was a US Air Force Defense Support Program infrared missile early warning satellite was placed by the Titan core into a 328 x 663 km x 28.7 deg parking orbit. The Boeing IUS-16 upper stage then fired its first solid motor to enter geostationary transfer orbit. The second IUS solid motor fired at around 14:00 GMT placing DSP Flight 21 in near-geosynchronous orbit. Still in service as of March 2007.

2002 May 4 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10L. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-10L D291.
  • Aqua - . Payload: EOS-PM1. Mass: 2,934 kg (6,468 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Aqua. USAF Sat Cat: 27424 . COSPAR: 2002-022A. Apogee: 706 km (438 mi). Perigee: 699 km (434 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Climatology and environment satellite. Launch delayed from December 20, 2001, and January 30, April 18 and 26, May 2. NASA's Aqua remote sensing satellite was placed in a 185 x 707 km x 98.1 deg transfer orbit at 1006 UTC. A second burn of the second stage of the Delta at 1048:58 UTC put Aqua in a 676 x 687 km x 98.2 deg orbit.

2004 February 14 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 402B/IUS. LV Configuration: Titan 402B 4B-39 / IUS.
  • USA 176 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F22. Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NSA. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 28158 . COSPAR: 2004-004A. Apogee: 36,105 km (22,434 mi). Perigee: 35,852 km (22,277 mi). Inclination: 0.6800 deg. Period: 1,445.94 min. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Last flight of the IUS upper stage. Launch delayed from November 4, 2003, and January 17, 2003. Planned IMEX piggyback payload cancelled. Still in service as of March 2007, expected to remain operational until 2017-2022. As of 2004 Feb 15 located at 96.66W drifting at 2.464W degrees per day.

2004 July 15 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-10L. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-10L D306.
  • Aura - . Payload: EOS-CHEM1 / T330 (AB1200). Mass: 2,967 kg (6,541 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Aura. USAF Sat Cat: 28376 . COSPAR: 2004-026A. Apogee: 694 km (431 mi). Perigee: 688 km (427 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.60 min. Summary: Atmosphere Dynamics & Chemistry. Delayed from January 29, February 6, March 19, June 17, 19 and 26, July 8, 10, 11, 13 and 14..

2007 November 11 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Pad: SLC37B. LV Family: Delta IV. Launch Vehicle: Delta IV Heavy. LV Configuration: Delta 4H D4-8 (329) 4050H.
  • USA 197 - . Payload: DSP-1 Block 18 F23. Mass: 2,270 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NSA. Manufacturer: TRW. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: DSP. USAF Sat Cat: 32287 . COSPAR: 2007-054A. Apogee: 36,325 km (22,571 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Final DSP launch. The series was to be replaced by SBIRS, which was in the middle of a troubled development program. The Delta 4H performed well after problems on its first launch. The RL10-powered upper stage made three burns before releasing the early-warning satellite in its final geosynchronous orbit. Total cost of the flight was $700 million, with the DSP worth $400 million. The DSP carried a special 25 kg supplementary payload designed to detect extremely small nuclear tests in space. The payload was required by a secret White House/National Security Council directive to detect any attempted covert nuclear tests by Iran or North Korea.

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