Encyclopedia Astronautica
Tupolev


Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Tupolev Design Bureau, Russia.

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Associated People
  • Benderov Benderov, Vladimir Nikolayevich (1924-1973) Russian test pilot. Graduated from the Zhukovsky, 1950. Worked as an engineer and senior test pilot for Tupolev. Flew MiG-21 Tu-144 wing testbed. Proposed on 1964.06.29 as cosmonaut for Voskhod flights, but not confirmed. Died in the crash of a Tu-144 supersonic transport during an aviation demonstration at the 1973 Paris Airshow in Le Bourget. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Tu-2000 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • KR Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. The KR (winged rocket) was a three-stage unmanned boost-glide missile developed at the Tupolev's OKB-156. Work began in 1957. Two alternates were considered for the first stage: a conventional liquid rocket or a special manned aircraft launcher. The second stage was a conventional rocket. The final winged stage included a propulsion section and nuclear warhead. The glider would cut-off at an altitude of 50 km and a velocity of 20,000 km/hr. Planned-over target speed was 7,000 km/hr at 30 km altitude. Work on the project continued only about a year before it was abandoned in favour of the more conventional Tu-123 supersonic cruise missile. The KR would have had a gross weight of 240 tonnes, and delivered a payload of 3 to 5 tonnes over a range of 9,000 to 12,000 km. More...
  • Tu-130 Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Three-stage intercontinental boost-glide missile. Studied 1957-1960. More...
  • Tu-123 Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Exotic design for an intercontinental missile using a gas core fission reactor for cruise propulsion. Studied circa 1957. More...
  • Tu-121 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Mach 3 intermediate range cruise missile, tested in 1958-1960 before cancellation. More...
  • Tu-131 Russian surface-to-air missile. Tupolev design for a long-range air-breathing surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • Tu-133 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Mach 3 intercontinental range cruise missile, cancelled in 1960 before flight tests began. More...
  • Tu-2000 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This Soviet equivalent to the US X-30 single-stage-to-orbit scramjet aerospaceplane began development in1986. Three versions were planned: a Mach 6 test vehicle, under construction at cancellation of the program in 1992; a Mach 6 intercontinental bomber; and a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. More...

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